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Fancy dresses 



By ARDERN holt. 







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Invite an inspection of their Novelties and Specialties in 










s:p'ecia;i. o.'Esre'NS in 


jF<:^i?J fli'Bi^&Aj}^xya''tiEkigijzAi.s, and 




aiFT OF 


HE Fourth Edition of Ardern Holt's "Fancy Dresses 
Described" being exhausted, we have made arrange- 
ments for the publication of the Fifth Edition with 
such corrections as experience dictates, and a very large 
addition to the number of characters detailed. 

The suggestions we have received have been carefully 
noted, and the result is a larger and more comprehensive work 
than any hitherto published. 

The inquiry for Coloured Plates has induced us to select 
sixteen favourite Models for Illustration in Colours, of a 
completely new character, as well as a new series of smaller 
Illustrations, and we trust they will add greatly to the 
usefulness of the book. 

The Author's name is a guarantee for the correctness of the 
descriptions and accuracy of details; and we have endea- 
voured (as in former editions) to maintain such simplicity 
as will enable many ladies to produce the costumes at home. 


London : 

WiGMORE Street and Welbeck Strzet, 

December, 1887. 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 




Marguerite de Valois I. 

Countess of Argyle (in the 

time of Mary, Queen of 

Scots) II. 

Classic III. 

Dowager of Erionne IV. 

Esmeralda V. 

Hero VI. 

Hornet VII. 

Incroyable VIII. 

Italian Peasant IX. 


Monte Carlo . 
Normandy .... 

Swiss , 



Maltese Water 



r. «:1 

Red Riding Hood j s^ 

<3 k .. 








Alsatian i 

Amy Robsart 2 

Anne Boleyn 3 

Air 4 

Mrs. Balchristie 5 

Blue Coat 6 

Breton 7 

Carrier Pigeon 8 

CharityOirl 9 

Charlotte Corday 10 

Cinderella 11 

Colleen Bawn 12 

Di Vernon 13 

Diana 14 

Dresden China 15 

England 16 

Folly 17 

Flower Girl 18 

Footwoman 19 

Fish Girl (Newhaven) 20 

Girl Graduate 21 

Gleaner 22 

Grace Darling 23 

Gainsborough 24 

Miss Hardcastle 25 

Huguenot 26 

Juliet 27 

Joan of Arc 28 

Marie Stuart 29 

Mary Queen of Scots 30 

Marguerite 31 

Marie A.ntoinette 32 




Nurse 33 

Night 34 

Olivia Primrose 35 

Punchinella 36 

Patience 37 

Pansy 38 

Polish 39 

Puritan 40 

Rubens's Wife 41 

Russian 42 

Serving Maid 43 

Lady Teazle 44 

Venetian 45 

Vivandiere 46, 47 

Vandyke 48., 64 


Effie Deans 49 

Dress of the Empire 50 

Maid of Athens 51 

Music 52 

Lady Jane Grey 53 

Martha 54 

Welsh 55 

Louis XIV 56 

Pillar Post 57 

Puritan 58 

Old-Fashioned Beau 59 

Harlequinette 60 

Fairy ... 61 

Dutch Fisher Boy 62 

Grenadier 63 



This is the first exclamation on receipt of an 
invitation to a Fancy Ball, and it is to assist in 
answering such questions that this volume has been compiled. 

It does not purport to be an authority in the matter of 
costume, for, as a rule, the historical dresses worn on such 
occasions are lamentably incorrect. Marie Stuart appears 
in powder ; Louis XIV. wears a beard ; and Berengaria dis- 
tended drapery. No one would probably view the national 
costumes with more curiosity than the peasantry they are 
intended to portray, although certain broad characteristics of 
the several countries are maintained by Fancy Ball-goers. 

Several hundred characters, which a long and varied ex- 
perience has proved to be the favourite and most effective, are 
here described, with every incidental novelty introduced of 
late years. A glance through these pages will enable readers 
to choose which will best suit them, and learn how they are to 
be carried out. 

Among the Costumes adapted to BRUNES are 

Africa, Arab Lady, Arrah-na-Pogue, Asia, Autumn, Bee, 
Gipsies of various kinds, the Bride of Abydos, Brigand's Wife, 
Britannia, Buy-a-Broom, Carmen, Cleopatra, Colleen Bawn, 
Connaught Peasant, Diana, Druidess, Earth, Egyptian, Erin, 
Esmeralda, Fenella, Fire, Greek, Luti, the Indian Girl, Harvest, 


Maid of Saragossa, Maritana, Rose of Castille, and Zingari, 
together with Italian, Spanish, and Oriental dresses. 

'.For :.F;AIR 'WOMEN, among others, the following are 
suiiable::^Arctic Maiden, Air, Bride of T.ammermoor, Aurora, 
W^itte Lady .of Avenel, Canada, Canadian Snow Wreath, 
t)gfliish Pea s?.m, Day, Dew, Edith Bellender, Elaine, Fair Maid 
of Perth, Fairy, Flora, Gabrielle d'Estrees, La Belle Dame sans 
Merci, Marguerite in Faust, Moonlight, Norwegian costumes, 
Ophelia, Peace, Polish Peasant, Rainbow, Rowena, Sabrina, 
Swiss, Schneewittchen, Titania, Twilight, and Water-Nymphs. 

The most notable HISTORICAL DRESSES de- 
scribed are Queen Anne, Anne Boleyn, Catherine of Arragon, 
Catherine Howard, Catherine Parr, Catherine de Medici, 
Charles I. and his Family, Madame Elizabeth ; Elizabeth, 
Queen of England ; Elizabeth of York, the Georgian Period, 
the James XL Period, Princess de Lamballe, Louis XIIL, 
XIV., XV., XVI. Periods, Marguerite de Valois, Marie 
Antoinette, Marie Stuart, the Queen's Maries, and Philippa 
of Hainault. 

For ELDERLY LADIES the following costumes are 
suitable : — Mrs. Balchristie, Griselda Oldbuck, Dowager of 
Brionne {see large Coloured Illustration), My Grandmother, 
a Lady of the Olden Time, Night, Puritan, some Vandyke 
dresses, Quakeress, Mrs. Primrose, wife of the Vicar of 
Wakefield, Peacock, the Duchess of Orleans, a Maltese 
Faldette, Mother Hubbard, Mother Shipton, a Sorceress, 
a Gallician Matron, and some Gainsborough and Sir Joshua 
Reynolds's dresses. 

cluded in this volume. * The following can, however, with a little 
ingenuity be arranged at home : — Evening dress of the 

* They are published in a separate work, entitled " Gentlemen's Fancy 
Dress: How to Choose It," published by Wyman & Sons, 74-76, Great 
Queen Street. 


future, viz.. white where it is usually black, and vice vefsd, 
white coat and trousers, black shirt, tie, and collar. Debar- 
deur : loose velvet jacket and short trousers with Maltese but- 
tons, scarf around waist and velvet cap. A clergyman desirous of 
being present might appear as a French abbe, or as a monk, 
in a long brown ample robe with wide sleeves, and a cord 
round the waist ; or a Sacconi or Italian mute, in a monk's 
long white calico dress, with cord about the waist, and a pointed 
cap over the head and face, having holes for the eyes and mouth. 
The tall gamekeeper in Pickwick requires only a brown 
velveteen coat and gilt buttons, corduroy trousers, stout gaiters, 
and a game-bag slung on the shoulders. An Irish car- 
driver: green coat patched, brass buttons, brocaded waist- 
coat, drab breeches with patches, high collar and red tie, blue 
darned stockings, leather shoes, hat trimmed with green and sprigs 
of shamrock. The Cure : a blue and white striped calico suit, 
with high conical cap. A Christy Minstrel: blackened 
face, woolly wig, enormous collar, extravagant bouquet, long- 
tailed coat, trousers of striped calico, and banjo. The two 
Obadiahs : two people dressed alike in the above style. 
Pierrot, the French clown, large loose trousers and blouse, 
with frill at throat, made in white calico, a row of coloured 
rosettes down the front, conical hat ; black skull cap, face much 
painted. Sergeant Buzfuz, in a legal black robe and coif; 
and the Windsor uniform, with red cloth lapels and cuffs sewn 
on to an ordinary evening dress-coat, — sometimes, in lieu of red 
cloth, light blue silk is used. Baker, cook, bookmaker, butler, 
miller, coachman, crossing-sweeper, also suggest themselves. 

SISTERS who desire to appear in costumes which assimi- 
late might choose any of the following : Apple and Pear 
Blossoms, Sovereign and Shilling, Cinderella's two sisters, Cor- 
delia's sisters, Brenda and Minna Troil, Brunhilda and Kriem- 
hilda. Salt and Fresh Water, the Roses of York and Lancaster, 
a Circassian Princess and Slave, Music and Painting, the Two 
Nomas, Lovebirds, Aurora and the Hours, Oranges and 
Lemons, and Four Sisters as the Seasons. 


A Husband and Wife might select Jack and Gill, 
Cock and Hen, any Kings and Queens, a Wizard and Witch, 
Night and Morning, or Night and Day. 

Fancy Dresses are never more piquante and charming than 
when worn by children ; the several characters in the Nursery 
Rhymes are admirably adapted for them, and we have 
given a special selection of dresses for boys and girls in the 
Appendix, children's fancy balls being on the increase. 

For Calico Balls, among others the following are recom- 
mended : — Clairette, Fille de Madame Angot, Bo-peep, Mothers 
Hubbard, Bunch, Shipton, &c., all the several Fish-girls, the 
dress carried out in striped and plain cottons instead of 
woollen stuffs ; Cabaretiere, Five-o'clock-tea, Flower-girls, 
Flowers, Normandy, and most of the other Peasant Dresses ; 
Polly-put-the-Kettle-on, My pretty Maid, Shepherdesses, Poudre 
and Watteau costumes, Alphabet, Miss Angel, Scott's and 
Shakespeare's heroines, Bertrade, Bonbonniere, Queen of 
Butterflies, Buy-a-Broom, Charity Girl, Chess, La Chocolatiere 
Cinderella, Columbine, Coming-throiigh-the-Rye, Dresden 
China, Dominoes, Friquette, Germaine, Harvest, Incroyable, 
Lady-Help, Magpie, Olivia and Sophia Primrose, Rainbow, 
and One of the Rising Generation. 

But it must be borne in mind that the word " calico " is of 
elastic meaning at these balls, including cotton-backed satin 
and cotton velvet. Tinsel trimmings replace gold ; ribbon is 
allowed ; net takes the place of tulle ; and very few people 
dream of adopting cotton gloves or mittens. 

To be properly chausse and gante are difficulties at fancy 
balls. With short dresses the prettiest and most fashionable 
shoes are worn, either black with coloured heel and bows, 
or coloured shoes to match the dress, and embroidered, the 
stockings being of plain colour or stripes. With the Vivandiere 
dress Wellington boots are best. 

To avoid glaring inconsistencies,' it is well to remember 


that powder was introduced into England in James I.'s reign, 
though not very generally worn. It attained the height of its 
glory in the Georgian period, and in 1795 ^^^^ ^ victim to the tax 
raised by Pitt on hair-powder ; those that wore it subsequently 
were called guinea-pigs, on account of the guinea tax. Periwigs 
were first mentioned in 1529. High-heeled shoes were not 
heard of till Elizabeth's reign. 

It is uncomfortable to dance without gloves, so consistency 
yields to convenience. For most Peasant dresses mittens are 
best ; but when gloves are worn they should be as little 
conspicuous as possible. For the Poudre costumes, long 
mittens and long embroidered gloves are admissible. Gloves 
were never heard of till the loth and nth centuries, and not 
much worn till the 14th ; still, what can pretty Berengaria do 
if she wishes to dance and does not care to appear ungloved ? 

With regard to Hair-dressing. For Classic costumes the 
hair is generally gathered together in a knot at the nape of the 
neck, and bound with a fillet, a few curls sometimes escaping at 
the back when the knot is carried higher up at the back ot 
the head. For Modern Greek costumes, loose curls fall over the 
shoulders, or the hair hangs in two long plaits. For Italian, the 
two plaits are tied with coloured ribbon, and often entwined with 
coins or beads, or the plaits are twisted up into a coil, thrust 
through with pins. For an Egyptian costume, the hair is flat 
in front, with ringlets at the back. The Turkish women plait 
their hair in innumerable tresses, entwining them with coins 
and jewels ; and round flat curls appear on the side of the 
head. At fancy balls two long plaits are generally adopted 
in this character, but it would be more correct to add to the 
number. For Scotch dresses the hair is worn flat in front, and 
curled at the back ; for an Irish girl the hair has a coil at the 
nape of the neck. With regard to the German Peasantry ; 
about Augsburg they wear the hair flat to the face, and a loose 
chignon at the back. At Coblentz and Baden, it is plaited 
and tied with ribbons; and near Dresden and elsewhere, where 


the peasantry sell their hair, a close-fitting cap hides all defi- 
ciencies. In Norway, the women wear the hair plaited and 
pinned close to the head, or allow the plaits to hang down. 
The Swedes turn it over a cushion, and let it fall in curls. 
The Poles dress it in two long plaits, the Russians braid 
it round the head. Marguerite, in Faust, wears two pendant 
plaits tied with ribbon. A Vivandiere has hers rolled in a 
coil, or in plaits : Britannia, floating on the shoulders, 
like Undine, Winter, Snow, Fairies, &c., but in their case it 
should be powdered with frosting, applied by shaking the 
powder well over, after damping with thin white starch. A 
Normandy Peasant should have the hair flat on the forehead, 
and in broad looped-up plaits at the back. A Puritan has a 
close coiffure, and a coil or short chignon is best beneath the 
cap. For Ophelia, it should float on the shoulders, entwined 
with flowers. The hair is worn- hanging down the back for 
Berengaria, Gipsy, Druidess, Elaine, Fairy, Fenella, Peace, 
Republique Frangaise, &c. 

With regard to Historical Characters, up to Queen 
Elizabeth's time the hair was parted in the middle, and either 
allowed to float on the shoulders or was bound up under a coif ; 
Elizabeth introduced frizzing and padding. For Marie Stuart 
it should be turned over side-rolls, so as to fill the vacuum be- 
neath the velvet head-dress. During the time of the Stuarts, a 
crop of curls was worn over the forehead, and long ringlets at 
the back. As people desire to look their best at fancy balls, it 
is advisable to adapt the style required as much as possible to 
the usual method of dressing the front hair, leaving the more 
marked change for the back. 

With regard to Powdering, it is best, if possible, not to 
have recourse to wigs, they are heavy and unbecoming. It 
is far better to powder the hair itself, using violet powder, and 
plenty of pomatum before applying it; it entails, however, a 
great deal of trouble in subsequently removing the powder. 
The head may be covered with a thick soap lather. The powder 


is applied thus : A puff well filled is held above the head, jerking 
the elbow with the other hand. The process should be repeated 
over and over again, and it is incredible the amount of powder 
that ought to be used to produce a satisfactory result. An easy 
mode of dressing the hair for powder is to part it across the head 
from ear to ear, turning the front over a high cushion, making 
the back into a long loose chignon, with a few marteaux or 
rolled curls behind the cushion. Sometimes the roll in front 
is replaced by a series of marteaux placed diagonally. Some- 
times the centre-piece only is rolled over the cushion, with 
marteaux at the sides. Sometimes the back has four marteaux 
on either side, put diagonally, with others behind the ear, or 
a bunch of loose curls fall at the back. All this may be made 
easier by having false marteaux and curls, which have a far 
better effect than a wig. It is, however, very much the fashion 
to powder the hair as it is worn now, viz., with curls in front and 
a coil or twist at the back, a style which accords well with the 
dress worn when powder was in fashion. 

The giving of Fancy Balls requires more pre-arrangement 
than an ordinary entertainment. The men-servants are often 
put into the costumes of Family Retainers of old days, the 
women dressed as Waiting-maids of the i8th century; the Band 
also don fancy attire. 

The Decorations should be arranged with some regard to 
the many vivid colours worn by the company. Chinese lan- 
terns hung in passages and balconies have a good effect, and 
the flowers should not be of too brilliant a hue ; green foliage 
is the best background. 

Occasionally the hostess elects that her guests shall appear 
in costumes of a particular period, and Poudre Balls find many 
patrons. Under these circumstances the lady guests only 
wear powder with ordinary evening dress, the gentlemen 
making no change from their usual attire, save perhaps that 
white waistcoats and button-holes are enjoined. 

A marked feature at most Fancy Balls is a specially- arranged 


Quadrille. The choice is a large one. The following have from 
time to time been given : — Watteau, Poudre, Noah's Ark, 
Cracker, Constellation, Domino, Hobby-Horse, Seasons, 
Bouquet, Bird, Louis Quinze ; Shepherds and Shepherdesses, 
when both ladies and gentlemen wear the hair powdered and 
costumes associated with these characters ; a Louis Quinze 
Hunting Quadrille in the hunting dress of that period; a 
Holbein Quadrille in the Tudor dress ; a Quadrille ot All 
Nations, embracing all nationalities, the ladies and gentlemen 
of the same countries dancing together, the gentlemen 
occasionally carrying the national flag ; Scotch, Irish, 
King and Queen, Army and Navy, Flowers of the Year, 
Venetian, Vandyke, Pack of Cards, Fairy Tale, Joe 
Willett and Dolly Varden, Puritan and Cavalier. The 
time when such quadrilles are danced, and the partners, 
are all pre-arranged. A Singing Quadrille, in which the 
heroes and heroines of the nursery rhymes wear appropriate 
dresses and sing as they dance, is to be specially recom- 
mended for Children's fancy balls. Country dances are 
being resuscitated for costume balls ; the Maltese country 
dance, the Swedish dance, Sir Roger de Coverley, the Tem- 
pete, Morris dance, ribbon dance, and others. The most 
effective pre-arranged dance is a well-performed Minuet or 
the stately Pavane, the See-saw Waltz, the Staffordshire Jig, Le 
Carillon de Dunkerque, Ribbon Dance, Mazurka, a Highland 
Schottische, a Norwegian dance, a Polonaise in Watteau 
Costume, or the Cachuca. At juvenile fancy balls dancing is 
not, as a rule, the sole amusement. Conjurors, Ventriloquists, 
Christy Minstrels, a Punch and Judy Show, and a magic 
lantern, please the little ones, but possibly nothing so much as 
a Horn of Plenty, out of which a liberal number of presents 
are distributed, or the old familiar Christmas Tree, or a Fairy 
Pool, where the children fish for presents ; and the Brandy-ball 
Man (one of the guests with a tray of sweets), who distri- 
butes goodies to the children. 

Fancy Balls are said to have been brought over to this 


country by a German lady, Mrs. Teresa Cornelys, at the end 
of the last century, when they were held at Carlisle House, 
Soho. Lady Waldegrave, Lady Pembroke, and the Duchess 
of Hamilton were among the beauties. But then, as now, the 
fashions of the day asserted their sway in the costumes of old 
times. Fashionable materials are used, however inappropriate ; 
when crinoline was the mode, even the peasants' dresses were 
slightly distended ; during the reign of the jersey, elastic silk 
served for the bodices of Gipsies, Folly, and many others ; and 
material tinted with aniline dyes are used for historical raiment 
of very early periods. A march round which sometimes takes 
the form of a Polonaise shows off the dresses. 

There is much in a name, — A Coquette, a Lady of the Past 
Century, Petite Sole a la Normandie, the Bounding Ball ot 
Babylon, His Picture in Chalk, a Duchess of the Next 
Century, &c., have attracted attention to very mediocre 
costumes ere this. 

Any popular play or opera will be pretty sure to originate 
the most fashionable costumes of each season, or possibly 
some pretty picture. Miss Greenaway's charming sketches 
suggest many of the quaintest dresses at children's fancy 
balls ; and costumes of the early part of this century and 
the latter part of the last, are much worn, possibly owing 
to the attention now turned to what is known as artistic 
dressing. The styles of the sixteenth century, — flowing skirts, 
low square bodices, and puffed sleeves richly broidered, owe 
their resuscitation to the same cause. 

It behoves those who really desire to look well to study 
what is individually becoming to themselves, and then to 
bring to bear some little care in the carrying out of the 
dresses they select, if they wish their costumes to be really a 
success. There are few occasions when a woman has a better 
opportunity of showing her charms to advantage than at a 
Fancy Ball. 




ABBESS, LADY. (See Nun.) 

ABIGAIL. White silk skirt covered with green trelhs- 
work interspersed with flowers of all colours. Tunic turned 
up en laveuse and lined with jonquil silk ; bodice trimmed 
with jonquil and dahlia colour, also the muslin cap ; jonquil 
silk stockings ; dahlia shoes, with buckles. 

ABRUZZI PEASANT. Low white embroidered linen 
chemisette ; scarlet stay bodice cut very low ; short stuff gown ,- 
white muslin apron ; white lace veil fastened to the head with 
gold pins. Coral and bead ornaments. Hair worn in a coil. 
Suitable to a dark woman. 

ACADEMICAL DRESS. (^"^^ Portia; and Princess,, 
Tetinyson). Long silk academical robe ; white, black, red- 
or other colour, plain or brocaded, worn over a plain skirt and 
bodice. Academical cap. 

ADRIENNE LECOUVREUR. {As worn by Madame 
Bernhardt.) Two Louis XV. costumes, one with paniers. 
and draperies of ivory satin and pale blue satin bordered' 
with roses ; the other after a portrait of Madame Pompadour, 
rose coloured and blue satin dress, train of brocade, the 
ground silver-grey, strewn with garlands of eglantine. 

ESTHETIC MAIDEN. (See Maidens, Lovesick, 
from Patience^ 

AFRICA. Short skirt and bodice made a la vierge of white 
Algerienne material, trimmed with cross-cut bands of yellow 



satin and angola fringe ; gold belt; crimson cashmere scarf across 
the bodice, fastened on left shoulder with a lizard, ends floating 
on dress. Tiger skin attached to the back, gold diadem with 
stiff red feathers peeping above it. Necklace and large ear- 
rings of beads of all colours. Africa is sometimes dressed 
in more realistic fashion ; the skin blackened ; short skirt of 
cotton, bright coloured scarf worn about bodice and head ; 
bead ornaments, large bracelets, ring in nose. 

AGNES SOREL. {Edward IV.'s reign, 1461-1483.) 
Soft brocaded white dress, made long, caught up and bordered 
with ermine, over gold and white brocade bordered with 
same fur. Jacket bodice of white brocade, with wide revers 
edged with gold; tight sleeves, puffed and slashed at 
elbow. Hair in two plaits ; high horned head-dress of 
period, with gauze veil. Pearl ornaments. 

AIR. A white tulle or gauze dress made with several 
skirts, one over the other, or blue over white, as light and gos- 
samer as possible ; made long for an adult, short for a child. 
The lower skirt is dotted about with silver swallows and 
other birds, the upper edged with silver fringe or lace, and 
covered with silver bees and a variety of insects. The low 
bodice similarly trimmed, a silver-spangled scarf loosely thrown 
across ; a veil attached to the head with silver butterflies ; 
marabout feathers. Ornaments, silver; satin shoes, 'with 
silver butterflies on the bows. The insects may be, if pre- 
ferred, of their natural colours, the birds of gorgeous plumage. 
A newer and more original rendering is a short blue satin 
skirt, painted red towards the waist ; a windmill on one side, a 
balloon on the other. The low blue bodice draped with grey 
tulle, forming the tunic, but starting from a gold brooch 
in the form of a face ; crimson embroidered waist-band, 
bellows and horn hanging from it ; birds nestling in the tulle. 
Head-dress, a gold weather-vane, (fe Plate I., Fig. 4.) 

ALBANIAN. Short, scanty skirt, trimmed with gold ; 
full white chemisette ; low under-bodice laced with gold ; 
long-sleeved jacket of contrasting colour, or a sleeveless paletot 
reaching to knees, showing white chemisette in front ; many- 
coloured scarf about waist ; round satin cap or fez, placed on 
the side of the head ; gauze veil, hair in long plaits. The 
following colours niviy be chosen, viz., dark blue, amber, and 


marone, or scarlet and green. Shoes with pointed toes. This 
is the ordinary rendering for fancy balls. The dress varies 
in different districts of the country. In some parts the women 
wear red cotton garments, some white wool, with a skull-cap 
formed of coins. The costume consists of a sleeveless tunic 
over another woollen tunic embroidered at edges, the sleeves 
of a lighter material than the over-dress. Scarlet sash, silk 
tassels. This is in favour for fancy balls, being of Oriental 
character, without trousers. 

depicted wearing a head-rail of white linen cloth covering 
the hair completely, and passed round neck and shoulders. 
Low, square-bodied dress, with velvet stomacher; long 
sleeves, with puffs at elbow and shoulder ; mittens ; long 
plain skirt, with girdle, which draws up the dress on one side, 
and to it is attached a book. Soft woollen material most 
suitable. A beautiful dress of the style of this artist was 
worn as Anne of Denmark at the Buckingham Palace Fancy 
Ball, 1842. Skirt of violet velvet touching the ground, opening 
up the side to show a petticoat of cloth of gold ; low bodice 
over white chemisette ; gold stomacher ; jewelled belt ; sleeve 
puffed and slashed, of velvet and muslin with gold embroidery, 
the embroidered cuff falling over the hand. Large picturesque 
hats with feathers were worn at this time. 

ALCESTIS {Euripides). Chiton or sleeveless robe 
of terra-cotta soft silk, draped in straight folds over a loose 
falling under-robe of the same, caught up high at the side and 
again below the waist. Hair in Greek knot, high at the back 
of the head, encirled by a band of gold braid. Sandals on 

ALGERIAN COSTUME, Skirt, just touching the 
ground, of blue and gold brocade ; red and gold embroidered 
scarf round the waist ; full muslin under-bodice sewn to a 
broad black velvet band at the neck ; short jacket of blue 
velvet elaborately embroidered in gold, with long hanging 
sleeves, tight-fitting gold under ones coming to wrist. Hair 
almost hidden by a red handkerchief wath the ends tied in 

ALICE BRIDGENORTH(/'^wr/7^///z^P^^^). Puritan 
dress, high to the throat, with small ruff; muslin cap and ker- 
chief; fair curls. {See Puritan.) 

p. 2 


ALICE IN WONDERLAND. (^^^ Girls' and Boys' 
Fancy Costumes at the end of the book.) 

ALICE LEE. Hair curling in front, a coil at back, 
surmounted by a dark blue hat, or a fillet of blue beads and 
pearls. Plain stone-coloured train falling to the figure ; light 
blue front, trimmed with gimp. Basqued bodice of dark blue 
velvet, piped with light blue, opening over a white stomacher^ 
the bodice cut efi cceur back and front. The sleeves wide at 
top, tight fitting at wrist, puffed at elbow. The bodice may 
also be low, with muslin kerchief, showing much of neck. 

ALMEH. Bodice of white gauze studded with silver, 
made loose ; pink gauze skirt, a girdle of pink ribbon 
streamers falling over it. Egyptian head-dress of pink and 

ALPHABET. Short black underskirt bordered with gold 
Roman letters ; second skirt white, with old EngUsh letters in 
ruby velvet ; third skirt blue, covered with black velvet letters ; 
black velvet low bodice ; muslin fichu and apron ; blue cap 
with word " Alphabet " on band, or a battlemented crown, a 
letter on each ; aigrette of goose-quills ; birch rod and primer 
as chatelaine. It may also be made in any coloured silk, 
satin, cotton, or tarlatan, and the letters printed on the more 
substantial materials ; or any evening dress may be utilised by 
wearing a belt across bodice, a band of black velvet round the 
throat, and high cap all adorned with letters ; or carried out as 
follows : Black tulle evening dress, silver letters stuck on 
spirally ; huge A, B, C on train ; large black fan with A, B, C 
upon it ; the same on shoes ; the vowels on velvet round the 
neck; black capitals on the handkerchief 

ALSATIAN. The distinctive feature is a large flat bow 
on the top of the head, composed of black silk, with two loops 
and two ends, attached to close-fitting gold or silver-embroidered 
velvet cap, put in a band of silk at the back, about a hand's 
breadth in width, which forms a bow in front; short red 
cloth skirt, trimmed with gold braid and black velvet, blue 
plaiting below, and lace ; long, straight black silk apron, 
edged with black lace; low black velvet bodice, called "muzze,'' 
embroidered with gold or silver in front, the peasants wear 
this sewn to the skirt. At fancy balls it has a jockey basque 
at back, round cuirass bordered with gold in front, and loops 
of black ribbon, laced with red over white muslin ; black bows 

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on shoulder-straps ; full muslin under-bodice to neck and 
wrists; black lace or many-coloured fichu at throat; black 
shoes, red heels ; blue stockings ; mittens ; hair in pendent 
plaits; tiny bouquet of white heather; tricolour on cap. 
Alsatian Gleaner. Same, with handkerchief about the 
head in lieu of cap. Alsace and Lorraine are sometimes 
represented together, and wear a shield with arms at side. 
(Plate!., Fig. i.) 

ALTREVAL, COUNTESS D'. (In Zadies' Battle. 
See L.) 

AMAZONS, QUEEN OF THE. Short scarlet satin 
petticoat, covered with symbolical animals, cut out in black 
velvet and gold cloth, the edges bordered with gold cord, the 
bodice formed of a tiger skin ; a helmet on the head, a shield 
on the arm. 

AMBULANCE NURSE. {See Geneva Sister, and 
Illustration, Plate IX., Fig. 33.) 

AMERICA. Short white satin skirt, with red and blue 
stripes ; blue satin tunic, edged with silver fringe, covered with 
silver stars ; white satin waistcoat ; blue satin jacket, revers at 
neck, coat-tails at back trimmed with red and silver ; mousque- 
taire sleeves ; all-round collar, muslin tie ; blue satin high boots ; 
diamond ornaments ; coronet of diamond stars, with red, 
white, and blue ostrich feathers ; or a blue felt cocked hat, 
with white and red rosette, and bound with blue. {See United 
States. ) 

AMPHITRITE, Sea-green gauze dress powdered with 
silver; silver tunic with shells, coral, and seaweed; a bandelet 
of sea shells round the head, the flowing hair studded with 
precious stones and crystal drops. The style of this dress 
follows prevailing fashions. {See Water Nymph.) 

AMSTERDAM ORPHANAGE.— Short plain full 
gathered skirt, one side black, the other red, the plain tight 
bodice similarly divided; white tucked apron; large kerchief 
worn over the dress, crossing in front ; cap of thick white 
muslin, the front close-fitting and flat, the back full. 

AMY ROBSART. An Elizabethan dress of the richest 
materials, velvet, satin, or brocade, in any colours ; the skirt 
or train worn over a hoop is full, touching the ground 
and bordered with a jewelled band ; the front breadth of con- 


trasting colour or fabric may be quilted or embroidered, and 
sewn with gems ; low plain bodice, bordered at waist with 
frill of material ; large upstanding wired lace ruff from shoul- 
ders ; sleeves, one puff at top, tight to wrist, close ruffles ; 
head-dress a slightly pointed cap of velvet, pearls, and feathers. 
{See Plate I., Fig. 2). 
ANDALUSIAN. {See Spanish.) 

ANGEL, MISS. Thus described in Miss Thackeray's 
novel, identical with 

ANGELICA KAUFFMAN. " Sacque and petticoat 
of white silk, a grey brocade upon it resembling network, em- 
broidered with rosebuds ; deep-pointed stomacher, pinked and 
gimped ; the sleeves fitted the arm closely to a little below 
the elbow, from which hung three point-lace ruffles ; her 
neckerchief was of point, confined by a bunch of rosebuds ; 
three rows of pearls were tied with a narrow white satin ribbon ; 
her small lace cap floated over curls and powdered hair ; shoes 
with heels three inches high to match the dress." Mittens 
may be worn. The dress is often white, the sacque brocaded 
sometimes with silver. 

loose dresses touching the ground, consisting of tunic, kirtle, 
and mantle with large over-sleeves ; the tunic was worn over 
the under garment, then made of linen, with tight sleeves 
at wrist ; the word kirtle has many meanings, it was then 
applied to the loose under-skirt. The head was enveloped in 
a veil of stuff, silk, or wool, only worn out of doors. The 
skirt is bordered with embroidery, tight sleeves, a girdle round 
waist, the bodice high to the throat meeting a gold necklet. 
For regal robe from shoulder of distinct tone, velvet would 
be the best material. Gold circlet on head. Red, green, and 
blue the favourite colours. 

ANGOT, FILLE DE MADAME {Clairette). Short 
skirt, striped or plain red ; low velvet or pink satin bodice, 
muslin kerchief inside, the ends tucked under a bib of the black 
or pink silk apron, bordered with lace half-hidden by a muslin 
apron, scolloped at edge, the left corner tucked into waistband 
on right side ; large full muslin cap, red cockade at side, or a 
straw hat poised at back of head, with velvet trimmings and 
pink roses ; sleeves to elbow ; large gold cross and ornaments. 
In the early scenes she wears a bridal dress. 


ANGOT, MERE. White crepe lisse cap, trimmed with 
Valenciennes, large red butterfly bow fastened at the top of 
the head, another at the side ; yellow satin short skirt, red satin 
overskirt, the front breadth barred en tablier with black satin, 
and over it an apron of white crepe lisse, one corner turned 
up. Crepe fichu, leaving throat and neck uncovered, crossed 
under a cerise satin corslet bodice. 

ANNE OF BRETAGNE {Wife of Charles VIII. 
of Frajice. 1485- 1498). As worn at the fancy ball at 
Buckingham Palace, 1842. Full plain trained skirt of red 
velvet, bordered with gold and jewels, opening on one side 
over panel of gold and silver richly embroidered, and turned 
back with ermine. Low square bodice outlined with gold, 
gold pendant girdle, band of gold and jewels down the centre 
of bodice ; long hanging sleeves bordered with gold. Crimson 
velvet coif; gold crown, tulle veil. 

ANNE OF DENMARK, 1548 {Daughter of Christian 
III. of Denmark^ and first wife of Augustus^ son of Duke 
of Saxony). Worn at the fancy ball at Buckingham Palace, 
by Viscountess Canning. {See Albert Durer Period.) 

ANNA DANICHEFF. Russian costume. (6*^^ Russian 

ANNE BOLEYN. Velvet surcoat, full, touching the 
ground, bordered with jewels and ermine; distinct front 
breadth or kirtle of satin or gold cloth, embroidered and 
jewelled ; long girdle of gems ; long-waisted bodice square- 
cut, worn over partlet, viz., chemisette of satin embroidered in 
gold ; deep hanging ermine-Hned sleeves, over close-fitting ones 
matching the kirtle ; velvet diamond-shaped hood, often em- 
broidered with jewels, forming bag at back, with triple-pointed 
coronet close to face, showing little hair ; splendid jewels. 
The costume may be of black, purple, or ruby velvet, with 
white satin or cloth-of-gold ; blue velvet and amber satin, &c. 
Pointed shoes with diamond stars. Gold tissue cloth worn at 
this period. {See Plate I., Fig. 3.) 

ANNE, QUEEN OF ENGLAND. (1702-1714.) 
Long plain skirt of satin or brocade over small hoop, low 
pointed bodice with stomacher; sleeves in one long puff -to 
elbow ; gold girdle; velvet furred train from shoulder, fastened 


with jewels ; hair turned off from face and hanging in curls, 
entwined with pearls ; crown ; long embroidered gloves. Some- 
times the bodice was continued as a sort of polonaise, and 
looped back on the hips ; pillow-lace ruffles and tucker. 


1702-12. Much the same as the latter part of Louis XIV., 
who reigned in France from 1643 to 17 15. The fashions vary 
considerably during this reign. They are often mistaken for 
those of George I. Satin is the stuff to represent this period. 
A sacque is a necessary part of the dress ; patches, a square 
bodice, elbow sleeves, lace lappets, the commode head- 
dress of plaited gummed lace, made on a frame of wire 
with ribbons and lace in tiers, standing up crest-wise ; it 
assumed in time very large proportions. (For style of commode 
head-dress, see PI. XIV,, Fig. 56, period of Louis XIV. It may 
be replaced by the hood worn then — a strip of soft silk placed 
flat on the head, and loosely knotted under the chin, some- 
times lined with a contrasting colour. At the end of Queen 
Anne's reign, powder was worn, and high cushions and lace 
caps with lappets. Fans are indispensable. Flounced silks, 
long gloves, trains caught through the pocket hole, are among 
its distinguishing features. Hoops came in, in the middle of 
reign. Kneller's portraits are good guides. The following is 
a correct costume. Petticoat, pale yellow silk with flounce 
of old lace. Sacque of old running-pattern brocade, green 
and yellow, caught back on skirt ; French lawn apron 
trimmed with old point ; stomacher and commode head-dress 
to match ; high heeled yellow shoes, very pointed, with 
buckles ; Watteau fan, and Mousquetaire gloves. 

ANNE OF AUSTRIA {Wife of Louis XIII. 1610). 
An historical costume which admits of rich materials and splen- 
did jewels. High close-fitting bodice, with ruff at throat, long 
sleeves puffed longitudinally, ruffles at wrists, bodice pointed 
and coming on to hips, bordered with jewels and em- 
broidered ; plain skirt, hooped, trimming of gold and jewels 
carried down the front and round the hem ; velvet brocade or 
satin and gold tissue suitable; small velvet cap, with jewelled 
heron's plume, fastened with emeralds ; hair curling on the 

ANNE OF CLEVES {Fottrth wife of Henry VIII 
1557). Similar costume to that worn by Anne Boleyn. The 


Stiff bodice of ruby or green velvet, or gold brocade, would be 
cut as a low square, showing the bare neck, with a jewelled 
velvet band encircling the throat : long sleeves slashed, girdle 
round waist ; a velvet cap called French hood, with white 
visible beneath. A bag hangs at the side of the velvet or 
brocaded skirt, which is jewelled down the front. A round 
ostrich feather fan carried in hand. 

ANNE OF GEIERSTEIN {Sir Walter Scott). An 
old-fashioned Swiss dress made with a short red skirt, bordered 
with gold colour, blue bands can be introduced ; the low 
bodice laced in front over a stomacher ; the white chemisette 
gathered into a band at the throat ; short overdress of blue 
opening in front, sleeves to wrist with cuffs and epaulettes ; 
round Swiss hat, trimmed with crimson. Or, in full dress, 
with long brocaded skirt, low bodice formed of alternate 
perpendicular pufKings of satin and velvet, sleeves tight to 
wrist, a puff at the top ; band of same colour as the dress 
round the head. 

ANNE PAGE {Merry Wives of Windsor). Velvet skirt 
touching the ground, opening in front over satin petticoat, the 
sides bordered with lace and pearls ; velvet low bodice, tabs 
all round, satin stomacher, high lace ruff from shoulders, 
puffed satin sleeves to wrist, with turn-back cuffs of lace ; 
conical velvet peaked hat, bordered with pearls, lined with satin 
to match petticoat ; a veil is sometimes worn. Sir W. Calcot 
painted her in a white satin dress, a pink bodice, and long 
jacket basque, open in front and edged with swansdown. The 
sleeves come below the elbow not quite to the wrist, finished 
off with a ruff. The bodice is half-high, bordered with 
vandyked lace tacked down ; a muslin kerchief within this. 
Hair dressed in curls, not powdered, a blue rosette on one 
side. Another rendering is as follows : Ruby velvet bodice 
cut low at neck, edged with wide lace collar turning down- 
wards. Long sleeves with full puffs at shoulders and wrist, 
ribbon run through them. Pale yellow satin train, ruby and 
white striped petticoat ; ruby velvet shoes with rosettes ; strings 
of pearls round throat. 

ANNIE LAURIE. This heroine of Scotch song wears 
a simple dress of white satin or muslin, generally made 
with a short plain skirt, one flounce at the edge; full 
banded low bodice, short sleeves; satin plaid, fastened 


on the shoulders with a brooch ; Scotch bonnet of black 
velvet, or merely a blue ribbon snood. 

1485. Coronation robes, crimson velvet furred with minever ; 
shoes of crimson tissue. She is also described by Planche as 
wearing a kirtle and mantle of white cloth of gold, trimmed 
with Venetian gold, furred with ermine "garnished with 
seventy annulets of silver gilt and gylt." At fancy balls she 
appears in a pale green satin skirt, bordered with a trellis-work 
of gold, edged with fur ; close fitting jacket edged with ermine ; 
turnover collar and cuffs of fur. Hair in ringlets, surmounted 
by gold caul, with a kerchief at the back of fine lawn dis- 
tended with wire ; trained mantle from shoulders, of velvet 
bordered with fur. A crown is often the only head-dress. 

AN NOT LYLE {Legend of Montrose). Short tartan 
skirt, slashed jacket bodice, and overskirt of blue satin, both 
trimmed with silver gimp ; lace ruffles, blue and silver snood, 
blue shoes, silver chain, harp, key, and ornaments. The 
hair may be left loose. 

ANTWERP, DRESS AT. The Flemish peasant cos- 
tumes seen here consist of a stuff gown, long apron, coloured 
handkerchief crossing in front of bodice, and the long black silk 
or stuff cloak with hood wired round the edge. The cap has 
a high full crown with pendant sides, like a hound's ears, 
made of lace. 

APPENZELL LACEMAKER. Short scarlet skirt with 
low square black velvet bodice embroidered in silver, with 
silver ornaments. High muslin cap and apron. (T^^rAppEN- 
ZELL Peasant, see Swiss.) 

APPLE BLOSSOM. Evening dress of soft pink arid 
white tulle trimmed with the blooms, or a pink silk or satin 
dress. A basket of the flowers carried in the hand. A wreath 
for head-dress, with long tulle veil. Apple and Pear Blossom 
are good dresses for two sisters. {Sec Flowers. ) 

APPLE GATHERER. Short brown satin skirt, tunic 
of blue Liberty silk, bodice of striped brown and blue satin, 
made as a low square ; white satin sleeveless basqued jacket 
over ; elbow sleeves of white muslin ; mob cap ; ornaments 
enamelled apples. A basket slung round the figure filled with 


APRIL. Short skirt of pale blue tulle with crystal drops ; 
black bodice having pendent sleeves with silver moons ; grey 
tulle wound round head and shoulders like a filmy cloud. 
Sometimes called April Showers. 

AQUARIUM. Fashionable evening dress of blue and 
green tulle, trimmed with marine plants and ornamented with 
fish and shells, the octopus on one side of the skirt ; veil of 
green tulle ; hair floating on shoulders. Bodice trimmed with 
seaweed and coral ; ornaments, silver fish and coral. 

ARABIAN WOMAN. Loose trousers to the ankles 
of gauze or muslin over silk ; cerise silk short skirt, covered 
with white striped gauze ; blue tunic and loose bodice, opening 
en cceur, trimmed with gold braid; under-bodice of folded 
muslin; long hanging gauze sleeves; red silk turban with 
sequins, or conical cap studded with gold and jewels ; hair 
hanging in plaits, with flowers ; mantle of yellow stuff, 
fastened to the shoulders ; red embroidered slippers, bangles 
round ankles ; gold bracelets, rows of coral and beads, chains 
about the neck ; gold fibulae. 

ARABELLE (BABIOLE). Short white silk skirt, with 
three box-plaited flounces edged with blue satin. Blue satin 
apron, and bodice cut square and bordered with a frill of lace ; 
elbow sleeves. 

ARBLAY, MADAME D'. The famous Fanny Burney, 
lady in waiting to Queen Charlotte (see Burney). Pale blue 
satin petticoat, with pearls and silver braid. Flowered satin 
over skirt, with white ground, made short in front to show 
blue hose, and high heeled shoes with diamond or silver 
buckles ; powdered hair ; a high cap of white lace tied under 
the chin. Bodice square cut, with elbow sleeves showing a 
muslin kerchief crossed in front. Any good Georgian costume 
is suitable. 

ARCADIAN SHEPHERDESS. Short blue skirt ; a 
narrow long white apron, with stripes of white linen bordered 
with pink and ornamented with pink bows ; a white under- 
bodice comes to a point about three or four inches below the 
waist, and is covered by a low blue bodice with revers, leaving 
a diamond-shaped piece of the white visible ; the sleeves are 
blue, made full and trimmed with pink and white ; the hat is 


something of the Leghorn shape, and the crook, a short one, 
is simply ornamented at the top with a bunch of blue, pink, 
and white ribbons. Another style is a short white tulle skirt 
with blue bows and blue convolvulus. A Swiss bodice made 
of blue silk trimmed with tulle, a bunch of pink roses on the 
left shoulder; straw hat trimmed with roses and convolvulus; 
a bunch of the same in the powdered hair ; crook decorated 
with flowers and ribbons. {See Shepherdess.) 

ARC-EN-CIEL. (5^^ Rainbow, Iris.) 

ARCHANGEL. (As worn by the Marchioness de 
Gallifet at a ball in Paris, time of Napoleon IIL) Short 
petticoat of white cashmere, embroidered in gold ; the bodice 
to represent glistening scale armour, made either in metal or 
of silver woven cloth ; white feather wings attached to each 
side, descending below the knee ; golden hair floating over 
the shoulders and down the back in long careless ringlets ; 
a diamond star on the forehead ; a small steel sword carried 
in the ungloved hand. 


ARGYLE, COUNTESS OF. Time of the regency of 
Mary, Queen of Scots, taken from David Wilkie's picture of 
John Knox preaching to the Lords of the Congregation, now in 
our National Gallery. The dress can be rendered in satin 
brocade or velvet with a plain satin petticoat. The bodice 
and skirt are united at the back, the front is a distinct petti- 
coat. The long pendant sleeves are lined with ermine, and 
are part and parcel of the slashed pufis, which are placed on 
the shoulder. The bodice is half high, with wired muslin 
ruff; the cuffs are of the same material. The head-dress is 
lined with cream and bordered with pearls, a plain gauze or 
tulle veil falls at the back ; a jewelled cross hangs at the side. 
This is a good illustration of the costumes of the middle of the 
sixteenth century, 1547 to 1579 ; Henry II., Francis II., 
Charles IX., reigning in France ; Edward VL, Mary, and 
Elizabeth in England. {See Coloured Plate II.) 

ARIEL {Te7npest). Short white diaphonous tulle dress, 
with silver wand and silver gauze wings ; hair floating on 
shoulders, confined by a silver band round the head, with star 
in centre ; low full bodice and short sleeves. 

ARLEQUINETTE. Short skirt formed of red, yellow. 


and black diamonds ; low square basque bodice of the same 
colours, striped, cut in Vandykes, and trimmed with gold; 
short puffed sleeves ; boots, one red, one yellow. Three 
cornered black hat ; coloured aigrette. {See Harlequinette 
and Plate XV., Fig. 60.) 

ARLINE {Bohemian Girl). Black or rose-coloured tulle 
or satin dress covered with coins and gold braid ; scarf of many 
colours round the skirt; gold armlets below and above the 
elbow, connected with gold chains ; gold net on the head, with 
coins. Or short dress of crimson, blue, green, and yellow satin 
stripes, trimmed with gold lace and sequins ; pale blue satin 
tunic embroidered in gold ; cap to correspond ; armlets and 
ornaments of coins. Satin shoes ; hair in a coil or pendent 

ARMENIAN ^WOMAN. In the country they wear 
shoes with toes turning upwards, full silk trousers, white 
under-dress, open at neck, made of thin muslin ; a silk scarf 
round waist ; full white sleeves ; velvet embroidered sleeveless 
coat, opening wide in front ; round cap of velvet ; hair in 
plaits, and a yachmush out of doors. For a fancy ball, hand- 
some silver clasps are added to the belt ; a silk brocaded 
jacket and tunic often replace the over-dress. Long gauze 
veil and plenty of ornaments admissible. 

ARM IDA {Tassd s Jerusalemme Liberatd). Niece of Idraot, 
Prince of Damascus. Golden hair falling loosely on shoulders, 
the head encircled with band of gold ; long flowing loose robe 
of cashmere or any soft woollen stuff of greyish tint, low at the 
neck, the sleeves loose and hanging, a girdle at the waist ; 
edge of skirt and bodice bordered with gold. 

ARRAH-NA-POGUE. Short red woollen petticoat, blue 
and white striped low bodice, and tunic pinned back laveuse 
fashion; plain sleeves to elbow, white neckerchief and apron; 
grey stockings, high-heeled shoes; milk-pails. {See Irish 

ART. Flowing classic dress of light cashmere ; low full- 
bodice girdled with tassels; short sleeves cut in two Van- 
dykes, fastened with buttons on outside of arm, and long 
train from the shoulders lined with a colour ; drab and blue, 
or gold and brown are suitable. The draperies may be bor- 
dered with Greek pattern in gold braid. A palette and brush 


on one side, modelling tools on the other. Hair floating on 
shoulder ; crowned with bay leaves. Antique classic gold 

ASHTON, LUCY (Bride of Lanwierinoor). Antique 
bridal dress of white satin ; train, front breadth, and stomacher 
worked in pearls and silver and trimmed with lace. Long 
pointed low bodice, a deep fall of lace turning downwards 
from neck ; sleeves in one puff to elbow, and rufiies ; lace veil 
and wreath, pearl ornaments ; a blue ribbon attaching broken 
coin round neck. 

ASIA. Magnificent Oriental dress, a blaze of jewels and 
gold. Robe of purple silk, embroidered in gold, over-petticoat 
of gold brocade ; low bodice, with embroidered stomacher ; 
mantle of gold brocade from shoulders ; a scarf of many 
colours about waist ; diamond tiara. 

ASLANGA {Fouque's Asla7iga!s Knight), Robe of white 
cashmere ; a gold belt round the waist of low full bodice, gold 
embroidery on the skirt, neck, and sleeves ; long circular 
mantle fastened with gold brooch, embroidered to match the 
skirt; shoes of white undressed doeskin, embroidered in 
gold ; fair hair, loose and flowing. 

ASSYRIA, QUEEN OF. Classic dress of white cash- 
mere, embroidered in gold, wreaths of lotus leaves round the 
edge, with a gold fringe below ; bodice and peplum of the 
same, ornamented with jewelled bands ; jewelled girdle ; train 
of Egyptian pink cashmere fastened on the shoulder with 
lotus flowers and precious stones ; crown of lotus leaves ; 
necklet of the same in gold. 

ASTROLOGY. Amber, black, and red, the most suitable 
colours. Skirt made short, of amber, red, and black satin, 
striped perpendicularly, and cabalistic signs on the amber 
stripes ; red tunic bordered with amber, on which are a row 
of cats' heads, the black satin studded with gold and silver 
stars. Bodice and paniers of red satin, also bordered with 
cabalistic signs ; short shoulder cape of black satin \ black 
pointed cap with the same signs over powdered hair. Book 
and telescope carried in the hand. 

AS YOU LIKE IT. {See Audrey, Celia, Phcebe, and 

ATHENS, MAID OF. White classic Greek dress, 
edged with gold; blue sash; coin head-dress, or red Greek 


cap, spangled ; short Greek embroidered jacket ; white under- 
bodice ; full white sleeves to elbow^ ; round the waist a 
jewelled band ; flowing skirt. {See Greek, and Plate XIII., 
Fig. 51-) 

AUDREY {As You Like It). Loose yellow woollen dress, 
high to throat, with long open sleeves, rope round the waist ; 
large felt hat ; hair floating about the shoulders. Sometimes 
she wears a rough figured woollen tunic and handkerchief 
of the same over low^ bodice, a large felt broad-brimmed hat ; 
or sometimes a bodice and tunic made with short sleeves, the 
white under-dress showing in the full sleeves to wrist and the 
stomacher ; a sort of sun-bonnet on the head. 

AUGUST. {See Harvest.) 

AURORA. Tulle ball-dress, lower skirt white, then one 
of grey-blue and one of pink, spangled with gold stars, the 
whole veiled in light yellow spangled tulle ; veil of the same 
and blue velvet tiara, one star in centre, for head-dress ; orna- 
ments, gold stars. It may also be rendered in grey and pink. 

AUSTRIAN PEASANT. A short dress of red or green 
woollen material ; the bodice low square, with long white 
sleeves to wrist, laced in front ; a kerchief beneath ; or there 
is a white under-bodice and sleeves, and a large plaited collar. 
The hat is high and pointed, with flowers at the side. In 
Upper Austria, on fete days, the girls wear a helmet-shaped 
head-dress of gold gauze. Black velvet low, square, sleeveless 
bodice ; a red and yellow handerchief tucked inside ; full 
white puffed sleeves to elbow. Bright coloured cotton short 
skirt, boots, and embroidered apron. {See German Peasant.) 

AUTUMN. Generally a fashionable evening dress of 
white, brown, ruby, maize, old gold, or pale green silk, satin, or 
tulle, trimmed with chatelaines of purple and white grapes, vine, 
or red-leafed Virginia creeper, and other shaded autumn leaves; 
or bouquets of poppies, cornflowers, convolvulus, wheat-ears, 
barley, oats, hops, grasses, blackberries, apples, and other 
autumn fruits; beehives, bees, birds, and a sickle are other 
insignia ; head-dress, wreath and tulle veil ; ornaments of 
dead gold, or china flowers mounted ; silk stockings to match 
the dress, and shoes with flow^ers ; a basket of fruit and flowers 
may be carried in hand. Another rendering : a short pink 
silk skirt and low bodice ; a panther skin fastened on one 
shoulder and draped on the hip; the edges of skirt and bodice 


are bordered with leaves and grapes on velvet trellis work ; the 
same in hair, and on the wand carried in the hand. Sometimes 
Autumn is dressed in classic drapery (see Greek), with the 
floral and other insignias of the season. 

AUTUMN, GOLDEN. The bodice and tunic of 
golden satin, looped over tulle of the same shade ; the tunic 
caught back and edged with a fringe of ears of corn, clus- 
ters of fruit of all kinds, and nuts ; the bodice trimmed to 
correspond, and for the small sleeves a band of fruit and 
leaves ; a wreath of ears of corn and fruit ; ornaments of 
fruit. Attached to side a gold-coloured fan with a border 
of ears of corn ; a cluster of fruit placed on the outside stick ; 
in the hand either a bunch of corn or a sickle. 

AUVERGNE PEASANT (or Auvergnate). Short black 
or black and white striped skirt made plain ; red tunic ; low 
velvet bodice, with black braces over shoulders ; white 
chemisette, with ruff, and short sleeves ; bibbed red linen 
or white muslin apron, bunch of flowers at the side ; large 
straw hat, with flat crown, coming w^ell down at ears ; 
peasant jewellery of silver hearts ; black shoes ; coloured silk 

AVELINE (Z^ J/^r/'^/^/z/f). Normandy costume. Short 
skirt of old gold trimmed with bands of brown ; laveuse tunic 
of reddish pink bunched up at back. High basqued brown 
bodice with bars of old gold cut square, a brown linen collar 
at the back. Puffed sleeves slashed with old gold ; linen 
cuffs ; Normandy cap ; low shoes ; brown stockings ; milliner's 
box. (See Normandy Peasant.) 

AVENEL, WHITE LADY OF. (See White Lady.) 
AZUCENA (// Trovatore). Tawny yellow loose woollen 
robe, confined at waist by leather belt with pendent tassels ; 
scarf of red and other coloured silk fastened into girdle and 
on shoulders ; head bound with a many-coloured striped 
handkerchief; rows of beads round neck. Or a Gipsy cos- 
tume, red and gold, with sequins ; tambourine slung at back. 
(See Gipsy.) 

BABES IN THE WOOD. (See Girls' and Boys' 
Fancy Costumes, Appendix at end of volume.) 

BABY BUNTING. (See Girls' and Boys' Fancy 
Costumes, Appendix.) 


BABET {Blaise and Babct). Plain brown or blue skirt 
and tunic; large bows at the side; red corselet bodice over 
a low white one ; sleeves made in two puffs ; hair in curls, 
surmounted by a straw hat with ribbons and flowers. 

BACCARAT. Train and tunic of white velvet with red 
satin bodice and short skirt all covered with cards, and the 
pips of the cards, hearts, clubs, and spades, which appear also 
on the tricorn hat. 

BACCHANTE. White tulle dress, with green satin 
tunic and bodice, fully trimmed with grapes and leaves ; 
leopard's skin attached to the back ; wreath of grapes. Or 
classical dress of apple green " Liberty " silk, the draperies- 
caught up with white and purple grapes ; large wreath o€" 
grapes on the head; flesh coloured stockings; the sandals; 
tied with purple ribbon. 

BACKGAMMON. Maize satin low bodice and short 
skirt, trimmed with black velvet and gold braid ; upper skirt ; 
cut in deep points alternately cerise and black satin, bordered 
with gold braid ; velvet necklet, backgammon men as pendents. 
Enamel dice for ear-rings ; bracelet clasps, and ornaments ;; 
cerise satin cap. Cup for dice suspended by gold cord from 
waist to hold handkerchief. Another rendering. — Short fulL 
skirt of ecru satin bordered with circles of red and white satiir 
appliqued on with gold braid to simulate the pieces of the 
game ; a small plaiting of lace let in between points of" 
alternate red and black satin falling from waist, with a goldl 
tassel at each point ; low bodice, pointed back and front, 
formed of squares of black and ecru satin ; shoulder knots 
of white, crimson, and black ribbon ; cap made to resemble 
a dice with the usual markings ; scarlet aigrette at the side. 
A pocket, formed like another dice, hangs at side of skirt; 
red fan, shoes, and stockings, with buckles : black gloves. 

BACON, LADY. {See Elizabeth, Queen of England,, 


BADMINTON. {See Lawn Tennis.) 

BAHAMA FRUIT SELLER. Dress of lilac print, 
cut low in the neck ; white linen apron with scarlet braid ; 
white muslin turban; beads round the neck; tray on head with 
fruit. The face should be coloured. 



BAIGNEUSE. Soft white serge knickerbockers; full 
loose bodice and skirt trimmed with red braid, red scarf round 
the waist ; espardelles on the feet, covered with flesh-coloured 
stockings ; red cap. 

BALCHRISTIE, MRS. ("The Portly Housekeeper," in 
Heart of Af id- Lothian). Dark dress, plain skirt, low square 
bodice, kerchief tucked inside ; sleeves to elbow, muslin ruffles 
below ; square muslin lace-edged apron covering front breadth ; 
muslin cap with bows and ends of ribbon. Stick in hand ; 
bunch of keys at side. Woollen stuff, satin, silk, or velvet 
are suitable materials. {See Plate IL, Fig. 5.) 


black silk or merino ; bodice made half-high, with elbow 
sleeves, ornamented down all the length with metal buttons ; 
the bodice is trimmed in front with silver beads and chains ; 
full plain skirt, large striped apron. The distinguishing 
feature is the rebozello, viz., the head-dress in two parts, one 
made of muslin or lace, like a half handkerchief, the centre 
point falling at the back, two ends in front, the other, a closer 
.fitting head-dress, is fastened at the back of the head, and 
brought together beneath the chin like a nun's veil. The 
hair floats loosely beneath it. 


BARMAID {Louis XVL). Red silk skirt bordered with 
black velvet band ; tunic of Pompadour chintz ; white muslin 
apron and fichu ; black velvet bodice with lace revers on the 
sleeves ; muslin coif, stiff, and trimmed with black velvet. 

BARNABE, MADAME {La Timhale d: Argent). Short 
skirt of sky-blue cashmere, with five graduated rows of black 
velvet ; low blue bodice cut in tabs round the waist, trimmed 
with black velvet, showing a low linen chemisette above, 
bordered with blue ruching ; muslin apron trimmed to match ; 
black kid shoes with black straps across the instep, and buckles. 
The hair turned back and entwined with blue scarf. 

Amber satin skirt, opening over under-dress and bodice of pale 
blue satin, embroidered with gold and made with tight amber 
sleeves, and hanging blue satin ones outside ; red scarf 
draped about hips ; hair in two long plaits, blended with pearls ; 



1 . %rulo^' 

0. &WiAi'V Jiaeoru'. 


gold and pearl ornaments ; red scarf turban round the head ; 
blue shoes, embroidered with silver. 

BARRY, MADAME DU. (1715-1748.) Court dress 
of Louis XV. 's reign, generally pink and white. Pointed low 
bodice with stomacher, silk revers at the top, lace and muslin 
within ; a garland of roses from the right shoulder ; brocaded 
train over a petticoat, trimmed with lace and pearls ; sleeves 
to elbow and ruffles ; ornaments pearls. Hair powdered and 
worn over high cushion, curls at the back, with pearls and pink 
roses intermixed. In Dumas' play of Joseph Balsamo this 
character appeared in a Court dress with paniers, the bodice 
cut in a long point, the brocaded dress trimmed with bouquets 
of roses and silver flowers, the corselet with diamonds, a 
cordon of roses across the bodice from right to left. 

BASKET OF DAFFODILS. Low bodice of gold 
basket-work over a moss-green satin ; skirt same shade of 
satin with bunches of daffodils ; same in hair. 

BASKET OF VIOLETS. Skirt of violet satin, plain 
and short, covered with straw in trellis pattern, with green 
moss peeping out between the trellis ends on the hips. The 
space below waist is filled in with perfumed artificial violets, 
sewn close together, white, dark, and light, intermixed with 
moss and leaves ; bodice, violet satin, hidden by violets and 
green leaves ; wreath of violets and leaves ; and a half hoop 
of straw passes over the head with a bow on one shoulder. 
This forms the handle of the basket, firmly fixed and immove- 
able. Violet fan and ornaments, long gloves. 

BASQUE PEASANT. Short kilted skirt of red flannel ; 
embroidered and striped stomacher of same, showing beneath 
black jacket trimmed with gold ; or light blue bodice and 
tunic bordered with green ; bodice laced with gold cord ; red 
stockings with blue garters ; lace cap ; head-dress blue ; droop- 
ing bag attached to black velvet band worn over white lace 
cap ; gold brooch, cross and earrings. For a bridal dress this 
could be carried out in white satin with high lace cap. 

BATH, WIFE OF {Chaucer). Short striped scarlet 
petticoat, green over-dress, pinned together at back; large 
apron, the gathers arranged in honeycomb smocking from 
waist to the depth of five inches, the same on the upper part 
of the sleeves made of green like the tunic ; bodice cut 
square, showing chemisette of linen. Hair in net, with 

c 2 


kerchief knotted beneath the chin and fastened with orna- 
mental pins ; over this a rough beaver hat turning up on one 
side, peaked at the other, a feather round the crown ; riding- 
whip and spurs, distaff in other hand. 

BATILDE, COUNTESS {Olivette). Crimson velvet 
bodice and train cut in one, and embroidered in gold and 
silver, over a Princess dress of light grey satin, richly em- 
broidered ; puffed sleeves of velvet ; a Medici collar ; large 
felt hat and feather. 

BAVARIAN PEASANT. Has a blue petticoat, trim- 
med with black and silver; a black velvet corselet bodice, laced 
across with silver, over a white under-bodice ; white apron ; 
black hat, with gold braid and tassels, and silver ornaments ; 
a turn-down ruffle of lace at throat, a coloured handkerchief 
beneath, crossed in front. Hair in long plaits surmounted by 
round black cap, or a low-crowned black felt hat, with silver 
tassel ; massive silver necklace studded with bright-coloured 
stones ; white stockings, buckled shoes ; and mittens. In 
Algan, in Bavaria, the women wear a curious wheel-shaped 
black head-dress, placed on the back of the head, with long 
broad black ribbon streamers depending from the back. They 
are made of black gauze on a wire foundation, trimmed with 
black lace and satin ruches ; the size varies according to the 
age of the wearer, and the shape is of ancient origin. {See 

BAYADERE, LA PETITE. Princess dress of white 
or some bright-coloured cashmere bordered with rows of braid 
and gold embroidery ; low red velvet bodice, short cashmere 
under-bodice, white lace revers turning over top of jacket, long 
white sleeves ; black cap with aigrette. 

BAYONNE FISHWIFE. {See Fish Girls.) 

BEADLE PARISIENNE. Watteau overskirt of pink 
satin, cut square at neck, and showing a silver cloth stomacher; 
petticoat of grey satin, slashed with silver cloth, and having 
two gathered flounces ; pink satin shoes with high grey heels ; 
grey satin hat, worn on the side of the head over powdered 
hair, with pink ribbons. 


Long skirt of rich brocade or velvet untrimmed ; bodice a low 
square, edged with pearls and velvet, the sleeves slashed, 


showing white under-sleeves, straight and tight to wrist ; a 
collarette round the throat, from which pearls fall on the 
bodice. The hair is worn smooth, with a pearl fillet or coif. 

BEATRICE {Much Ado about Nothing). Satin gown 
touching the ground ; muslin apron bordered with Vandykes ; 
low bodice slightly pointed, a kerchief inside ; a close-plaited 
muslin ruff turned back, displaying the neck ; sleeves to elbow, 
puff at shoulder, and caught up inside the arm with a button. 
The hair in curls ; pointed satin hat worn at the back of head. 
At the Lyceum Theatre, 1882, Beatrice wore an over-dress of 
gold and terra-cotta brocade opening straight down the front 
over a petticoat of the two colours. The over-dress was bordered 
with gold, the stomacher matching the petticoat, the sleeves 
high at the shoulder, full to the elbow, with lace ruffles and 
lace rabato at throat. Knot of crimson ribbon in the hair. 2nd 
Dress : Travelling robes of stamped pale green plush, jewelled 
girdle, white satin puffed sleeves and under-skirt, quilted in 
large patterns. 3rd Dress : White and gold brocaded dress, 
over white satin under-dress, slashed sleeves. 

BEAUTY {Beauty and the Beast, and Beauty Sleepiiig. 
See Boys' and Girls' Fancy Costumes, Appendix). 

BEE. Short skirt of black and yellow or yellow and brown 
plush in horizontal stripes ; black velvet bodice edged and 
striped with gold, made as a deep cuirass, or as a coat, with 
tails having the m.arkings of a bee ; long sleeves, and gloves ; 
wings of yellow gauze bordered with gold, or of white gauze 
veined with gold, distended on wire attached to back ; black 
velvet cap to imitate the head and antennas of the insect, 
or formed as a large bee ; black high-heeled shoes with yellow 
bows ; yellow and black striped stockings. Wasp is a similar 
dress, but the stripes are more decided. Velvet and satin 
or plush are suitable materials. It is sometimes rendered 
with a skirt of puffed green tulle and bands of black velvet at 
intervals. {See also Hornet, Coloured Illustration, No. VII.) 

BEE, BUSY. Short skirt of black and gold striped satin, 
the stripes about 8 inches wide, and over each, a double box 
plait of black or yellow tulle. The skirt may be edged with 
a fringe of tinsel balls. A pointed sleeveless bodice of gold 
plush cut low, edged with small gold balls ; a pair of wmgs 
in the centre of the back, of black tulle, stretched on wire, 
veined and spotted with gold spangles ; a small cap imitating 


a bee's head with eyes and antennae. In the hand a gold 
wand surmounted by a miniature bee-hive. 

BEE, QUEEN. Skirt, puffings of yellow tulle to re- 
semble a bee-hive ; small coloured flounces at the hem giving 
an appearance of fulness. (Bees are dotted about the skirt.) 
The back of skirt to represent body of insect, made in gold 
and brown satin, with a panel of sweet-smelling and honey- 
giving flowers at each side ; low bodice, golden brown velvet 
over white tulle chemisette, worked in honeycomb edged at 
the neck with bees ; long transparent gauze wings fastened 
to the shoulders with jewelled bees. A bee nestling among 
flowers for head-dress ; gold and striped brown stockings and 
shoes, with bee on instep. 

BEETLES, QUEEN OF. Short black skirt with 
horizontal stripes of red and yellow ; the same combination 
carried round the top of the black bodice ; a black pointed cap, 
the whole covered with ever-moving toy beetles. A sceptre in 
the hand, surmounted by a beetle. 

BEGUM. Full plaited skirt of fine Indian muslin, the 
edges bound with silver braid, long drapery on the head of 
same ; belt round waist ; slippers embroidered in silver. 

BELLA DI TIZIANO. {See Venetian.) 

ballad.) Long mediaeval robe of blood-red sateen, with a 
mantle fastened from the shoulders of the same colour ; the 
bodice rounded at the neck, and rather low ; a thick gold 
torque at throat ; the robe is cut in one and moulded to the 
figure, the sleeves full and long. The garland for the head, 
the bracelets, and " fragrant zone," should be made of grasses 
and wild flowers ; the hair left loose and floating ; a branch 
of some wild-berried plant in the hand ; no gloves. 

BELLENDEN, EDITH. {Old Mortality. See E.) 

skirt of bright coloured satin, with a race ridden by jockeys 
painted round it ; striped satin jacket; jockey cap; loops of 
ribbon to match the petticoat on the shoulders ; horse shoe pin, 
riding boots, whip and betting book, flag-shaped fan of the 
colours worn. 

BELLE STRATAGEM. {See Hardy, Miss Letitia.) 


BELLE OF THE VILLAGE. A pretty French 
peasant's dress with striped short skirt, bibbed apron, kerchief, 
high musHn cap, and dainty flowers on cap and apron. Blue, 
white, and red, suitable colours. 

BEPPA {La Bonne Aventure). Short pink skirt, made 
with three black flounces headed by network of black velvet ; 
close fitting high bodice pointed at the waist, and coming on 
the shoulders ; senorita jacket with gold epaulettes trimmed 
with gold ball fringe. Bandoline carried in hand. Hair 
dressed with high comb and red roses. Stockings pink; 
shoes black, with high heels. 

1189-1199). Satin skirt, the front embroidered with the 
arms of England, bordered with ermine ; long cuirass bodice, 
jewelled and embroidered stomacher, top and edge of cuirass 
outlined with ermine ; sleeves tight to wrist ; regal velvet 
mantle bordered with ermine from shoulders. Fair hair loose 
and flowing ; gauze gold-edged veil ; royal crown. A loose 
bodice is more historically correct, but is seldom worn. 
The robe may be made of fawn silk, long and plain. The 
fulness put in at the neck, and falling straight to the feet, 
.without much extra width in the skirt, and fastened at the 
back, embroidered all over with a diapered pattern, or waving 
crossed hues in dull gold-coloured silk. A collar of gold round 
the throat, jewelled with pearls, and a girdle of the same about 
the waist. The sleeves cut rather tight to half-way below the 
elbow, then hanging in very long points. From the shoulders 
a royal mantle of tawny red plush or velvet, lined with fawn 
satin ; shoes of plush or velvet of the same colour as the 
mantle. Gold circlet on head, and the hair flowing free. 

BERGERE. {See Shepherdess.) 

Coloured Illustration, No. XIII.) 

BERTRADE {Heloise and Abelard). Valois costume : 
short skirt, perpendicularly striped with velvet; tunic, and low 
square bodice, deep hanging sleeves, bordered with velvet, 
others tight - fitting, of contrasting colour beneath, velvet 
aumoniere at side ; white muslin kerchief inside ; high stiff 
pointed Valois head-dress matching tunic, striped with velvet; 
pendent tulle veil attached. This costume is carried out in 


two colours ; maize and blue, or black ; white and blue, or 
pink ; gold cross and earrings. 

BETTINA {La Mascotte, Piedmontese Peasant), Short 
blue skirt, brown tunic, white under bodice with elbow sleeves 
and turnback cuffs ; low brown over-bodice laced in front ; 
straw hat and flowers. 2nd costume : a Princess dress of silk 
with brocade intermixed, puffs at the top of the sleeves ; 
bodice low, square ; with pointed cap having gold trimming. 

BETTY, MY LADY. Quilted petticoat ; tunic of velvet 
or brocade ; long, pointed, low bodice ; powdered hair with 
pearls and rosebuds ; mittens ; high-heeled shoes. 

BIRDS. Representation of birds are very popular at the 
present day. {See Bullfinch, Canary, Cockatoo, Cock 
Robin, Crow, Duck, Parrot, Raven, Snipe, Sparrow, 
Stork, Swallow, What-a-tail, &c.) They are mostly 
carried out with feather bodices and wings, over tulle or satin 
skirts ; a cap like the head of the bird. 

BLACK-EYED SUSAN. Short full skirt of blue serge 
or blue linen or unbleached linen ; full-banded bodice, with 
tblue sailor collar and cuffs ; black silk handkerchief tied in 
rsailor's knot in front ; black tarpaulin sailor's hat, with a bunch 
<of white flowers. It is also rendered by a short chintz dress, 
white muslin cap and apron, coloured kerchief knotted over 
:the shoulders. 

with bands of green curiously plaited at the waist ; a long 
'white apron, white under-bodice and sleeves; low square black 
velvet bodice, laced with silver over scarlet plastron ; tall black 
*or straw hat; hair in long plaits, black silk head-dress with 
pendent black ribbons, and ends at the back. Near Kintzig 
and elsewhere the black velvet bodice is supplemented by a 
yoke-piece of black velvet on the shoulders, with silver em- 
broidery. The head-dresses differ in different parts. Some 
. are round, placed at the back of the head, bordered with lace 
.and full ; some have a black bow, like the Alsatians. 

tBLANCHISSEUSE. {See Washerwoman.) 

BLANCHE REINE (LA). Dress a la Marie Stuart, 
made in white silk or satin and pearls ; the Marie Stuart cap 
and veil. {See Plate VIII., Fig. 29.) 

BLANCHE OF CASTILLE. A white satin skirt and 
bodice, embroidered with crescents, lilies of the valley, and 


white roses ; black satin mantle powdered with silver stars and 
pearls; jewelled girdle; pearl pouch at the side; tiara of 
pearls and silver stars ; white tulle wimple. Handsome bands 
of gold ; brocade suitable. 

BLUEBELL. Blue dress trimmed with leaves and blue- 
bells ; cap like a bluebell, made of satin. Or a more elaborate 
costume as follows : — Short and narrow blue silk skirt, cut in 
deep scallops at the edge and framed on wire; the low blue 
bodice scalloped at the neck and sleeves, showing under-bodice 
of pale yellow, laced across with blue cord ; blue shoes and 
stockings ; cap of silk in the form of the flower with green 
stalk ; hair flowing ; basket on arm ; bluebells of Scotland 
about dress. {See also Flowers.) 

BLUEBELLS OF SCOTLAND. Sky-blue tulle with 
bluebells ; bunch of berries and ivy-leaves with wreath of 

BLUE CHINA. {See China.) 

BLUE COAT DRESS. (Worn by a woman.) Short 
blue cloth skirt with leather belt ; quaint short-waisted bodice 
to match ; fastened with gold buttons. Muslin band at throat. 
(Plate H., Fig. 6.) 

BLUETTE. Cream satin short skirt draped with blue 
gauze caught up with bluettes which border the hem of the 
skirt, belt made of trellis work of velvet over pink satin; bodice 
of blue satin hke petals, gauze fichu forming sleeves ; tied up 
v/ith the flowers as epaulettes ; bluettes on the head. {See 


Dress of blue twill or serge, with mob caps and aprons. 

BOADICEA. Classic dress of soft blue, red, and yellow 
woollen stuff, bordered with gold ; bodice full, cut in one 
with skirt, and confined at waist with gold girdle; cloak fastened 
with a brooch on either shoulder, no sleeves ; gold torque ; 
hair flowing, confined by gold circlet ; spear or diadem in 

BOATING DRESS. {See Black-eyed Susan.) 

BOHEMIAN GIRL. (6"^^ Arline.) 

BOHEMIENNE. Short black satin skirt edged with 


black grelots and gold fringe and coins ; large ornamental 
pattern of gold, worked up the front and sides ; above this a 
scarf of black lace, almost covered by a tunic of scarlet and 
gold ; Oriental silk tunic, pointed on one side, and knotted on 
the other ; low black body, cut square, trimmed with gold 
chains and coins ; handkerchief of the same red and gold 
material, tightly tied round the head ; black stockings em- 
broidered with gold spangles and shoes en suite. Or short 
black satin skirt bordered with gold braid and coins ; crimson 
satin tunic ornamented with gold butterflies and stars ; black 
and crimson satin jacket, with coins; crimson satin head- 
dress with gold sequins; anklets and necklets of gold coins. 
Tambourine. {See Gipsy.) 


BONBONNIERE. Short red, white, and blue skirt ; low 
square bodice of crimson, trimmed across the front with blue; 
muslin apron and cap, with blue and red ribbons ; a basket of 
bonbons in the hand, and a pair of scales. Another rendering 
is a dress of lemon-coloured tulle, trimmed with lace and French 
bonbons. Another: Short cream satin skirt trimmed with bands 
of pink, chocolate, and gold , pink and chocolate striped upper 
skirt, ribbons at side, pink satin bodice gored. Muslin chemi- 
sette, cap of same, powdered hair ; basket of sweets in hand. 

BO-PEEP. A short skirt, bunched-up tunic, black velvet 
low bodice, laced in front with coloured ribbons over white 
muslin, short sleeves ; straw hat and coloured ribbon streamers 
and flowers, sometimes replaced by black cocked hat in velvet; 
crook, tied with bunch of ribbons ; a toy lamb may be car- 
ried under arm ; black shoes, coloured heels and stockings ; 
large blue apron may be added. This can be carried out 
in silk, satin, or cotton, with brocaded or chintz tunic. Hair 
powdered or not, as preferred. Walter Crane's rendering ot 
Bo-Peep is as follows : — The bodice yellow, full and rather 
low in the neck, where it is gathered into a band ; the upper 
skirt of blue cotton is full and looped up over a bright pink 
under skirt, which is just long enough to leave the yellow-clad 
ankles and feet clearly visible ; folded yellow waistband ; the 
hat is a Dolly Varden shape in straw, trimmed with flowers or 
bows, and tied on to the head with a piece of pink or blue 
ribbon; the crook ornamented with a bunch of blue, pink, 
and yellow ribbons. 


BOTHWELL, COUNTESS OF. Coloured satin 
train over white satin skirt, embroidered in gold,-coloured 
satin; pointed bodice trimmed with gold; high ruff; pearl 
ornaments ; Marie Stuart head-dress. 

BOULANGERE, LA BELLE. Orange silk skirt, 
short, covered with white lace, headed byruching; low bodice, 
pointed in front, the back cut in one with the train, made 
of striped satin and bunched up; elbow sleeves; lace apron 
with bib and cap. A fan hangs at one side, at the other a 
hook with baker's " mark-boards." 

BOULE DE NEIGE (A White J^ose). Dress of 
frosted tulle over white satin, the front a mass of white roses, 
without leaves, set in puffings of white tulle, spangled with 
dewdrops. Tunic of frosted tulle, bordered with rose-leaves, 
and caught up with roses, rosebuds, and leaves. Long white 
satin bodice and waistcoat of silver brocade, edged with green 
leaves ; a cluster of white roses on left of bodice. Long white 
gloves, with three bands of small rose-leaves, tuft of rosebuds 
and leaves at the top of each ; fan of green leaves, scattered 
over with rose-petals ; wreath of white roses and leaves. A 
few white petals about the hair. Or white muslin kilted skirt, 
satin Princess polonaise, trimmed with balls of swansdown 
which also form bertha to low bodice ; necklace, snow balls ; 
cap and veil. 


BOUQUETIER (Louts XV.). Coat of biscuit broche 
silk, bound with garnet velvet ; buttons to match; lace cravat; 
gilt basket of flowers slung round the figure with velvet ; 
short plaited skirt. 

skirt and full bodice with long basques and sleeves, fichu of 
muslin over the bust, white muslin cap with frill. 

BOURBONNAISE, LA BELLE. Yellow short skirt, 
bound with black. Blue overskirt, low black velvet bodice, 
with long sleeves and laced in front. A straw hat at the back 
of the head, trimmed with black velvet and red roses ; silver 
arrow in the hair, violin carried in the hand. 

BOURGEOISE {of Louis XV. tifne). Grey silk skirt, 
having lace flounces ; pink over-dress and mantle, showing grey 


Stomacher; pink shoes, with diamond buckles ; grey stockings; 
head-dress of Brussels lace and pink ribbons ; diamond orna- 

BRADWARDINE, ROSE (IVaver/ey). Costume of 
last century ; train from shoulders, and low-pointed bodice of 
old brocade, satin, or velvet, over quilted petticoat ; small 
satin hat, with roses and feathers ; powdered hair. 

BRANKSOME, LADY OF {Lay of the Last Min- 
strel), Long velvet train over satin petticoat ; richly trimmed 
or embroidered sleeves ; slashed high bodice, with lace ruff 
covered with jewels ; jewelled coronet and veil. 

costumes for two sisters. Minna, dark, proud, and sad ; 
Brenda, fair and glad. The scene is laid in 1724, and the 
dresses are of Norwegian type. Minna a short, amber petti- 
coat trimmed with fringe ; a gold bronze velvet, low, square 
bodice over white chemisette high to the throat ; hair hanging 
in two long plaits, amber handkerchief knotted about it. Or 
pale amber silk sacque over petticoat of cream quilted satin, 
ruffles to sleeves, kerchief And apron of old lace, double 
falling ruff at neck, and snood of yellow ribbon. Brenda, same 
in salmon and cinnamon. Minna may also wear a riding- 
dress, with cavalier hat and plume, and Brenda, blue skirt bound 
with brown, full-sleeved chemisette bodice of cream colour, 
w^ith old silver charms and clasps ; sleeveless jacket of pale 
blue Indian silk; blue silk stockings, shoes of untanned leather; 
flowing hair bound with old silver beads or ribbon. 

BRETON. Short coloured skirt with horizontal rows of 
black velvet to waist, or bordered with Breton embroidery ; 
low Breton bodice laced, and short sleeves of contrasting 
colour, showing high linen chemisette and long sleeves ; large, 
square embroidered apron trimmed with silver fringe, and 
oblong pockets ; black shoes, clocked stockings ; Breton lace 
cap with flowers ; large silver Breton cross and ornaments on 
black velvet. Any amount of embroidery and spangles 
admissible. The form of bodice and cap will be best gleaned 
from Plate II., Fig. 7. In the present day black cloth, silk, 
or satin skirts are worn, showing a white cambric chemisette ; 
above the waist an elaborately folded, starched and em- 
broidered band with silver or gold ornament. Head-dress of 
white cambric with bows and ends standing out at side, 


fastened with jewelled pins. But the head-dresses differ in the 
several parishes. Petticoats of various hue are worn one over 
the other, with vertical folds. Apron of embroidered cambric 
on silk sabots. 

in white satin with flowing skirt, having two bands at the edge 
of silver tinsel. High pointed bodice, with rows of jewels 
in the front ; ruff at throat ; girdle round waist, tight sleeves 
to wrist, with cuffs and epaulettes of fine lawn; straight 
hanging sleeves from the shoulder ; hair combed from the face, 
and gathered in a coronet, from this the veil descends. 

BRIDES. {See Olivette, Oranges and Lemons, 
Polish, German Peasant for Mecklenberg, and Starnberg.) 

BRIDESMAIDS {Ruddigore). Short- waisted low silk 
bodices, cut in one, with the tunics opening in front over 
short skirts ; sashes tied in front ; long mittens, fastened with 
bows above elbow. 

BRIDE OF ABYDOS. Byron's heroine wears a rich 
Greek dress. Short skirt bordered with gold ; bodice opening 
over chemisette, striped with gold, red sash at waist ; long 
Greek sleeveless casaque of velvet edged with embroidery ; 
small satin toque at side of head, and covered with sequins ; 
ornaments, sequins. Materials, satin and velvet. {See also 

BRIGAND'S WIFE. Short stuff skirt with yellow, blue, 
scarlet, and black stripes ; low square velvet bodice, basque in 
tabs, and embroidered with gold, loose white sleeves to elbow, 
and low square chemisette of jaconet muslin ; coins suspended 
where they will droop, and also worn for ornaments ; striped 
stockings ; black high-heeled shoes. Hair in two long plaits 
with coloured ribbons and coins entwined ; black peaked hat 
and feathers. The bodice is sometimes a double-breasted 
jacket, with revers and gold buttons ; white muslin tie and 

BRIONNE, DOWAGER OF. {See D, and Coloured 
Illustration, No. IV.) 

BRISTOL RED-MAID. {See Charity-Girls.) 

BRITANNIA. A gold helmet, trident, and shield, with 
Royal arms. The dress white and blue satin, with a steel 
cuirass ; tunic worked with silver rose, shamrock, and thistle ; 


blue mantle lined with crimson satin fastened on one side with 
jewels ; silver belt with lion's head at waist. Or a white 
cashmere flowing skirt, loose classic bodice and gold belt ; 
a scarlet scarf fastened on left shoulder and floating on to 
dress, or the Union Jack draped over it. 

lungen Lied). Suitable for two sisters. They wear rich gold 
stuffs made in Burgundian fashion of the thirteenth century. 
Brunhilda would have under-dress of brocade, over-dress 
of gold tissue caught up at the side ; low square bodice bor- 
dered with jewels, jewelled stomacher, silver girdle ; sleeves 
puffed at elbow and shoulder ; gold crown, hair in coil en- 
twined with pearls. Kriemhilda : under-skirt of rich stuff*, 
bordered with bands of gold ; upper-dress of embroidered 
cloth of gold, bordered with ermine ; low bodice much 
jewelled in front, long sleeves lined with ermine, and bound 
with gold, tight sleeves to wrist; hair on shoulders, surmounted 
by a crown. 

BULGARIAN PEASANT. Short blue petticoat, 
trimmed with bands of red and gold, over-skirt of pale blue 
stuff" bordered and embroidered in three stripes with red, white, 
and gold. The red velvet bodice, which is close-fitting, is cut 
out heart-shape in front, the opening bordered with similar 
embroidery, showing an under-bodice of white cashmere, also 
embroidered heart-shape ; tight sleeves, with bands of em- 
broidery at the shoulders and cuffs; sash of many colours 
round the waist. In the country the unmarried girls wear 
wreaths of flowers, and rows of gold coins about the neck, 
a white embroidered scarf round the head. The married 
women wear beads ; a belt with copper-gilt buttons. Helmet 
shaped caps. 

BULLFINCH. Grey velvet cap with bullfinch head; 
corselet bodice of red feathers in front, grey velvet at back ; 
short skirt of grey tulle with broad band of feathers or small 
grey wings, looping up the tulle ; grey shoes with red heels 
and grey stockings with red clocks. 

BUNCH, MOTHER. {See Mother Hubbard.) 

BUNCH OF KEYS. A long black dress on which 
gilt paper keys are sewn at intervals. A bunch of keys are 
suspended at' the waist. The head-dress, necklace, and ear- 
rings are made of gilt paper. 


BURMESE PEASANT. Short, narrow petticoat with 
tight tunic, so tight it is ahnost impossible to sit down. The 
under-skirt is of a rough material in various colours ; the 
upper is of black cotton velvet, embroidered in colours. The 
loose bodice is cut in one with the tunic, and opens at the 
neck to show a white low chemisette. Beads are worn round 
the neck ; the sleeves come half way to the elbow ; a large, 
gracefully twisted scarf encircles the head, a black pointed hat 
is worn in the country, and a profusion of beads. 

BURNEY, MISS FANNY {Lady-in-waiting to Queen 
Charlotte). Yellow satin petticoat, trimmed with brown fur ; 
pale blue train, and stiff, straight low bodice ; powdered hair ; 
feathers; pearl ornaments. {^See Arblay, Madame d'.) 

BUSY BEE. {See Bee.) 

BUTTERCUP. Yellow satin dress of brocaded gauze, 
the cap made in yellow satin with green calyx to resemble 
a buttercup ; black stockings and gloves. Or dress of tulle of a 
vivid yellow, showered with buttercups ; cuirass bodice of 
green satin, fringed with buttercups ; at the right side a 
cluster of yellow satin ribbons. Yellow satin shoes and 
stockings; hair studded with buttercups; ornaments, buttercups. 

BUTTERCUPS AND DAISIES. Short white satin 
dress, arranged to represent petals of buttercups and daisies, 
and caught up with garlands and wreaths of the same flowers ; 
wreath of same on head ; basket of the same carried in hand. 
Or plain petticoat of buttercup-coloured satin, brocaded tunic, 
with a design of buttercups. Or pale green robe, dotted over 
with buttercups, daisies, clover, &c. ; broad sash similarly 
treated ; round the waist grass fringe to edge of sash and skirt ; 
pointed bodice, short sleeves ; brown velvet robings of the 
same ; bouquet of field flowers ; bees embroidered on lemon- 
coloured shoes ; gloves, fan, &c. {See Flowers.) 

BUTTERCUP, LITTLE {Pinafore). Old fashioned 
straw bonnet, print gown, a black and red shawl pinned across 
the shoulders. 

BUTTERFLY, A. Short white satin skirt, covered with 
clouds of brown, pink, and blue tulle. Flight of butterflies 
all over it. Wings of blue gauze, and the antennae in the 
head-dress. White silk stockings and white shoes. Butterfly 
on each. (See Appendix ; and for Canadian Butterfly, 
Coloured Illustration XVI.) 


BUTTERFLY, GOLDEN. Short skirt and low 
bodice of yellow merveilleuse, draped with tinsel gauze, trimmed 
with yellow, jet, and gold butterflies; gauze scarf; butterfly and 
feather head-dress, yellow shoes and stockings. 

BUTTERFLIES, QUEEN OF. Tulle dress covered 
with butterflies ; black velvet tunic shaped and pointed like 
wings ; low bodice, with bands of gold across the front, blue 
gauze wings attached to back ; short sleeves, with butterflies ; 
a butterfly on the head ; black shoes with blue butterflies. 
The following is a pretty rendering : White tulle dress, 
puffed and bouillonneed, with scarf of pale blue satin caught 
together in loops at back, bordered with tinsel fringe, dotted 
all over with butterflies ; also bodice ; a large one on each 
shoulder; wreath of butterflies and white veil with butterflies 
upon it ; gold wand in hand with butterfly a-top ; pale blue 
fan with butterflies. Or, dress of brown velvet, front made 
with robings of brown and gold brocade; large gold and 
brown wings ; hair dressed high above the face, surmounted 
by cap like antennae; brown gloves, shoes, and stockings. For 
the Queen, the dress would be similar, of bluish silken tissue, 
the tunic cut in the shape of a butterfly's wings; a jewelled 
zone round the waist ; wand carried in the hand. 

BUY-A-BROOM. Also called Marchande de Balais ; 
should be carried out in bright colours, such as blue and white. 
Short blue and white skirt, poppy-coloured tunic, and loose 
bed-gown bodice with belt round waist. Or ordinary square 
bodice of silk, satin, or chintz ; sleeves to elbow turned up 
with muslin ; muslin kerchief, cap, and apron, with cerise bows; 
hair in plaits, or straw hat with red and blue ribbons ; small 
brooms in hand, and dispersed about the dress ; high-heeled 
shoes, blue striped stockings, mittens. Originally this cha- 
racter was represented by a Dutch peasant as follows : Full 
short skirt of dark woollen material ; square cut bodice with 
shoulder straps over a white chemisette, with long loose 
sleeves ; a stomacher shaped like a shield on front of bodice, 
covered with gold drops and spangles. Head-dress of scarlet 
cloth, like an inverted saucepan ; girdle of scarlet embroidered 
cloth ; white stockings, black shoes and buckles. 

CABARETIERE. Short skirt of striped black and 
amber ; blue tunic, turned up on either side. Low black 
velvet pointed bodice, laced at back, short sleeves. White 


satin plastron, barred with black velvet, edged with blue and 
amber. Muslin apron, trimmed with the two colours, turned 
up on left side. High cap of goffered muslin and black velvet. 
Tankard and key at side. Gold cross and earrings. 

CALABRIAN BRIGAND GIRL, Striped petticoat 
of red, blue, and green cloth, the front breadth embroidered ; 
brown velvet jacket ; red waistcoat ; high hat of brown velvet, 
trimmed with red and green ribbons and cocks' feathers; 
stiletto at side. 

CALVADOS, FISH-GIRL OF. {See Fish-girl.) 

CAMARGO. A dancer at the Opera in Louis XV.'s time 
gave her name to the costume she wore, viz., a short blue 
skirt, with cross bars of black velvet ; bodice of figured silk, 
half-high, with folds of muslin coming across the neck and 
tucked into the front stomacher ; black velvet and blue silk 
ruches carried round the top of bodice. Short sleeves with 
frills of plaited muslin and blue ruching round. Bunched 
up tunic of figured silk. 

CAMBRIDGE. Dress of cream-coloured satin, trimmed 
with sashes and scarves of Cambridge blue satin ; the Cam- 
bridge coat of arms on left shoulder ; flowers, forget-me-nots 
and primroses. 

CAMILLE {Le Beau Nicholas). Short skirt of crimson 
and yellow satin, striped and bordered with frilling ; yellow 
satin bodice with elbow sleeves ; white silk bibbed apron, 
tied beneath the puff at the back, and bordered with black 
velvet ; large Leghorn hat, with black velvet strings ; flesh 
coloured stockings and white satin shoes. Or pale blue satin 
with cream lace and wreath of roses ; cream lace apron ; straw 
granny bonnet trimmed with pale blue ; mittens to match. 

CAM MA {The Cup). Sea-green peplum of soft Indian 
silk, gemmed and embroidered in gold, green, and scarlet : 
chiton embroidered and fringed with gold ; bodice in regular 
folds, sleeves long, fastened with studs to elbow ; white coif 
bound with golden cord, worn over golden curls ; sceptre in 
hand ; bracelets ; wash-leather shoes ; hair arranged like 
Venus of Milo. As a priestess : Golden satin chiton ; gemmed 
peplum in green, scarlet, and gold ; diamond diadem ; saffron 

CAM PAN, MADAME, Maid of honour to Marie 



Antoinette. White satin petticoat trimmed with gold ; train 
and bodice of pale blue satin, trimmed with maroon satin ; 
tight, long sleeves ; bodice half-high, with lace fichu ; powdered 
hair, and feathers ; gold ornaments. 

CANADA. AVhite skirt and white plush jacket, trimmed 
with puffings of silver tulle and cloth of silver ; a blue scarf 
round hips, edged with silver sleigh-bells. } The jacket braided 
and frogged with silver; wreath of maple leaves and rowan 
berries across bodice; blue scarf, caught up on shoulder 
with Canadian blue-bird. Blue cap after Scotch shape, 
trimmed with swansdown, embroidered with silver; hair 
powdered; blue satin muff, small bird at side. Insignias 
round waist : snowshoes, toboggans, canoe skates, and tobacco 
pouch. Or, a classic robe of white with a wreath of maple 
leaves round the bodice. Head-dress, maple wreath with hair 
flowing, or a helmet with maple leaves and effigy of Peace and 
the beaver. In left hand oval shield representing Union 
Jack, about 2 feet high, " Canada " inscribed in centre. 
Another rendering is the dress worn in the country, made 
of blanket flannel with many coloured striped border; 
epaulettes on shoulder of the stripes ; bright crimson sash ; 
a cap of dressed beaver skin. 

as the first description of Canada, but made entirely in blue, 
with muff. 

CANADIAN SNOW-WREATH. White tulle skirt, 
blue tunic and bodice, all covered with tufts of swansdown, 
looped with scarlet flowers and green leaves. White tulle veil 
with swansdown tufts ; wreath of swansdown, spray of scarlet 

CANAL, SUEZ. Long flowing robe of cloth-of-gold, 
with waves of blue satin bordered with pearls ; under-skirt of 
red satin embroidered in Egyptian designs. A gold key at the 
girdle ; Egyptian head-dress of pearls, turquoise, and diamonds ; 
girdle of roses and lilies. 

CANARY BIRD. Dress of yellow plush or satin, with 
canaries on the shoulder, the bird's head forming the cap. 
Sometimes the yellow satin is embroidered in pearls, and 
canaries are scattered all over the dress. 

CANDOUR, MRS. {School for Scandal). This character 


wears rich heavy materials, plush and brocade, made with a 
sacque ; elbow sleeves, pointed bodice ; and in the course of 
the play dons a hood and mantle. Dark green and purple are 
suitable colours. 

CANTINIERE. One white stocking, one red and 
yellow ; short black dress, white apron, full low bodice with 
pink and yellow bands ; white handkerchief twisted about the 

CANTONEER. Short skirt of striped silk; blue coat 
trimmed with gold braid, red satin collar and cuffs ; scarlet 
sash, gold fringe at ends. 

CARDS, PACK OF. A favourite dress, carried out in 
varied fashion. Dress of yellow, claret, and blue satin or 
velvet, with square bodice and wide sleeves, bordered with 
hearts, spades, diamonds, and clubs. A coronet of same on 
head. The cards printed on white silk round skirt. 

The Queens of the several packs wear long velvet or silver 
lisse dresses of mediaeval make, with ermine and gold crowns 
and sceptres ; or white ball-dresses ; or quilted skirts, with 
velvet tunics and bodices, and powdered hair ; the insignias 
of the several suits appearing in velvet or jewels about the 
dresses, ornaments, and the crowns on the heads. 

Queen of Hearts. Robes of violet velvet, with ermine; 
gold crown, gauze veil ; a heart on the crown, front of the 
dress, and on the sceptre. 

Queen of Clubs. Old gold satin dress, trimmed with deep 
pink and ermine ; clubs in black velvet scattered about ; gold 
crown. Or a pink satin dress covered with black velvet clubs,, 
forming the stomacher to the bodice and the crown. 

Queen of Spades. Prune velvet with ermine, which bot- 
dersthe long skirt, the jacket bodice, and long sleeves, forming 
revers in front, and a portion of the head-dress, with a ckite' . 
over the forehead. ^^^ *^^ 

Queen of Diamonds. Gold crown; bodice and skirt, dark 
blue velvet ; band of white satin all round, on which is a row of 
diamonds in blue velvet, as also on front of dress. 

Sometimes the dresses are copied from those quaint and 
curious playing cards which depict famous actresses in their 
several roles. Or any of the Queens might be carried out as 

D 2 


follows, with their respective insignias : — Short white satin skirt, 
trimmed with tulle and bands of black and red velvet, with 
diamonds, spades, hearts, or clubs in velvet between. Square 
bodice and elbow sleeves, draped round with tulle, caught 
down with the pips. On each sleeve painted a facsimile of 
the card represented ; the same up the front of gown, placed 
slantwise and bordered with gold. Small black satin clubs 
put into the lace tucker at equal distances, one fastening the 
piece of lace round the neck. The gloves white, with a 
miniature queen of club card painted on the back ; the head- 
dress a turban of red and gold, with a large black satin club 
on the left side, fastening a small white feather, turned over 
the front of the turban. The fan white satin, painted to 
match, a row of black clubs at the top. Or a black and white 
dress with the queen of club card on the left side of the 
bodice, put into noeuds of white satin ribbon and lace. The 
white satin under-skirt composed of kiltings of white satin, 
black velvet, and white lace. Tunic of white satin, covered 
with clubs in black velvet and silver tissue. Square-cut bodice 

with basque, and very short sleeves of black velvet, trimmed 
with white lace and silver ; the queen of club card on the left 

:side. Black velvet round the throat; the long white gloves 

-embroidered with silver clubs ; a crown of silver clubs mounted 
on black velvet ; shoes of white satin, with a black velvet 
club on the instep, fan of white satin edged with silver and 

}lace, in the form of a large club, a smaller one in silver in the 

The " Queen of Diamonds " is sometimes represented by 
-Gabrielle d'Estree, time Henry IV. {See G). — The " Queen of 
Hearts" by the Duchess de la Valliere, time Louis XIV. 
{See V).— The " Queen of Clubs " by the Duchess d'Estampes 
(6"^^ period Francis I.) — "Queen of Spades" by Odette, 
;period Charles VI. {See O). 

CARMEN {heroine of Bizefs Opei'd). In first scene wears 
a Spanish dress, short skirt, forming three tunics, white, blue, 
.and red, all trimmed with gold braid, the top covered with 
-a lattice-work of gold braid ; white muslin loose bodice, 
short red or black satin Senorita jacket over it ; black mantilla. 
.Second dress (a gipsy costume), short skirt of Armenian em- 
broidery in all colours, arranged Avith bands of the same at the 
iback. MusHn bodice ; Spanish jacket of silver cloth, with 


short and pendant sleeves. Necklace of many rows of silver 
coins ; armlets and bracelets of the same. Head-dress, 
silver braid, coins, and roses of three colours. Third dress 
(a brigand woman), short stuff petticoat, striped blue, yellow, 
black, and red ; scarf of same draped round it. Yellow waist- 
coat, brown Senorita jacket, with long sleeves, trimmed with 
black ball fringe. Linen cuffs and collars, blue necktie, 
red handkerchief tied about head. Round Spanish cap 
(black). Fourth costume, exquisite Spanish lady's dress, short 
white satin skirt, with three rows of gold blonde, headed by 
bands of ruby satin, bordered with gold ; down the front bows 
of gold braid tagged ; stay bodice of white satin, with gold 
buttons, pointed back and front. Senorita jacket of ruby 
satin, with long sleeves, gold blonde ruffles. Mantilla of 
gold blonde, diamond ornaments, roses at the side. With 
all but the brigand dress gold-embroidered stockings and 
shoes. Prosper Merimee describes the wayward gipsy as 
wearing a short black silk, with low bodice and short 
sleeves, or square bodice with elbow sleeves, ])lain skirt^ 
rather full, black mantilla, and a great bunch of white jasmine 
fastened high on the head. A large plain black fan, or 
one of the cheap Spanish fans. Madame Dolaro wore in 
the second act of the opera a short dress of blood-red cash- 
mere, made with a full bodice, and a mere shoulder-strap 
for sleeve; round this was wound three times, beginning 
at the shoulder, a scarf of black gauze, with wide stripes 
of gold. No ornaments but a scarlet flower placed high in 
the hair. Red, black, and yellow, blue and silver, all good 
combinations. Patti, in the first act, wore a short dress of 
deep orange satin, trimmed with black chenille lace ; black 
velvet Spanish jacket over a white chemisette ; bright green 
sash and shoes ; black mantilla. In the second act, a gold 
satin dress, embroidered with crimson flowers ; white silk 
gauze bodice, long hanging gauze sleeves, sewn with red coins 
and golden drops ; a black gauze scarf with silver stripes round 
the hips. In the next act, dark blue and yellow striped 
petticoat, a pointed band, red velvet jacket ; cap of black 
velvet with scarlet. In the last scene, a short bright pink 
skirt, cream silk tunic, embroidered with roses and pome- 
granate blossoms ; light cherry-coloured velvet bodice with 
bands of gold, white blonde mantilla over high comb, fastened 
with roses, fan painted with Spanish bull-fight. 


CARNATION. Bodice of carnation-coloured velvet, 
low and plain ; sleeve made in the form of the flower, the 
upper portion covering the shoulder, of green velvet. Skirt 
of carnation velvet veiled with draperies of green tulle. Hat 
resembles the flower, with green satin crown and carnation- 
coloured frills. 

1760.) White satin embroidered skirt, with hoop, train of 
purple satin bordered with ermine, coming from shoulders 
and looped across front with pearls and gold ; low pointed 
bodice of same, with ermine and jewelled stomacher ; gold 
girdle ; pendant sleeves ; diamond and gold ornaments, gold 

CARRIER, PIGEON. Full white tulle skirt over 
white satin skirt, with tunic in the shape of wings, composed 
of white feathers ; pigeon in the hair and on shoulder. Band 
of red ribbon across bodice from right shoulder to under left 
arm, with letter attached; letters falling from feather fan; 
head-dress, cap like pigeon's head. Pigeons on shoulder. {See 
Plate II. Fig. 8.) Or another rendering is a dress of grey 
cloth, the draperies caught up by pigeons, and the edges 
bordered with feathers; the bodice entirely composed of 
feathers. Pigeons in the hair. A letter suspended from the 
waist by a red ribbon. 

CARRIER, RURAL. Smocked linen frock ; bigsun- 
bonnet ; small horn slung over shoulder, a whip in the hand. 

CASSANDRA. Classical Dress {See Classic) of light 
blue tone encircled with bay leaves. 

CASTILIAN MAID. Pink satin petticoat, bordered 
with gold gimp ; black velvet bodice, open in front, and laced 
across a white chemisette with thick gold cord ; a small black 
lace apron ; shoes of pale pink satin, with ribbon sandals ; 
hat of black velvet, with ostrich plume, poised on one side of 
head ; hair in two long plaits or fastened up in a coil. {See 

CAT. {See White Cat.) 

CATERINA {Crown Diamonds). Riding-dress and coat 
of brown velvet, trimmed with amber satin ; hair drawn oflf 
from forehead, and slightly powdered ; large lace jabot, &c 


CATHERINE DE MEDICI, Ample skirt of velvet 
or rich brocade, just touching the ground, distended with hoops, 
satin front breadth, jewelled bands of gold across. Bodice 
pointed at waist, seams defined with jewels ; low stiff ruff on 
wire foundation from shoulders. Sleeves to wrist in per- 
pendicular puffings, full at top, and cuff turning upwards ; 
over these, gossamer sleeves from shoulders to hem of dress. 
Hair turned off face in roll ; diamond crown or coif after Marie 
Stuart order, but not so pointed. Shoes broad-toed, sewn with 
pearls. Yellow, red, and black favourite colours, and rich 
arabesque brocades worn. 

CATHERINE HOWARD. Dress of same period as 
Catherine of Arragon {see below), rendered in brighter colour- 
ing ; generally of rich flowered brocade ; the cap round, and 
not so hood-like, showing more hair, or replaced by diamond 
tiara. Train of velvet trimmed with pearls. Fur admissible. 
The sleeve is distinctive ; tight at the shoulder, with wide 
border of fur reaching almost to the knees; under sleeve 
slashed and puffed to the waist, bounded by a ruffle. The 
richly-wrought petticoat embroidered in cloth of gold. The 
sleeves at this period were movable and distinct from dress. 

CATHERINE OF ARRAGON. Dark velvet robe, 
bordered with ermine, displaying satin or cloth of gold, front 
breadth trimmed with pearls or rich embroidery. A low, 
square, stay-like bodice to waist, with jewelled girdle ; broidered 
stomacher with jewels. A satin habit-shirt, or partlet, worked 
with gold and pearls, tight under-sleeves to match ; pendant 
velvet sleeves, lined with ermine. Black velvet hood, with 
triple-jewelled front ; gauze veil at back. Pointed velvet shoes, 
slashed. The richest materials may be used, as well as black 
velvet and white satin. A sprig of lavender carried in the hand. 
Leslie painted the queen after her divorce wearing a dress 
of dark green velvet or silk, shot with gold, the bodice cut 
square and low, trimmed with a deep bordering of black 
velvet, covering in front a third of the bodice, fastened with 
jewels, attached to this a jewelled pendant and chain ; white 
muslin apron ; the sleeves full, sewn into a piece at the 
wrist, fitting the arm, opening on the outside with jewelled 
links ; the hair dressed plain to the face, a velvet head-dress 
rounded at the ears and falling at the back in heavy folds. 

CATHERINE OF RUSSIA (as worn by Baroness 


Brunnow at Queen's Fancy Ball, 1842). White satin skirt, 
with pelisse of rose-coloured satin, trimmed with ermine, 
having gold brodequins across the front ; round cap to match, 
with jewelled aigrette; and heron's plume; long hanging 
sleeves, tight ones beneath ; malachite ornaments. Blue ribbon 

CATHERINE PARR. Dress of cloth-of-gold, train 
two yards long ; kirtle or petticoat of brocade ; pendent 
sleeves, lined with crimson satin ; jewelled cross at neck ; 
jewelled girdle. Hood head-dress, with crescent-shaped 
coronet, a blaze of jewels. {See Catherine of Arragon.) 

CATHERINE SEYTON (T/ie Abbot). Pale blue 
satin petticoat, over-dress of blue velvet, open in front, studded 
and embroidered with pearls. Stomacher of diamonds and 
opals, high lace ruff. Blue velvet pointed head-dress, lisse 
veil trimmed with pearls ; a jewelled girdle round the waists 
Or white silk skirt, bordered with green velvet, and trimmed 
en tablier with pearls ; low bodice, and ruff. Green velvet cap, 
with pearls. Other colours may be used, and other gems. 

CAUCHOISE. Short petticoat of red satin ; square 
bodice and tunic striped blue and white, the sleeves puffed to 
wrist. Apron and Cauchoise cap trimmed Avith Mechlin lace. 
The latter high and pointed ; the lace fulled on in rows inter- 
spersed with red bows. Gold cross and earrings ; blue striped 
stockings ; black high-heeled shoes. {See Coloured Illustra- 
tion of Normandy Peasant, XII.) 

CECILY HOMESPUN {Hetr-at-Law, by George 
Colman). Plain cotton tunic, and low bodice over short 
petticoat of same ; muslin cap, kerchief, and apron. Made 
in the style worn in George III. reign. {See George III.) 

CELIA {As You Like It). A shepherdess with crook orna- 
mented with roses. White silk short dress ; tunic and bodice 
pale blue, all festooned with silver gauze, trimmed with silver 
cord, blonde, and roses. Small satin hat, blue slippers, pink 
roses on both. Also grey velvet robe and blue hat. See 
Rosalind; or, ist Dress : Mousse green brocade with bands 
of blue; flowing skirt, looped on one side, belt and bag, square 
bodice bordered with blue ; puffed sleeves ; cap. 2nd Dress : 
Red skirt ; the grey over-dress looped up on one side, square 
bodice ; puffed sleeves. 


CERES. Dressed as Harvest {see H.), or after Flaxman. 
Classic dress of maize-coloured cashmere bordered with gold> 
trimmed with garlands of grapes, field-flowers, poppies, corn- 
flowers, daisies, &c. ; the dress caught up in front to hold a 
lapful of the same. Cornucopia full of fruit and flowers 
carried in the hand ; or, short corn-coloured satin with corn 
flowers and poppies. Sometimes the satin is veiled with gold 
gauze, and chatelaines and garlands of grapes, wheat-ears, and 
poppies intermixed. A cornucopia of the same flowers in the 
hand. A child would represent the character in a short 
maize tulle with full bodice, a garland of the above flowers 
round the head, skirt, and waist ; a sickle in the hand. 

CHAMPAGNE BOTTLE. Black velvet skirt ; cuirass 
bodice of old gold satin, with black sleeves. On the head an 
old gold and green satin cap with rows of gold braid, a large 
white satin label on front of skirt, printed with " Jules Mumm, 
Rheims. Very dry," or any suitable label. Or, skirt of olive 
silk; cuirass bodice of gold tissue; taper waist; head-dress,, 
green and gold, banded with wire. 

CHAPERON ROUGE. French idea of Red Riding 
Hood. Cerise satin petticoat, with black velvet stripes ; white 
muslin chemisette, and bodice of black velvet, laced with 
cerise ribbons ; white muslin apron ; small silk cap ; fancy 
basket. {See Red Riding Hood). 

CHARITY GIRLS. Of these there are several kinds, 
Plate III., Fig. 9, illustrates the ordinary Foundling dress. 
Short dark-blue or brown skirt, plain bodice with sleeves to- 
elbow. Cambric tippet, with collar coming to waist, back and 
front; sleevelets from elbow to knuckles, with place for thumb, 
meeting dress sleeve. Cap with upstanding crown, high in front, 
the lappet-piece with crimped border, turned up at ears. Blue 
ribbon falling on tippet, with medal. At St. Botolph's School 
the dress is dark green, dark green ribbon on cap ; amber 
stockings and leather shoes. At St. Giles's-in-the-Fields and 
Lady Owen's School the dress is light blue. Orphan Girl^ 
Soldiers' Home, Hampstead, red skirt and bodice, white muslin 
tippet, cap and apron. Carleon Charity Girl wears blue and 
yellow. The Bristol Red Maid wears a red short full dress to 
ankles, bodice made with basque, long sleeves, linen cuffs out- 
side, long linen apron and cape of jaconet ; mob cap tied with 


blue ribbon ; grey stockings, low shoes, white cotton gloves. 
{See Amsterdam Orphanage and Blue Girls of Can- 
terbury, &c.) 

CHARITY, SISTER OF. {See Geneva Sister.) 

CHARLES I. PERIOD {Dress of), best seen in Van- 
dyke's pictures. Costumes as worn by Queen Henrietta 
Maria and Court, plain satin or velvet skirt full, touching 
ground; short-waisted, low, square bodice, pointed back and 
front; Vandyke collar, turning downwards from shoulders; 
stomacher hung with pearls and diamonds ; sleeves one large 
puff to elbow, with ruffles, pearl girdle, sometimes pearl em- 
broideries on sides of skirt, and a heavy velvet train in plaits 
from shoulders. Hair cut square across forehead, and curled 
back and front ; single row of diamonds or pearls round head. 
The hats large, of velvet or satin, with plumes turned up on 
one side and bordered with pearls. Dress to be rendered in 
white, pink, or yellow satin, or black or ruby velvet. Round 
feather fan carried in hand. The Princesses as children wore 
skirts touching the ground, sewn in plaits at the waist ; the 
bodices square, with sleeves puffed or coming to wrist, and 
Vandyke cuffs, made in dark blue, drab, black, or gold satin, 
or velvet (sometimes with sacque from shoulders), almost 
hidden by large, square, muslin apron, bordered with van- 
dyked lace, having square bibs and lace epaulettes. They had 
close-fitting net caps, with lace, like those of an infant. The 
ordinary costume of a woman, not in the higher grades of 
society, during Charles I. time, was sensible and useful, though 
in the beginning of his reign the farthingale was worn. The 
skirts touched the ground, and when distended by the farthingale 
the extra length formed a puff round the waist, falling in 
graceful fulness. The bodices were stiff, coming only to the 
waist, for the countrywomen and citizens' wives, and had 
either vandyked or stuffed epaulettes, or a brace-like trimming 
on the front, the aprons reaching to the hem of the dress, and 
having a bib. In this rank, the ruff was of linen, close under 
the chin ; higher class women wore them deeper, but secured 
to the back of the shoulders ; the French hood covered the 
hair and head ; the commonalty preferred the high-crowned 
hats with broad brims like the soft felt hats of to-day. Before 
the end of the reign, the French hood went out. Massinger 
puts into the mouth of one of his characters a reference to 



. C\AV({/2AmZ(>S 

]%. toi^^^yri' ji cu49/tv. 


this "And a French hood, too — now 'tis out of fashion, a 
foolscap would be better." Ruffs went out too. The dress 
that succeeded it was the falling collar, the plain graceful 
skirt and full sleeve, and the curls resting softly on the face. 
Another style of hair-dressing must have been borrowed from 
the Dutch ; the hair combed straight back and the curls at 
the side only. Hollar represents a woman thus dressed in 
his "Ornatus Muliebris Anglicanus," date 1645. She wears a 
long pointed bodice laced across the front, with an upper robe 
caught up in a species of panier at the hips, a tippet of linen, 
and long gauntlet gloves. It was in the reign of Charles I., 
that patches first began to be worn, which Bulwer, in 1650, 
speaks of as " a vaine custom of spotting their faces out of an 
affectation of a mole to set off their beauty." When this 
absurd fashion came in, patches do not appear to have been 
tiny round circles of plaister, such as later on were worn with 
powder, but sometimes they were scattered all over the visage 
in a variety of shapes — stars, crescents, and even a coach and 
horses, — and this folly lasted many years. 

CHARLES II., PERIOD OF. The women's dress 
of this period is familiar from the bevy of beauties associated 
with it at Hampton Court in neglige attire. The bodices 
alone are stiff, but they expose rather than cover the bust 
and neck ; the curled locks fall on the shoulders, and are 
simply confined by a row of pearls round the head ; the arms 
are bare from the elbow ; a train and distinct front breadth 
form the skirt, and there is a plethora of lace. More homely 
women wore plain skirts, an upper one of a contrasting tone ; 
pointed bodices, high to the throat, with a plain turn-down 
collar from the throat : the full sleeves to elbow are caught up 
with jewels at the bend of the arm ; the shoes high on the 
instep, and very high in the heel, with roses or buckles. The 
following is a good dress : — Blue and gold brocade, with 
flounces of gold embroidery and point d'Alengon lace, and 
train of old gold satin ; puffed petticoat looped at the side with 
bows, pearls, and lace ; bodice low with sleeves fastened in to 
elbow with diamond ornaments ; diamond tiara, and orna- 
ments. The skirt made plain and long, the bodices low, with 
lace turning downwards from shoulders. Hair in ringlets, with 
bandeau of pearls. 

CHARLES VI. OF FRANCE (1380-1422). Rich 


white satin skirt ; train of cloth of gold bordered with sable, 
and studded with diamonds. Veil of Indian muslin ; horned 
head-dress of gold and white satin with jewels. 

CHARLES VII. 9F FRANCE (1422-1461). 
trimmed with ermine and black velvet, over old gold satin 
petticoat ; belt at waist, revers on bodice, long tight sleeves ; 
conical head-dress of black velvet, trimmed with tulle, old 
point lace. Silk girdle. Ornaments, pearls and diamonds. 

CHARLES IX. TIME. White satin quilted front 
trimmed with gold and pearls, black velvet train and bodice. 
{See Medicis Period and Francis II.) 

CHARLOTTE CORDAY (1768-1793). Short, scanty 
skirt of white muslin or grey cashmere ; a gathered flounce 
round. A muslin fichu over the short-waisted bodice, crossing 
in front and tied at back ; long, tight sleeves. Large muslin cap, 
which goes by her name, full crown, lace round, plain in front, 
much gathered at back ; ribbon about crown, bow on right side 
tricolour cockade on left. {See Plate III., Fig. 10.) Lamartine 
thus describes it : "A Normandy cap, the lace of which flapped 
on her cheeks, a large green silk ribbon pressed the cap round 
her brow. Her hair escaped from it on to the nape of her 
neck, and some curls floated down. On her early arrival in 
Paris she had a high conical hat. As a girl she wore dark 
cloth robes ; a grey felt hat turned up at the edge and trimmed 
with ribbon." 

III.). Skirt of white satin, the front embroidered in gold; 
train and bodice of pink flowered satin, trimmed with lace ; 
long, narrow-pointed, low bodice ; powdered hair ; pearls, 
feathers, and diamonds. 

CHASSERESSE (LOUIS XIV.). Short satin skirt 
of chamois colour ; blue velvet bodice and tunic caught up 
with gold cord. High untanned leather boots, a horn slung at 
the side, a peaked cap like a naval officer's ; powdered hair. 

CHERRY GIRL. Cerise satin, with white tunic, 
caught up with cherries ; cherries in the hair, round the neck 
and arms, and round top of gold boots. Quilted red satin 
skirt, white muslin tunic, bodice, and pufled sleeves; broad red 





sash all trimmed with ripe cherries, and plenty of leaves. 
Mob cap suitable for child ; or a tied down hat with wreath 
of fruit, and a basketful under arm. 

CHERRY RIPE. Dress of white tulle, muslin, or grey 
silk, trimmed all over with cherries, a coat of red satin or a 
plastron of cherries in front of square bodice ; earrings and 
necklace of pendant cherries. Basket of cherries carried in 
hand. Or, red satin short skirt, with tunic of drab satin or 
Indian muslin, bordered with leaves and cherries, sleeves of 
cherries and leaves ; low, square satin bodice ; wreath to match ; 
basket of fruit in hand ; fan bordered with cherry-leaves ; 
cherry-coloured stockings ; black shoes. 

CHESS. Front breadth, squares of black and white silk, 
black band at edge of skirt, row of red ribbon above. Black 
silk train piped with red, caught up with check ribbon, and 
bordered with checks. Sleeves of black and white squares to 
wrist, black cuffs piped with red. V-shaped black bodice, 
with ruff. Coronet of chessmen, larger pieces in front, the 
same for ornaments, all made of wood. 

CHESS, LIVING. The several pieces in chess are 
sometimes thus represented: — Pawns, young ladies in red 
and blue dresses d V Amazon; skirts and bodices trimmed 
with gold and silver fringe; handsome gold and silver 
wrought helmets, with plumes, carrying spears and shields. 
Knights in complete armour, one side gold, one silver, 
carrying swords. Bishops in archiepiscopal robes, with 
mitres and crosiers. Rooks in gorgeous mediaeval dresses, 
The Castles wear towers on their heads. Kings and 
Queens in royal robes of satin velvet and ermine, with crowns, 
diamonds, sceptres, &c. Heralds in tabards. Chess-board 
blue and white, 32 feet square. 

Charlie). White silk or muslin skirt trimmed with tartan ; 
black velvet bodice with tartan scarf; gold aigrette, with badge 
of gold birch-leaves ; gold ornaments. 


Plain white woollen robe, fastened with fibulae, set in a small 
square-cut band at the throat, and gathered at waist with girdle, 
which like the neck-band is worked with crosses in gold thread, 
also hem of skirt and long hanging sleeves ; mantle over it, 


embroidered also in cross pattern; abbess' staff, a book in 
hand ; long veil of black muslin. 

CHINA. A fashionable character carried out in several 
ways. For Dresden China {see D). White China {see W). 
Modern China. Blue and white circular head-dress 
simulating a china plate ; a low square white bodice trimmed 
with blue ; sleeves nearly to wrist ; a blue scarf about the 
hips, and tunic of silver lattice-work and white satin 
with gold tassels and fringe ; short blue satin skirt ; a 
wand surmounted by a dove carried in the hand. Blue 
China. Underskirt and Swiss bodice of dark blue satin 
of the Worcester tone, trimmed with gold braid, Watteau 
tunic, under bodice of dark blue and white cretonne. White 
China. Any opaque, white material, Watteau bodice, looped- 
up skirt of white broche or sateen, trimmed with box plaitings 
and bows of white ribbon, roses, and thick lace, bodice cut 
square, elbow sleeves, ruffles ; under-skirt of quilted sateen ; 
high-heeled shoes, white mittens, a frill of white lace round 
the throat, white muslin apron, trimmed with lace ; hair pow- 
dered, white roses, large white fan. Etruscan China. 
Egyptian red, black and gold. The hat, in form like a coronet, 
is black, with a red and gold embroidered design ; the square- 
cut low bodice is black, with red stomacher trimmed with 
gold ; white, short sleeves ; red, short skirt ; black tunic, bor- 
dered with red and trimmed with gold ; Etruscan tazza and 
vases in the hand. Faience de Longwy might be carried 
out in a cretonne with green mousse ground, black lines and 
white flowers. A coronet of the same white flowers forms the 
head-dress ; the bodice has a rounded yoke-piece bordered 
with gold, a white muslin full bodice showing between it and 
the corselet ; bodice and tunic cut in one, and bordered with 
gold fringe ; plain short skirt ; a hand-screen of the same 
colouring carried in the hand. Vallauris Ware. A square 
low bodice and tunic in one, of dark green, outlined in gold, 
over white satin skirt ; a plastron of white flowers down the 
front, white sleeves, and a coronet head-dress like a green plate 
edged with gold. Wedgwood has a sort of cottage hat 
of blue and white with the Greek key bordering; a white 
under-bodice low and heart-shaped ; a blue cuirass bodice 
over, with the same key pattern on white ; tunic of blue and 
white bordered with a band of blue, and blue tassels ; blue 
short skirt, a blue and white caladium leaf carried in the 


hand. Japanese. Square cuirass bodice and tunic of blue 
and white in Japanese designs. A head-dress of the same, 
and bracelets with blue plaques. For Sfevres the hair is 
powdered ; a coquettish hat on one side of the head, with a 
bouquet of roses ; low square cuirass and tunic, white with 
gold fleurs-de-lis and bands of pink satin for trimming ; pink 
satin under-skirt ; bunches of roses on the shoulder ; a fleur- 
de-lis wand. 

CHINESE COSTUMES should be dresses brought 
from the country. The lady wears a narrow skirt and loose 
over-dress with large hanging sleeves of two-coloured satins, 
embroidered in gold and coloured silks ; silk trousers, and 
ankle-bangles ; hair d la Chinoise, with flowers and silver pins ; 
fan in hand ; Chinese shoes. Petticoat, yellow satin, richly 
embroidered ; long tunic of chocolate coloured satin, also em- 
broidered ; gold band at waist, hair a la Chinoise, with pins 
and coloured roses. Or, overskirt of rich brocade, bordered like 
pagoda sleeve with bands worked in coloured silks. Sash 
tied at back ; narrow under-skirt of green and white brocade. 

CHOCOLATE CREAM. Evening dress, arranged with 
a skirt of chocolate colour and a tunic and bodice of the 
cream colour. 

CHOCOLATIERE, LA {Fro?n Leotard's Picture in the 
Dresden Gallery). Short dark-grey skirt ; white apron with bib, 
reaching to the hem of skirt; yellowish-brown velvet jacket 
with loose all-round basque ; a striped yellow and black three- 
cornered fichu crossed in front ; sleeves to elbow, turned 
back over white under ones confined in a band ; close-fitting 
lace cap, lined with pink, having a lace puffing and frill at 
edge j tray of chocolates in hand ; black high-heeled shoes. 

CHRISTMAS. {See Winter.) 

CHRISTMAS CARD. Short striped skirt of black 
and gold, on the black a row of Christmas Cards printed 
horizontally, edged with gold braid, three on each, graduated, 
the largest at the bottom. At the edge of skirt are satin 
flounces, over which fall gold tinsel and fringe. Red satin 
paniers and drapery, covered with swansdown pompons; 
scarlet satin cuirass bodice laced at the back, bordered at the 
neck with swansdown, festoons of holly-berries on the arm, 
below the shoulder. Cordon of Christmas roses across the 


bodice, white ribbon epaulettes, holly wreath, red aigrette, 
stockings and shoes. A Christmas card in centre of white 
swansdown fan. 

CHRISTMAS CRACKER. Grey tulle dress covered 
with various coloured crackers ; necklace of bonbons ; hair 
powdered ; an aigrette of crackers. 

CHRISTMAS NUMBER. Skirt made of newspapers; 
in box-plaited flounces, bordered with stripes, in which the 
titles of various newspapers are inscribed, each stripe edged 
with a narrow velvet ribbon. Apron formed of Christmas 
pictures trimmed with pink paper; black shoes, stockings, 
and mittens, rosettes, with gold and steel pen-nibs ; bracelets 
of the same ; scarlet cap with quills for aigrette. 

CHRISTMAS TREE. Dress of green net covered 
with toys, flags, crackers. A tiny fairy on the top. 

CIGALE. Short red skirt, with bars and notes of music 
in black and green satin, upper tunic bordered gold fringe ; 
Zouave jacket ; purple silk vest beneath ; coloured scarf across 
bodice, tied under left arm. High riding boots, black silk 
stockings ; round cap of red silk with gold band ; a small 
barrel slung on one shoulder. 

CIGARETTE. Purple silk Zouave jacket, white vest 
beneath, short scarlet skirt ; black silk stockings ; high riding 
boots with spurs, and a barrel slung over one shoulder, tiny 
pistols strapped in the leather waist-belt. 

CINDERELLA. A short cotton dress and tunic, like 
Lady Adelina Cocks (now Marchioness of Tavistock) wore 
at the Marlborough House Ball, with long linen bibbed 
apron, muslin fichu and cap, a broom in hand, and a glass 
shoe at side. Another rendering: — Black and white striped 
short skirt ; fish-wife tunic of ash-coloured cashmere ; high 
cambric bodice, V-shape; short sleeves ; corsage of red 
velvet, with black velvet bretelles, crossing in front and 
attached to tunic ; black and white striped stockings ; black 
shoes, silver buckles ; short broom and bellows. Cinder- 
ella at the ball as follows : Train of blue silk ; petticoat 
pink; square bodice; all trimmed with silver lace and roses ; 
wreath on head ; the slipper at side of silver perforated card- 
board, or satin covered with talc cloth. Dress of 17 th century 




also correct. Or long white satin dress worked in pearls ; train 
from shoulder ; high standing collar, wired. Kate Vaughan 
dressed the character as follows -.—Short white satin petticoat 
embroidered in gold, and low bodice ; short sleeves, train 
from the shoulders, fastened on one side only, of white 
brocaded silk lined with yellow and edged with gold lace. 
The whole costume was ornamented with birds of Paradise. 
Second dress, white satin, elaborately embroidered in silver ; 
the train white, lined with pale blue satin or silk, and large 
clusters of white ostrich feathers ; the hair curled over the 
forehead, with bandeau of glittering stones ; stockings embroi- 
dered with silver. For the following, see Plate III. Figure ii. — 
Short plaited skirt ; tunic and bodice in one ; muslin fichu, 
loosely knotted ; small round velvet or silk cap ; bellows at 
side ; broom in hand. 

CIRCASSIAN. Costume of white satin embroidered with 
silver, trimmed ermine, consisting of skirt, long bodice, and 
under-bodice ; the face, all but the eyes, veiled in white 
muslin ; white satin Turkish trousers \ scarlet velvet Greek 
cap, with gold tassels ; gauze veil \ hair in plaits, entwined 
with pearls. Gold coins admissible ; dagger and pistol. 

CIRCASSIAN SLAVE. White llama dress, loose and 
flowing, bordered with rows of gold braid and fringe ; scarf and 
waist-band embroidered in gold ; necklace of coins ; wrists 
and ankles united by chains beneath full Turkish trousers ^ 
small cap with gold band and coins. 

CLAIRE DE LUNE. {See Moonlight.) 
CLAIRETTE. {See Angot.) 

CLARICE D'AUBIGNY, 1467. As worn by Lady 
Elizabeth Villiers at the Buckingham Palace Ball. Short skirt 
of ermine ; tunic and low bodice of blue velvet bordered with 
silver ; ermine braces ; stomacher of darker velvet wrought in 
silver ; conical Cauchoise head-dress, with tulle veil. 

CLASSIC. For style, see Cleopatra, Druidrss, An- 
cient Greek, &c., and large Coloured Illustration III. 
This simple rendering of a classic gown is suited to a 
young girl of slender figure, and is not rigidly correct as 
the costume of ancient days. It can be made in soft 
cashmere, muslin, nun's veiling, crepe, crepe de Chine^ or 



Liberty silk, worked in the Greek-key pattern with narrow 
Russian gold braid. 

CLAUDE, QUEEN, French, 15 15 {Wife of Francis I.) 
As worn by Princess Augusta of Cambridge, at Buckingham 
Palace Ball. Skirt of silver tissue, with deep border of 
ermine, upper skirt of light blue velvet embroidered with 
fleurs-de-lis in silver, one side cut up and outlined with 
ermine ; low full bodice, outlined with diamonds, jewelled 
girdle, tight sleeves of silver tissue, with a row of pearl buttons 
on outside of arm. Crown of turquoise and brilliants ; neck- 
lace to match. Veil of silver tissue. 

CLEOPATRA. White satin or cashmere costume em- 
broidered in gold. Plain flowing skirt ; bodice low and loose, 
in classic style ; asp on front of bodice ; wing-like sleeves ; 
jewelled girdle half hidden by fulness. Red toga fastened on 
left shoulder with jewels, bordered with gold fringe. Serpent 
bracelets round upper arm and wrist, united by chains. Hair 
hanging down ; jewelled diadem. 

CLIVE, KITTY. Short blue dress with square bodice, 
elbow sleeves, white stomacher, and white apron. White sun 
bonnet, standing up well above the face. 

CLOCHES DE CORNEVILLE. (6'^<? Serpolette 
and Germaine.) 

CLOUD. Evening dress of two shades of grey tulle and 
silver. Low full bodice trimmed with silver, belt at waist ; 
silver star coronet ; silver veil. 

silver cloth, interblended with blue tulle and caught up with 
silver ; ornaments the same. 

CLOWN (Female). Dress of white cashmere, made with 
short skirt, loose low-banded bodice, short sleeves, all orna- 
mented with grotesque figures in dark red velvet. White 
shoes and stockings, with red clocks. Conical white cap with 
red velvet band. 

CLUBS. QUEEN OF. {See Cards.) 

COCKATOO. Short dress of white and yellow satin, or 
tulle ; wings at the side of skirt, made of white feathers ; 


powdered hair, surmounted by a cap in the form of a 
cockatoo's head. 

COCK ROBIN. Short brown pleated skirt ; jacket with 
pointed basque at the back, Uke tail of the bird, made in 
feathers and plush ; the front of bodice formed of red feathers ; 
high collar, red necktie ; head-dress, bird's head with beak. 
Cock and Hen is a good pair of costumes for a married 
couple. The cock wears a bright yellow coat, a jabot of white 
feathers, knee breeches of fawn brown feathers, silk stock- 
ings, black shoes, field-marshal's hat, with cock's crest in 
golden feathers. {See Golden Hen.) 

COINS. White satin dress, with coins of all sizes arranged 
round the skirt, tunic, and low bodice ; veil of tulle fringed 
with coins ; gold net on head, bordered with coins ; orna- 
ments, coins. {See also Money and Gold.) 

COLETTE.— (^"^^ Village Girl.) 

COLINETTE (French peasant). Short petticoat of 
red and black stripes ; over-skirt of gold cashmere lined with 
red, arranged to show the lining; black velvet bodice; 
white kerchief, apron, and French cap ; black stockings, gold 
and red clocks : black shoes and buckles ; gold ornaments of 
the Normandy type ; hair in plaits. 

COLLEEN BAWN. Dark blue stockings, high-heeled 
leather shoes. Short full petticoat of blue serge. Calico 
bodice and tunic pinned back kirtle fashion, of blue and white 
stripes, showing white under-bodice ; sleeves tight to elbow. 
Sometimes the bodice is also blue serge laced with red. 
Black velvet and cross round neck ; hair quite smooth, 
twisted in coil at back. A red handkerchief tied under chin 
maybe worn. Red cloak with hood. {See Plate IIL, Fig. 12.) 

COLORADO BEETLE. Dress of green tulle trimmed 
with irridiscent beads, the design beetles, which appear on 
the head-dress, shoulders, and looping up the skirt. 

COLUMBIA. Ruby velvet cap with aigrette and silver 
stars ; low bodice of ruby velvet with blue satin stomacher, 
embroidered in silver ; short sleeves ; skirt of striped blue and 
ruby satin ; tunic of blue satin with silver stars and fringe. 

COLUMBINE. White tulle or satin dress, made with 
low bodice, trimming of roses ; wand headed by roses. Some- 


times made in white satin, blue satin paniers and bodice ; 
Tricorn hat with blue pompons over powdered hair. A pretty 
French rendering is a short petticoat and bodice of light 
blue satin, with spangled bertha, the skirt draped with tulle 
caught down with a scroll of the several characters in pan- 
tomime ; flowers and ribbon floating from blue felt hat worn 
over powdered hair. In "Surprises de 1' Amour," skirts of tulle, 
short, alternately blue, pink, and brown, in Vandykes, with 
gold braid tassels ; blue satin low bodice ; large bouquet of 
roses on left side ; small grey felt hat, looped up with roses. 

COMET. Long blue satin skirt bordered with stars ; 
yellow satin tablier trimmed with stars ; low blue silk cuirass 
bodice shot with amber, bordered with stars ; the front of skirt 
is of the lightest shade of gold, trimmed with gold fringe ; 
hair flowing ; star ornaments ; star of electric light in hair ; 
gold and red is a good combination. 

COMING THRO' THE RYE. Poppy-coloured short 
petticoat, dark green bodice and laveuse tunic embroidered 
with rye and grass sewn inside, as if half dropping out ; white 
chemisette, showing sleeves rolled up to elbow ; poppy-coloured 
kerchief; straw hat trimmed with rye; poppies and cornflowers 
slung on arm ; wreath of same on one side of head. Red 
stockings, black shoes with red bows; sickle at waist. Or 
another rendering : maize cashmere made with full, short, 
plain skirt, gathered all round waist ; broad band to bodice, 
cut as a low square back and front ; tight short sleeves to 
elbow, turned up with muslin ; muslin fichu fastening with 
poppies and corn ; muslin scarf carried round hips and tied 
with large bow, poppies and corn at edge ; scarf caught up 
with sickles ; large hat with grain and poppies hanging down 
the back; wreath of poppies and grain in hand; gauntlet 
gloves ; fan of grain and poppies. Or, Indian muslin dress ; 
crimson bodice ; wreath of cornflowers ; basket of wild 
flowers. Sometimes dressed as a Scotch girl. 

CONNAUGHT PEASANT. Dressed like Colleen 
Bawn, with red handkerchief on head, sickle in hand. {See 
Colleen Bawn.) 

CONSTANCE NEVILLE {S/ie Stoops to Conquer). 
White satin petticoat, train and bodice of blue and silver ; 
slashed sleeves ; powdered hair. 


CONTADINA. {See Itall\n.) 

COOK. Short white skirt and apron, with white cook's 
cap; white shoes and stockings; blue ribbon with bills of fare 
printed thereon ; ornaments, small silver saucepans. 

COQUETTE. Blue satin train, trimmed with lace and 
roses, turned back with rose satin ; petticoat of white satin, 
trimmed with roses and pearls ; blue satin bodice, low and 
pointed, slashed with pink; elbow sleeves and ruffles; powdered 
hair, and small pink rose wreath and aigrette on one side ; 
hair also looped with pearls. 

CORDELIA {King Lear). Red or white over-dress and 
low square bodice bordered with jewelled band ; under-skirt 
of white cashmere embroidered with dragons; train from 
shoulder, with embroidered oak-leaves and pendent sleeves ; 
hair floating on shoulder ; gold fillet and sandalled shoes. 

COTILLON. Ordinary tulle ball-dress covered all over 
with many-coloured ribbon streamers, rosettes, bells, flowers, 
and the gifts of the cotillon ; hair flowing, a pointed cap worn 
on one side, round Japanese cap ; fan ; a basket filled with 
bouquets ; tambourine slung on arm. 

COTTON TRADE {See Lace Trade). The skirt 
should be made of white cotton ; the sash round hips edged 
with pieces of tape of various widths, alternating with reels of 
cotton, the words '' Cotton Trade " in front ; bodice trimmed 
to match ; ornaments, reels of cotton. 

COULEUR DE ROSE. Powdered hair; rose-coloured 
dress with pointed bodice and elbow sleeves ; sacque and 
panier looped over pink gauze petticoat; pink mittens, stock- 
ings, and shoes ; pink mob cap ; pair of pink pince-nez ; pink 
feather fan. {See R.) 

CRACKER. {See Christmas.) 

CRACOVIENNE. Short blue silk skirt, with wide band 
of silver fur round the edge ; tight-fitting jacket of blue satin, 
with long hanging sleeves lined with rose colour and trimmed 
with ermine and brandenbergs ; a puffing of white silk passing 
through the open front of the jacket, fastened tightly round 
the throat with a band of the same fur ; small PoHsh square 
cap made of blue satin, bordered with fur; large diamond 
aigrette and feather wing on one side ; hair powdered and 


dressed high in front with/ plaits falHng to the waist at the back ; 
long bronze boots, with gilt heels and fur tops. {See Polish.) 

CRESSIDA {Troilus and Cressida). Flowing classic 
dress of soft white wool ; belt at waist ; low under-bodice 
visible above bodice ; helmet-like cap. 

CROW. Black skirt and feather-bodice and wings; the 
bird's head as a cap. 

CUP. (6'*?^ Gamma.) 

_ CYPRUS, QUEEN OF. Rich violet silk velvet Vene- 
tian costume trimmed with gold and pearls ; under-dress of 
mauve satin trimmed to match ; pearl and gold girdle, fan, 
head-dress. {See Venetian.) 

DAFFODIL. Dress of light green brocade, draped with 
two shades of green tulle, caught down with wreaths of 
daffodils ; head-dress of the same ; a wand with a bunch of 
daffodils and bells on the top. 

DAFFY-DOWN DILLY, "who came up to town, in a 
yellow petticoat and a green grown." The yellow petticoat satin, 
made full and long ; the gown flowered, looped up on one 
side ; the bodice of the same, opening V-shape, and bordered 
all round with ermine ; tight sleeves with pouf at elbow ; high 
horned head-dress of Edward III. time. 

DAIRY MAID. Quilted skirt of a bright colour; laveuse 
tunic of chintz ; square-cut bodice of the same chintz, with 
stomacher to match the petticoat, laced across ; muslin fichu, 
cap and apron. 

DAISY, DEW^ ON. White spangled tulle dress and 
frosted veil, with bunches of pink-tipped daisies tied with 
satin ribbon scattered all over the dress. 

DAISY, FIELD. White silk evening gown, trimmed with 
fringes of daisies, grass, and leaves; back of skirt tulle, panels 
of painted daisies ; dark green silk bodice, bordered at neck 
and waist with the flowers and leaves ; coronet of daisies. 

DAISY QUEEN, sometimes called Daisy Chain. 
Fashionable white tulle evening dress, the top of bodice and 
edge of tunic having a fringe of pendent white, red-tipped 
daisies, headed by leaves ; crown of daisies, and tulle veil 
scattered with daisies ; or a sort of Tarn O'Shanter cap made 
with loops like daisy petals, green tassel in the centre ; wand 
with bunch of daisies carried in hand. 


DALMATIAN. Long white robe, embroidered apron ; 
loose velvet bodice resplendent in gold embroidery, with 
many beads round throat ; full long white sleeves ; distaff in 
hand , white cloth about the head, the falling ends edged with 
gold ; girdle about waist. The peasants wear a short red cloth 
pelisse fastened at waist with girdle. The hair bound round 
the head in two plaits, interwoven with red braid, covered 
with a curious helmet head-dress. Or, short full skirt of yellow 
llama ; many coloured apron ; wide belt of lace and llama in 
folds round waist ; low red satin bodice with short sleeves 
and muslin ruffles ; low white chemisette ; straw hat with red 
ribbons placed on left side ; hair in two long plaits. 

DAME DURDEN. Hair powdered, white muslin cap; 
flowered dress, and bodice of chintz, white muslin fichu. 

of primrose tulle, with the words " Peace with Honour," in 
violets, and the monogram of the League on one side of the 
skirt ; the badge of the League worn on the bodice ; and as 
many primroses as possible scattered about the dress; primrose- 
coloured gloves and shoes, and fan painted or embroidered 
with primroses. 

DAME TROT. {See Hubbard, Mother.) 

DANCING GIRL. Three skirts: first, pale blue satin 
with wide border of gold, the second cerise satin, the third soft 
cream silk, with medallions and gold fringe ; sash tied loosely ; 
bodice of cream silk, fastened round throat with gold band ; 
gold waistband and black velvet Zouave jacket embroidered 
in gold and fringed with sequins ; gold arrow in hair ; gay- 
coloured silk handkerchief twisted round head, with sequins ; 
coral and gold ornaments ; fan formed of cards, hanging as 
chatelaine ; tambourine with gay ribbons. 

stockings embroidered down the centre of foot ; short white 
satin skirt, two gold-coloured satin flounces cut in Vandykes ; 
white satin low bodice, tight sleeve, a band of red embroidery 
inside the arm ; band at the waist, red epaulettes ; red band 
round bodice ; gold kerchief tucked inside bodice ; gold chain 
round neck ; red ribbons and rose in hair. 

DANISH PEASANT. Striped skirt touching the 
ground ; tight sleeves ; high jacket coming only to waist, em- 
broidered down the front ; large apron almost covering the 


dress, with embroidery at each side ; a coloured handkerchief 
tied cornerwise on head. 

D'ARBLAY, MADAME. (See A, and Burney.) 

DARBY (DARBY AND JOAN). Joan, print dress, 
white apron ; red shawl, crossed in front, just large enough to 
come to the waist ; a muslin frilled cap, white hair, spectacles 
and stick. Darby in fustian suit, such as an old countryman 
would wear, or long smock. 

DAUGHTER OF REGIMENT. (See Vivandiere.) 

DAUPHINE {Joseph Balsamo). Light grey brocaded 
silk with gold- coloured flowers; the back long, the front 
has flounces of the brocade drawn up at the sides with tassels 
of blue, gold, and pearls. At the Versailles fete, she wears 
cloth of silver, brocaded with white satin, roses at the side, em- 
broidered with mother-of-pearl ; bodice low and pointed, 
covered with gold and diamonds, trimmed w^ith old English 
lace ; head-dress, white feathers and diamond aigrette. 

DAW, MARJORY. Pretty dress of pink satin, plain 
skirt, square bodice, bordered with gold ; tight sleeves, with 
puff at the top ; hair floating. 

DAWN. Dress of pale grey tulle over silk or satin, with 
a little pale pink introduced ; scarves of grey tulle, with silver 
stars fastened at regular distances, draped across the skirt, 
forming the tunic, looped at the back with pale pink, narrow 
satin ribbon, and silver ; low square bodice with deep 
basque of grey satin ; short sleeves ; a diadem of stars, with 
a half crescent moon in front, and veil of grey tulle fas- 
tened to the shoulders, and again to the skirt at the back ; 
ornaments, silver stars ; grey shoes, and fan of pale pink and 
grey, or grey and silver. Sometimes made the same in dark 
blue tulle. {See Aurora.) 

DAY. A white tulle veil and evening dress, with clouds 
of rose-coloured tulle draped over it, rays in silver cloth 
radiating from the waist. The hair powdered with gold, a 
gold sun above the forehead. Butterflies on the shoulders. 

DAYDREAM. White silk evening gown with crimson 
striped tablier and train. " Daydream " embroidered on the 



DECEMBER. {See Winter.) 

DESDEMONA. White satin skirt, with over-dress and 
train of silver tissue ; silver cloth stomacher worked in pearls ; 
satin sleeves puffed to wrist, pendent gauze sleeves from arm- 
hole ; pearl girdle with tassels ; silver aumoniere and round 
feather fan at side ; pearl fillet on head, with silver coronet. 
Also pointed bodice, flowing skirt, sleeves puffed at the 
shoulders and trimmed with pearls ; closely-dressed hair with 
pearls entwined ; the soft dove-coloured velvet robe showing 
an under-skirt of blue. 

DEVONSHIRE, DUCHESS OF. (5^^ Gainsborough.) 

DEW. White tulle evening dress and veil studded with 
crystal drops ; trimmings of green grass. Hair hanging loose, 
sprinkled with frosting-powder ; wreath of grasses. 

DIABLESSE. Red dress, with red cap and wings; 
carrying horned trident. Or, pale grey skirt with appliques of 
animals in red velvet; black gold-spangled scarf; grey bodice 
with black velvet bats appliqued on to front ; red velvet 
hat with gold aigrette and red feather. 

DIABLOTINE. Short red satin skirt, bordered with 
gold ; low pointed black bodice cut in Vandykes, outlined with 
yellow, with upright red satin collar, fastened to short yellow- 
satin cloak, piped with scarlet and recalling bat's wings. Or, 
dark blue net covered with red velvet tridents ; forks of 
lightning wired round neck and sleeves ; scarf drapery of black 
satin with firefly wings ; silver pitchfork, and horns in hair ; 
short sleeves, long streamers of red satin from the side, falling 
on skirt and draped at back, with gold fringe, coins, and 
sequins ; black velvet cap with two high horn-like feathers and 
scarlet lace ; gold ornaments. Bracelets as well as armlets 
worn. For a child an ordinary white and red dress, with black 
gloves and sash and stockings, and gold horned headdress ; 
forked wand ; high-heeled boots. 

DIAMANTS, PRINCESS DE. Short white tulle 
dress, pulled through silver braid trellis-work closely studded 
with diamonds ; round the hem a full frill of white lace 
trimmed with silver, diamonds and fringe ; silver brocade 
bodice studded with diamonds and trimmed over the hips with 
silver fringe and diamond stars ; hair curled and sprinkled 
with diamonds ; large white feather fan. 



DIANA. Green velvet hunting-jacket, with gold zone and 
waistcoat trimmed with gold, or a low bodice with basques 
laced in front and bordered with leopard-skin ; white satin 
tunic over short crimson skirt with stars and crescents, looped 
up with lions' heads ; mantle of leopard's-skin, lion's head 
on left side. Green boots and buskins laced with crimson. 
Silver quiver with darts ; Grecian bow and gold arrows ; 
bracelets and necklet of silver crescents and beads ; head- 
dress, a silver crescent ; mirror hung at waist. A classical 
rendering would be as follows : — White cashmere skirt edged 
with green velvet and silver, caught up on one side ; loose 
low bodice, sleeves to elbow fastened outside the arm with 
silver buttons ; pointed tunic, silver tassels at points ; short 
green cashmere mantle across left shoulder, fastened under 
left arm ; silver girdle, bow, quiver, and arrows ; hair turned 
off the face in a coil at the back ; silver crescent on forehead ; 
silver bangles. {See Plate IV., Fig. 14.) 

DINORAH. Hair in two long plaits; light blue skirt, 
with bands of black velvet ; lace-edged apron ; white che- 
misette, with long sleeves to wrist ; blue square corselet bodice, 
laced and trimmed with silver and black velvet. 

a favourite style of dress at fancy balls, and admits of many 
good combinations of colour. After the great Revolution 
towards the close of the last century, women launched into 
all kinds of eccentricities. Wonderful head-dresses were 
originated. The bonnets stood up boldly from the face, like 
a spoon. There was the bonnet a la folk, with a tricoloured 
butterfly bow at the top; and the casque hat, round without 
brim, worn over a Charlotte Corday cap. The hair beneath 
was inflated with steam. The following are dresses in the 
Directoire style :— Skirt of striped silk with one deep flounce; 
green pelisse scalloped at the edge, double-breasted, having 
pink cuffs and revers, and a double row of buttons to waist ; 
ruffles and large jabot of crepe lisse and lace ; large hat and 
feather ; riding whip in hand ; eyeglass. — White satin dress, 
with paniers formed of loops of ribbon, with two pink satin 
belts, fastened with enamel buckle ; plaited lawn fichu ; long 
Suede mittens ; white satin train mounted in box-plaits, lined 
with pink satin. — Another : Long skirt with very short-waisted 




15.^J)AeocLetv Sfe/i/KO/. 



bodice, the girdle coming from beneath low bodice ; short 
sleeves ; long gloves ; scant, round, brimless high hat, with 
flowers at the top of crown. — Another : White satin skirt trim- 
med with rows of blue satin; tunic and bodice of striped blue 
satin ; sash of buttercup satin at the waist ; wide lace collar 
and shoulder cape ; Leghorn hat with cornflowers. 

DI VERNON. Black or green habit of velvet, cloth, or 
satin ; jacket with postilion basque, double-breasted ; mousque- 
taire cuffs trimmed with a colour, such as red satin on black 
velvet, sometimes with gold braid and brandenbergs. The 
skirt is looped up on one side over a plain or quilted satin 
skirt. Or, a skirt of silver cloth, the dress trimmed with silver ; 
lace jabot and ruffles ; diamond stars ; broad-brimmed cavalier 
hat, with plume and Stuart rose ; hunting-whip and horn. (See 
Plate IV., Fig. 13.) 

DOGTRESS. Robe of crimson satin with white ruffles 
at the neck, long hanging sleeves, and a black academic hat 
turned up with crimsom. {See Academical Dress.) 

DOLL. As faithful a copy as possible of a Dutch doll ; 
the hair drawn to a bow at the top of the head ; red shoes and 
mittens ; cotton or muslin gown made with full plain skirt 
and low loose bodice, short sleeves, large sash. 

DOLL PINCUSHION. Skirt of muslin and lace, plain 
plastron down front, with steel beads mounted on wire put on 
to simulate pins, white on one side black the other ; bodice 
edged with same ; on the right side a heart-shaped pincushion ; 
head-dress, a crown made of lace and pins. 

DOLL SELLER. Short dress and square bodice with 
elbow sleeves, made of blue satin with lace ruffles. The skirt 
is flounced round the hem, and caught up in Vandykes with 
dolls hung round in the festoons, and fans of lace intermingled 
with the flounces ; upstanding lace cap with pink ribbon, and 
an aigrette of dolls ; pink shoes ; a doll carried in hand. 

DOLLY. Is often represented as a milkmaid, with yoke 
and pails ; large mop cap with red silk scarf tied under 
chin ; green shoes and stockings, and figured cotton short skirt; 
plain tunic ; green fichu tied over low bodice ; short sleeves, 
black mittens. 

DOLLY MAYFLOWER. Black satin petticoat; tunic 
and low square bodice of flowered silk or cretonne, elbow 


sleeves ; muslin fichu and mob cap ; pocket outside dress ; 
high-heeled shoes with buckles ; black silk stockings. 

DOLLY VARDEN {Baniaby Rudge). Short quilted 
skirt ; bodice and bunched-up tunic of flowered chintz, the 
bodice low and laced across ; a muslin kerchief inside ; sleeves 
to elbow with frill ; hair not powdered ; straw hat with cherry- 
coloured ribbons, or muslin cap ; high-heeled shoes and 
bows ; coloured stockings ; mittens. Pretty chintz should be 

DO MI NO J A. Worn at masque balls and sometimes as 
fancy dress. It is made in satin, silk, and brocade, or of 
plain cotton in the Princess shape, having often a Watteau 
plait with cape and slender-pointed hood and wide sleeves. It 
should be large and long enough to slip over the dress easily, 
and hide it completely. The black are usually trimmed with 
a colour, such as a thick ruching down the front and round 
the bell-shaped sleeves, and are often piped with a colour and 
lined with the same. The lighter tones sometimes edged with 

DOMINOES. Sacque of black satin, the square bodice 
trimmed with cardboard dominoes, the skirt draped with larger 
ones, over a black and white petticoat ; hair powdered, toque 
studded with dominoes, black feathers on one side, white 
aigrette on the other ; the fan bearing the wearer's name or 
monogram in dominoes ; the same painted on gloves ; shoes 
trimmed with them to correspond ; enamel dominoes for 
necklace and earrings; a domino embroidered on one 
corner of the handkerchief. 

DOMINOES, BOX OF. Short black satin skirt, 
edged with large white satin ruche, lined with black, and 
studded with pompons of black silk ; a plastron of white 
satin in front from waist to hem, with rounds of black velvet 
appliqued to represent double 6 ; plastron crossed with double 
row of gold braid ; paniers of black satin edged with black 
pompons over kiltings of white satin, and caught up with 
double 5 dominoes intermixed with ostrich feathers. The 
dominoes made like the plastron, smaller, and lined with card- 
board ; low black satin bodice, the basque formed of 
dominoes, top trimmed with lace and gold cord; shoulder 
knots of ribbon and feathers ; powdered hair ; diamonds and 



(• .V 


black pompons ; long white gloves ; fan in shape of dominoes ; 
black shoes and stockings. 

DOMINOES, VENETIAN. Are made in handsome 
brocade, with long sleeves and cape. 

DORIGEN {^Chaucer). Sideless gown of 14th century, 
made of such thick stuff as amber plush, bordered with grebe ; 
beneath cote hardie of rose-coloured silk richly embroidered ; 
sleeves also embroidered ; small coronet on head ; long white 
tippet, edged with gold ; veil of silver gauze. 

DOROTHY DRUCE. Black or grey Puritan dress; 
white bibbed apron ; kerchief and Puritan cap. {See Puritan.) 

DOVE. Grey tulle skirt ; bodice made of feathers ; cap like 
the head of a dove ; band of red ribbon crosses the bodice, 
from the right shoulder to under the left arm, with a letter 

Dejazet). Plain black dress, high to the throat, three 
jewelled brooches down the bodice, chatelaine at side, 
miniature attached to velvet bow round the throat ; over-dress 
of satin caught to the side by loops of beads; white hair; 
huge high lace and velvet cap. This costume is well suited to a 
matron of mature age, as well as younger women. It can be 
rendered in black velvet, with a satin over-dress ; in 
black and grey or two shades of grey, or brown, or red. 
The material must necessarily be rich. A gold watch and 
keys hang at the side ; gold ornaments are introduced down 
the side of dress. The form of the head-dress is best 
gathered from the plate. It is a mixture of lace and velvet, 
with gold ornaments, wired ; large lace lapels fall at the back. 
She carries a tall headed cane and fan. {See Coloured 
Illustration IV.) 

DRAGON-FLY. Evening dress of green tulle, spangled 
with green tinsel, trimmed with bulrushes and dragon-fly; a 
dragon-fly on the head and on each shoulder. 

DRESDEN CHINA. Under this name almost any 
poudre character may be worn, with or without a sacque. It 
is generally thus rendered : Quilted short skirt ; high-heeled 
shoes and clocked stockings ; chintz or brocaded bunched-up 


tunic ; muslin apron ; low bodice ; short sleeves with ruffles ; 
coloured stomacher laced across ; bow of ribbon or black 
velvet round neck ; straw hat or muslin cap ; powdered hair. 
A newer rendering has bows of ribbons and flowers on the 
shoulders, with a tiny china figure in the centre; a satin 
chapeau bras with more flowers springing from centre ; 
crook and high-heeled shoes. {See Plate IV., Fig. 15.) 

DRESDEN SHEPHERDESS. Crimson petticoat, 
three plaited flounces ; top flounce, pale yellow ; second, pale 
pink ; third, pale green ; white overskirt, with brocaded 
bouquets in blue and crimson ; elbow sleeves, with broad 
band and ruffles, narrow ruffles round stiff square bodice ; pale 
green apron, lined with pink ; hair powdered ; flat shepherdess 
hat slung on arm ; Watteau bow round throat ; high 
heeled shoes. {See China.) 

DRUIDESS. Long flowing cashmere robe bordered with 
embroidered oak-leaves and mistletoe ; full low bodice drawn 
to the neck by a string ; no tucker ; gold girdle ; a scarf 
with pointed ends floating over the right shoulder fastened 
with brooch on left ; all trimmed with gold ; gold armlets 
below the short sleeve ; a wreath of oak-leaves and mistletoe. 
A lyre in hand. This may be carried out in white, or in grey, 
with red scarf ; gold band and necklet ; sandals on feet. 
It is the correct costume for Norma. 


DUGHESSE, GRANDE. Blue satin skirt of walking 
length, with silver military braiding down the front and bordered 
with silver ; long Louis XV. jacket edged with silver ; waistcoat 
from waist only, red satin, braided to match the skirt ; mous- 
quetaire cuffs of red satin ; hussar jacket braided and edged with 
fur, slung from shoulders; white Steinkirk tie; red satin and 
fur cap, with pendant point and tassel ; star on right breast. 
Second dress, full evening robe with jewels. 

DUCHESS OF DEVONSHIRE. (6"^^ Gainsborough.) 

DUCK, WHITE. Dress of white satin, the front of 
bodice covered with white swansdown ; wings at side of skirt 
made of feathers ; shoes of the colour of a duck's foot ; small 
cap like a duck's head with a frog in its beak. 

DUENNA. High square black dress, made with tight 


sleeves and puff on shoulder ; Spanish mantilla and comb ; 
red rose at side ; black shoes and stockings. 

DUSK. Dress of dull grey, muslin or gauze, over satin : 
silver ornaments and smoked pearls ; a bat on shoulder. 

DUTCH. There are many varieties of national head- 
dresses peculiar to Holland, which would hardly be suitable for 
fancy balls. The usual costume on such occasions is a short blue 
silk or stuff skirt ; short plain over-skirt of yellow satin, or 
brocade, or chintz ; high black velvet bodice laced over a high 
white chemisette with short puffed sleeves, silver bands on 
either side of the jacket fronts ; white cap with a gathered 
frill, large silver circles above the ears and a silver band across 
forehead. The bodice may be made to the waist, square at 
neck, with kerchief tucked in, a band round the waist and across 
bust ; or low, with tabs at waist ; contrasting stomacher ; turned 
down linen collar. Many pretty Dutch costumes may be 
copied from Mieris, Gerard Dow, and other Dutch painters. A 
Dutch skating costume of the 1 7 th century is as follows : Short 
satin skirt, long upper one, turned up all round to waist ; long 
pointed bodice, sleeves with one puff, and then two white satin 
puffs to wrist ; satin fur-lined muff, fur tippets, hoods lined with 
a colour, gauze veil, high-heeled shoes, skates hanging at the side. 
A good Dutch costume is worn at Marken : full short black 
skirt, bordered with gold ; large figured apron ; square sleeveless 
jacket bodice of blue, close-fitting, ending at waist, bordered with 
embroidery, and laced with gold over red ; under-bodice high 
to throat ; white tight sleeves to elbow, blue armlets to wrist ; 
round high red head-dress like a busby, with two rows of beads. 

DUTCH FISH WIFE (Scheveningen). Full plain blue 
skirt, round waist band, 6 or 8 inches deep, red, blue, and 
white, tied with ribbon bow in front; short orange bodice, 
square in front, filled in with kerchief, sleeves rolled up , cape 
of green, lined with rose colour, round neck, reaching below 
waist ; close-fitting cap with lace lappets, large straw hat over ; 
basket of fish. The ordinary caps are skull-shape, linen, a piece 
turned back at ears, standing out from face with gold orna- 
ments on either side. 

DUTCH LADY. Black velvet dress; old gold tablier, 
rich jet embroidery ; powdered hair ; black lace, and jet. 

DUTCH MATRON {16th century). Kilted skirt of 


brown cashmere, edged with velvet; white linen apron; 
chatelaine at side, with keys and satchel ; close-fitting bodice, 
with shoulder cape and revers, edged with gold galon linen ; 
chemisette, and linen cuffs to tight sleeves ; black velvet cap, 
with hair hidden. 15th century : Figured stuff and brocades 
over hoop ; stiff straight square bodices, all round gathered 
basqued ; white chemisette, and close plaited ruff at throat ; 
sleeves with epaulettes to match dress ; gauntlet gloves, high 
pointed felt hat. The caps have often two large round gilt 
plates connected with semi-circle of wire which goes round 
the back of the head, and keeps the lace in order. 

DUTCH SERVANT. Short chintz skirt, blue serge 
bodice, with all-round full basque, red kerchief tied over 
the neck and tucked into front ; large muslin lace edge 
apron ; lace cap, silver side ornaments ; plain black dress, 
high bodice, large white tippet, huge turn-back linen cuffs; 
apron and cap, guiltless of trimming ; keys at side. 

EARLY ENGLISH. This is generally rendered by a 
flowing skirt ; plain heart-shaped bodice, with revers ; tight 
sleeves, puffed at elbow, slashed at shoulder ; pointed head- 
dress and veil hanging from it. Old English is sup- 
posed to be represented by the period of Edward IV. : A short 
scanty skirt, with one gathered flounce ; low baby bodice, short 
waisted ; one puff to short sleeves ; large muslin mob cap 
or straw flap hat ; reticule on arm, and long gloves. 

EARTH. MOTHER EARTH. White satin short 
skirt with rows of black velvet ; red satin tunic, black velvet 
bodice, laced stomacher, short sleeves ; gilt basket on head, 
with flowers, fruits, and bulbs; ferns, grass, and fruit about 
dress ; a small globe hung at side. Or a green dress wreathed 
with flowers, fruit, and ferns; basket and flowers in hair. 

EASTERN QUEEN. Trousers of gold-striped soft silk, 
gathered at the ankles ; tunic of white silk and gold broche, 
bordered with gold fringe ; scarf tied at the side, of Oriental 
gauze, striped with several bright colours ; loose full bodice 
made of soft white silk falling to the hips, and confined at the 
waist by a red silk scarf, powdered with sequins; red silk 
epaulets, red silk handerchief about head with sequins. {See 

ECAILLERE {viz., Oyster-tvoman). Close-fitting, half- 


high, black bodice, pointed, laced in front, bordered with red 
braid, fichu draped over top, fastened with a rose ; short black 
sleeves, then lace to elbow ; tunic of blue gingham draped over 
short skirt of Pompadour sateen ; black shoes ; striped stock- 
ings ; black velvet round neck with cross ; muslin and lace 
cap of Madame Angot form. Or, skirt of lemon-coloured tulle, 
with fringes of seaweed, seashells, and pieces of coral, which 
border the tunic and bodice ; the latter having revers of 
lemon satin. The epaulettes are formed of lobster claws and 
seaweed ; the same in the hair. Sometimes this is rendered 
as a fishwife, with white linen bibbed apron, red handkerchief 
tied about the head, a basket at the back. 

ECARTE. Short dress of black and red satin, trimmed 
with gold, and cards. {See Rouge et Noir.) 

ECLIPSE. Evening dress with square bodice, divided 
down the centre perpendicularly, half yellow and gold, half 
black gauze. Black flowers on one side of the head, gold 
on the other ; one glove yellow, one black ; shoes the same. 

EDITH BELLENDEN {Old Mortality, 1685). The 
wearer should have fair hair, and be playful and arch. She 
either wears a riding-dress or a simple green cashmere dress, 
trimmed with white lace and silver braid ; black velvet cap 
with white feathers and pearls, made in the style worn in 
James Ilnd's. reign; plain upper and under-skirt, pointed bodice 
high to the throat ; plain turn-down collar, full sleeves to 
elbow tied with ribbons. 

EDITH CLINTON. Long maroon velvet dress, quite 
plain ; drooping white hat and feathers. 

EDITH PLANTAGENET {The Talisman). Long 
flowing skirt, sewn to cuirass bodice, coming low on hips ; cut 
square at neck, tight sleeves to wrist, pendent sleeves over 
them ; front of bodice embroidered in blue and silver, 
bands of same, outlining bodice and sleeves. Hair in two 
long plaits, braided with pearls ; shoes jewelled ; flowing 
cloak of a distinctive colour may be added, but is not essential. 

ED^WARD IV. 1461-T483. {Costume of Period). Under 
and over-dress of brocade ; the over-dress long and flowing, 
bordered with a band of fur or jewels and held in the hand on 
the left side. Close-fitting bodice to waist with jewelled band ; 
the bodice opens from the waist heart-shape in front, with braces 



of ermine going around the neck, but tapering at the waist, a 
jewelled stomacher beneath ; jewelled steeple head-dress made 
of brocaded silk, sugar-loaf shape ; a veil of fine gauze shot 
with gold fastened to the top and flowing to the ground ; 
the sleeves are close-fitting, the cuff cut up inside the arm, 
and falling over the hand to the knuckles. The steeple-chase 
head-dresses were the particular feature of the day. They are 
described as rolls of linen pointed like steeples, half an ell 
high, some having a wing at the side called butterflies ; the 
cap was covered with lawn, which fell to the ground, and was 
tucked under the arm ; the dress bodices opened with braces 
from shoulder to waist, over an under-bodice or stomacher, 
and ended at the waist ; the waistbands were broad, the cuffs 
deep ; many chains about the neck ; velvet, silk, damask 
cloth of gold, costly furs, and striped materials, all worn. The 
period was illustrated in the Health Exhibition of 1884 by a 
female figure taken from the King Rene Paris Library. The 
skirt divided in two down the centre, with gold braid, each 
half divided again into divisions of pink, or dark blue, gold or 
white satin, some having diagonal heraldic emblazoning in 
gold ; gold belt round waist where bodice ends ; white chemi- 
sette with an upright plaiting at neck, and gold necklet ; 
sleeves of pink satin, bordered with gold, tight blue ones 
beneath, forming a point on either side of the hand ; stoma- 
cher of wdiite satin crossed with gold ; steeple head-dress in 
gold colour, distended with wire, long veil to feet. 

EFFIE DEANS. Short blue or plaid stuff gown with 
loose Garibaldi of flowered print, the basque coming over the 
outside of the skirt ; leather belt round the waist ; the bodice 
slightly open at the neck ; a piece of blue ribbon about the 
head, but almost hidden by a plaid, which envelopes the 
figure and head. She carries in her hand a piece of linen she 
is sewing. {See Plate XIIL, Fig. 49.) 

EGYPTIAN. Red under-skirt, with Egyptian hiero- 
glyphics ; a white over-dress, caught up on one side by red silk 
scarf round hips falling in a tabbed end in the exact centre of 
front ', loose full bodice, pendent sleeves ; a peplum fastened 
on the shoulder, worked with the Egyptian honeysuckle ; the 
hair dressed flat ; the head-dress like that of the Sphinx, in 
black and gold, much jewelled, a bird behind it, and coins 
in front, or a square of cashmere bordered with sequins, 
secured to forehead by gold band. Or, a turban of white 


muslin trimmed with gold band and pearls. Armlets of gold, 
and necklet with coins and gems. 

EGYPTIAN LADY. Pale blue cashmere embroidered 
in silver, with peplum, and lizard bird ; yellow satin skirt, 
with bodice of green tinted jet, open-work embroidery ; small 
richly coloured birds dotted here and there over skirt and 
bodice. The real dress is not suited to fancy costumes. 
Egyptian women out of doors wear a large square of checked 
cotton thrown over head and figure. A gold ornament is 
fastened between the eyes, and reaches to the top of forehead, 
secured to the yashmak of black crape or cashmere passed 
across the face, below the eyes to the back of ears, falling 
lower than the waist. A fellah woman wears a loose half high 
bodice of washing stuff, a necklace round throat, plain woollen 
skirt, a sash of many colours round waist, and a handkerchief 
gracefully twisted about the head. 

EGYPTIAN QUEEN. Black, crimson, and gold satin 
dress ; red silk head-dress with sequins ; white train over short 
dress made of gold, black, and white. 

EIGHTEENTH CKnr\JRY (Dress of Feriod). Powder 
was worn until 1795. Large hoops, short skirts, elbow sleeves, 
and square bodices are distinguishing features. (See Poudre.) 
The poorer classes wore a petticoat and over-dress, opening in 
front, a pointed bodice and kerchief, muslin cap, and plaited 
border, tight sleeves, mittens, and long aprons. In 1786, 
enormous hats, composed of gauze wire and ribbon, were worn, 
and turban helmets, high crowned sugarloaf hats from France. 
In 1794, the waist came below the arm-pits; feathers were 
perched upright on the head. The vagaries which originated 
in the French Revolution found their way to England (See 
Incroyable, Merveilleuse, and Directoire, the high hats, 
the curious hoods, and the catogan. See Afternoon 
Dress, A.) The following dress was worn in 1784 : — A full 
skirt touching the ground, a flounce at edge ; high bodice, long 
sleeves, satchel bag at side, large muff pelerine, edged with a 
ruche of lace tied at back ; muslin cap, a large flap hat over it. 
In 1727-36, the taste of the day was mock pastoral, and men 
and women, as Corydons and Sylvias, tried to be mistaken for 
shepherds and shepherdesses. The hoods of the ladies de- 
noted their politics by their colour. The hood was succeeded 
by the capuchin ; long gloves were ruffled on the arm, huge 

F 2 


watches and chatelaines hung at the side ; the high-heeled 
shoes had infinitesimal points. In 1760, gaudy brocades and 
lustring were fashionable materials. 

EIZLER BERENGER. White cashmere skirt ; blue 
tunic, embroidered in precious stones ; blue body, hanging 
sleeves, tight satin sleeves beneath ; coronet and white veil. 

ELAINE {Idylls of the King). Long golden hair, flowing 
loosely ; a band of gold with stars round head. Dress of rich 
gold brocade or cashmere, jewelled in front ; the bodice 
comes almost to the throat, and is cut square ; it fits figure to 
hips closely, where is a jewelled band ; sleeves tight, with 
jewelled epaulette. Lily carried in one hand, and Lancelot's 
letter in the other ; a shield on arm. 

ELEANORE OF AUSTRIA (1515-1547, ^nd Wife of 
Francis I. of France). Skirt touching the ground, of brocade, 
or richly embroidered silk, satin, or velvet, bordered with gold 
or silver, opening to show front breadth of silver brocade, a 
jewelled girdle and pendant falling in the centre ; the bodice 
stiff, coming to the waist, cut as low square, the front jewelled; 
puffed sleeves to wrist, over them large hanging sleeves, 
bordered with ermine; jewelled crown on head. Necklace 
of jewels. 

ELEANOR OF CASTILLE {Daughter of Henry 
J I., 12th century). Dress of rich green velvet, silk, or satin, 
embroidered with crosses, loose, girdled at the waist; regal 
mantle from shoulder ; crown and embroidered veil. 


This is now very much the fashion in such dresses as Morning 
and Evening Star, Will o' the Wisp, &c. The lights are 
attached to a small battery which is hidden in the hair. 

ELEMENTS. {See Earth, Air, Fire, and Water.) 

ELFRIDA, as an Anglo-Saxon Queen, wears a long loose 
robe of silk or cloth ; the bodice and skirt cut in one, con- 
fined at the waist by a girdle, and bordered with gold ; long 
hanging sleeves ; a wimple or piece of linen wrapped about 
the throat ; hair loose ; the dress may be of cloth or silk ; 
gold ornaments. 

ELIZABETH, MADAME {Sister of Louis XVI.). 
A rich dress of the period. The hair powdered, turned 


off the face and curled ; long curls on shoulders ; train over 
a distinct petticoat trimmed with lace and pearls ; the bodice 
low, bordered with piped satin revers, turning downwards ; tulle 
fichu inside, rose in front ; long tight sleeve to wrist. This 
might be rendered in pink satin ; train and bodice trimmed 
with roses ; grey satin petticoat and stomacher, the latter hung 
with pearls, the former with lace flounces, headed by tulle 
puffings and flowers. 

ELIZABETH OF AUSTRIA {m/e of Charles IX. of 
France). Robe of velvet or satin, trimmed with gold bands 
and ermine, the front of white satin, jewelled and em- 
broidered ; the bodice filled in with quilted chemisette ; 
jewelled stomacher; close ruff"; large fur sleeves; jewelled 
coif; tulle veil ; jewelled girdle. 

ELIZABETH OF HUNGARY. Close-fitting under 
dress of stockingnette ; over this a sideless gown of cream 
brocade, bordered with fur; crimson borderings above, and 
heavy gold ornaments. The under-dress embroidered in gold ; 
the hair flowing in two long plaits, confined by a gold coronet, 
studded with pearls ; tight under-sleeves ; loose and large 
over ones, lined with crimson velvet ; long cloak fastened at 
the neck with antique clasp. 


{Qtccen of Henry VII.). In the combined colours of the roses. 
Brocaded petticoat ; red velvet bodice and train ; long sleeves 
to hem of skirt, lined with and bordered with ermine; 
the train brocaded white and gold, fastened with jewels ; 
jewelled girdle and crown ; white roses in hair. Order of St 
Esprit. Rich jewels ; diamonds and rubies. 

ELIZABETH, PRINCESS {Daughter of Louis XVI.) . 
Dress in Prison. Black stuff gown, with tight plain 
sleeves to wrist, and frilled skirt sewn to waist ; muslin 
fichu, with double frills, hemmed, crossed in front, the 
ends tied at back ; hair in double roll, turned off face, falling 
in curls at back. Dress at Court. Yellow satin skirt and 
bodice, the latter a low square, with elbow-sleeves; silk scarf 
tied round the waist, ends falling at back ; hair turned over 
high cushion and powdered. 

HER PERIOD (1558-1603). Full skirt, touching ground, 


often jewelled round hem, gathered to bodice at waist; made 
of brocade or embroidered velvet, worn over a hoop. The 
bodice is stiff, with deep pointed stomacher, low in front and 
embroidered with serpents, &c., or jewelled ; ruff supported 
on wire at back, reaching to the head ; the hair frizzed ; a 
small velvet cap and jewelled crown ; the front breadth of 
dress embroidered or quilted with pearls, the sleeves puffed to 
wrist with ruffles ; very pointed shoes. Velvet satm or brocade 
is suitable. A velvet train bordered with ermine can be worn 
from shoulders. {See also Amy Robsart). Two figures ex- 
hibited in the Health Exhibition of 1884 will illustrate the 
period. Lady Bacon. Large-patterned brocaded skirt 
of dark blue and red, on a cream ground, distended by 
huge hoops ; front of skirt of light blue silk, covered with 
long muslin apron, the squares upon it formed in hem-stitch, 
bordered with pointed lace ; the bodice of the brocade^ with 
a front of light blue satin, having dark blue bands at the 
top and waist, matching similar bands on either side of the 
skirt ; a plaited muslin partlet to the throat ; huge unplaited 
ruff in three points from the shoulders, bordered with van- 
dyked lace, and edged with wire, so that each point turns 
down ; a short sleeve over tight dark blue striped ones ; 
turned back cuffs of vandyked lace at the wrist ; head-dress 
of Marie Stuart form, edged with lace. The other a woman 
of a lower social grade ; full pink cashmere skirt, worn over 
huge farthingale ; dark green paniers ; scissors tied to the side 
with black ribbon ; bodice bordered with blue, showing 
muslin partlet ; white collar, stiffened ; white cap with black 
velvet. {See also Serving Maid, Plate XL, No. 43). 


ELS A {Lohengrin). First dress of white cashmere, the 
square-cut bodice coming well down on to the hips, outUned 
with white worsted girdle, the two ends hanging in front ; 
long sleeves caught up at elbow, showing bare arm, and 
braided ; also the tunic, which falls over long plain skirt ; fair 
hair flowing on shoulders. Second dress, white silk Prin- 
cesse ; band of gold embroidery at hem, carried up the 
front, round the high neck, and wrist of tight sleeves ; 
jewelled girdle round hips ; long cloak of silver tissue from 
shoulders ; crown, and gold-spangled tulle veil. 


EMPIRE (1805-1815). Various kinds of dress prevailed 
during this period. For a while, a classical style obtained : 
long flowing skirts, with peplums, the sleeves fastened with 
three buttons outside the arm; the hair dressed with fillets of 
gold ; this was the evening garb. In the daytime, there were 
the coal-scuttle bonnets, short waists below the armpits, and 
other monstrosities. When Josephine reigned at court more 
graceful attire was adopted ; the court dresses were of gold 
tissue, and velvets covered with gold embroideries ; for example, 
white under-dress of silk, embroidered in gold ; green velvet 
train from waist, worked with gold bordered with ermine ; gigot 
sleeves, studded with bees ; long gloves hiding the arm. 
During a portion of this period, quite short dresses were 
worn; or pale blue costumes worked in cornflowers ; gathered 
bodice of gold gauze, woven with gold, the waist coming under 
the armpits, and made with a cape ; Indian shawl, fastened on 
shoulder with the gold ornament of the period ; large Tuscan 
bonnet, with birds of Paradise on the top, and blue ribbon 
carried on the arm like a basket ; or white satin dress, the front 
of rose du Barry satin, veiled in crepe, and lisse embroidered 
in gold ; low short-waisted bodice ; stomacher of pink, with 
white and gold embroidery ; long white Suede gloves ; hair 
dressed high, rose du Barry plume. Long satin over-skirt, 
looped up ; double-breasted bodice, and cape ; tie of lace ; 
large hat. A good costume for a middle-aged w^oman at fancy 
ball. (See Plate XIIL, Fig. 50.) 

ENCHANTRESS. Long skirt of ruby satin, bordered 
with gold, caught up on one side to show border of mystic 
characters in black velvet ; long black velvet sleeveless robe, 
opening over ruby vest, covered with gold suns, stars, serpents, 
and scorpions ; striped Oriental scarf round hips ; large mantle 
of dun-coloured cloth, bordered with velvet, attached to 
shoulders ; head-dress, an ibis with outstretched wings, on a 
scarlet cap, with band of carbuncles ; wand with serpents 
interlaced; heavy gold jewellery. (See Hubbard, Mother, 
AND Sorceress). 

ENGLAND. Skirt of cream bunting, the lions of 
England painted on each of the battlements in which the edge 
of the skirt is cut ; the Union Jack and Standard of Scotland 
draped with Prince of Wales' plumes, ostrich feathers ; dark 
blue velvet bodice, made quite plain, and trimmed with gold 


and small Union Jacks ; fan covered with Union Jack ; head- 
dress a helmet ; effigy of St. George and the Dragon round 
neck. {See Plate IV., Fig. i6.) 

ENID {Idylls of the King). A sweeping robe of gold- 
embroidered stuff, the bodice square, very long and pointed, 
bordered with fur and gold braid, carried round the neck and 
down the front in the form of a stomacher ; the sleeves hang 
from elbow ; the hair in two long plaits ; a jewelled coif or 
fillet on head. Sometimes the bodice is cut as a low square, 
showing white chemisette, also cut low in neck, the trimming 
bordering the top and surrounding an all-round basque, reach- 
ing to hips and up the front ; tight sleeves, one puff at top. 

ERIN, IRELAND, HIBERNIA. A fashionable even- 
ing dress of green and white tulle, trimmed with shamrocks and 
gold harps ; wreath of shamrocks ; or a white or green cashmere 
classic robe, with green satin peplum, the low full bodice and 
pendent sleeves bordered with gold-embroidered shamrocks ; 
small gold harps on shoulders ; wreath of gold shamrocks ; 
gold ornaments ; or a petticoat of cloth of gold ; green velvet 
train and bodice worked with shamrocks; gold girdle; velvet 
cap and coronet of shamrocks. 

ESMERALDA. A rich gipsy dress in yellow, black, and 
scarlet satin, made short, trimmed with coins and gold braid ; 
a sash of gold tissue tied about the hips, a tambourine carried 
in hand ; bracelets above and below elbow, united by coins ; 
stay-bodice with coins and gold braid ; gold net with sequins ; 
ornaments, sequins. Sometimes (as in Coloured Illustration 
No. V.) the skirt is red, trimmed with gold, and the bodice 
takes the form of a loose black jacket, with full yellow vest of 
soft silk. 

ESMERALDA, PRETTY. Yellow satin box-plaited 
skirt, with lace flounces, draped on the side, with red satin 
embroidered in gold ; black satin bodice and jacket, em- 
broidered in gold, with pockets at side ; large black and gold 
scarf tied at the side. 

ESMOND, VISCOUNTESS. Black velvet dress with 
flame coloured petticoat, lace kerchief about the shoulders ; 
many rings on her fingers ; spaniel, and snuff box carried in the 
hand ; red shoes, gold clocked stockings • bushy black curls, 
surmounted by a border of lace. 



ESTAFELLE. White satin skirt, green satin tunic tied 
back with various coloured ribbons ; high jacket of green 
satin, with white waistcoat and red revers, short sleeves. 

ESTHER, QUEEN. White cashmere under-robe bor- 
dered with gold, cut low at neck, with sleeves coming from a 
band at shoulders and flowing at the back ; over this a sleeve- 
less dress, cut heart-shape in front, and fastened with massive 
gold girdle ; beads round neck; gold girdle ; a cashmere veil 
reaching to feet ; gold-pointed coronet j sandalled shoes. 
At a memorable ball in Paris, Queen Esther, who had auburn 
hair, wore it inter-plaited with pearls; a cap, of oriental material, 
had a black aigrette and diamond stars, like the one Mdme. 
de Pompadour, as Queen Esther, wore in Van Tor's picture. 
The train was of moss green, embroidered in blue and silver, 
opening over a blue and silver satin redingote ; red satin 
trousers, embroidered in gold ; and slippers worked in gold 
and pearls. The train was borne by a page. 

EU MEN IDES. Red or black veils, snakes entwined 
about bare arms, buskins like a huntress, rough chiton of 
brown, or black, or blood-coloured, girt with skins of snakes ; 
other serpents bind their waists, and their garments are 
embroidered with snakes' eyes. 

EUROPE is generally carried out by the national dress of 
some European country, say Italy, Spain, or France. Or with 
a white cashmere classic robe {see Classic), with a battle- 
mented crown, bearing the names of the different countries. 
The ornaments on the dress are white bulls. 

EVANGELINE. As a Normandy peasant, with kirtle 
or petticoat of blue ; the tunic, which may match or be of 
contrasting colours, drawn through the slit at back ; large ear- 
rings and cross ; white Normandy cap ; a rosary hanging at the 
side ; the bodice square, with chemisette beneath. i^See Nor- 

EVE, Dress of white India muslin, trimmed with apples, 
leaves, and blossom ; fig-leaves for pockets ; out of one peeps 
a serpent's head with emerald eyes, out of the other falls a 
triplet of white lilies ; a wreath of small apples, flowers, and 
leaves ; necklace, a serpent of gold and silver enamel in red 
and blue. 



EXPRESS. Trained skirt of steel- coloured satin, edged 
and bound with black velvet, showing a series of rails in 
steel braid ; skirt stiff at back, the hem edged with a row of 
movable wheels, which must turn at every movement of the 
wearer. The front of the skirt is of black velvet, striped 
downwards ; steel-coloured cuirass ; miniature steam engine in 
flowing hair, with grey feathers issuing from the funnel ; and 
wheeled skates for shoes. 

FAIR LOCKS {Fairy Tale). Dress of gold tissue and 
white silk, with gold trimmings ; long skirt ; full, low, banded 
bodice ; short sleeves. 

FAIR MAID OF PERTH. White satin skirt of walk- 
ing length, with low pointed bodice ; stomacher of ruby velvet ; 
sky-blue satin braces ; long sleeves gathered perpendicularly 
to the wrist, with ruby velvet cuffs ; short cloak of tartan satin 
from the shoulders ; blue satin Scotch cap, bound with ruby 


FAIR STAR {Fairy Tale). Evening dress of white satin 
and silver tulle. A star over the forehead. 

FAIRY. Short tulle diaphanous dress, with low full bodice, 
covered with silver spangles ; silver belt at waist ; wings of 
gauze on wire attached to back ; hair floating ; a silver circlet 
on the head. Or, for a Fairy Queen, a crown, the wand, 
to be carried in hand, becoming a sceptre. Stars should be 
introduced on the dress and on the satin shoes. {See Plate 
XVI., Fig. 6 1.) 

FAIRY GODMOTHER. {See Hubbard, Mother.) 

FALCON {Tennyson). In this piece Mrs. Kendal wore a 
dress of Venetian red plush over a richly embroidered antique 
gold cloth, profusely braided and studded with jewels. 

FALCONERY. Short skirt of dark cloth, red, blue, or 
brown ; green velvet skirt caught up on one side ; long basqued 
jacket of the same ; gauntlet gloves with hawk on the hand. 
Cavalier hat with drooping feathers ; high boots. 

FALKA. Riding jacket of cream satin lined with red, 
slung from shoulder over grey embroidered bodice and dress. 
Black military hat. 


FANS. White satin evening dress embroidered with 
Japanese fans. Small enamel fans for ornaments. An aigrette 
with fan on the powdered hair. 

FATESj THE. In antique Greek costume. (5^^ Greek.) 
Clotho bears a distaff in her hand, and wears a crown with 
seven stars, the robe spangled with stars. Lachesis holds a 
spindle, or is represented spinning; her robe also star-spangled. 
Atropos in black robe and veil ; scissors and threads of various 
length ; in the hand a knife. 

FAT I MA. Petticoat of white satin, striped with scarlet 
and gold, and edged with deep gold fringe ; tunic of blue 
satin, trimmed with gold passementerie, crescents, stars, and 
pearl fringe ; scarf of scarlet cashmere, embroidered in white ; 
white satin vest, trimmed with scarlet and gold ; blue velvet 
Zouave jacket, trimmed with gold cord ; head-dress, turban 
of scarlet and blue velvet, with chains of pearls ; veil of tulle, 
embroidered with gold stars, anklets and armlets of gold. 
Sometimes a mediaeval dress is worn with horned head-dress ; 
the train sprinkled with jewels ; cap outlined with beads. Or 
a Turkish dress, with a key hung at side. {See Turkish.) 

FAVART, MADAME. Short grass-green skirt, red 
tunic and square stay-bodice, white chemisette, and white 
elbow-sleeves ; red stockings and black shoes ; red or black 
handkerchief about the head, with coins; hurdy-gurdy in hand. 
Or cream dress with grenat, or cerise and blue. These colours 
may be varied. 

FEBRUARY is generally represented by a French 
carnival costume, one half white, the other harlequinade, 
nearly covered with bells. 

FEDORA. Madame Sarah Bernhardt wore a pale blue 
brocatelle and embossed velvet, with large moons for bodice 
and train; paniers and tunic of brocatelle ; under-skirt of dark 
blue velvet, bordered with bouillonnes. Another dress : bodice 
and train of Pompadour brocade, flowered over with roses, 
front moussehne de soie of a light blue shade, trimmed with 
lace ; elbow sleeves, and epaulettes. 

FEN ELLA (Fez'eri'/ of the Peak). Red silk Turkish 
trousers ; short green skirt, trimmed with lace and pearls and 
Arabesque figures in gold ; white satin front breadth ; Oriental 


scarf knotted round waist, with dagger ; green velvet jacket 
bodice, open at neck, bordered with fur; crimson cap and 
eagle's feather ; white and gold veil ; feather fan. Dark hair 
hanging about shoulders. 

FERN. Bodice and tunic of brown satin, bordered with 
fern-leaves, falling over green tulle dress, mixed with ferns, 
moss, primroses; brown velvet round the neck; ornaments 
of enamel ferns ; fern wreath on head. 

FIAMETTA \La Mascotte). First dress : Riding-costume 
of scarlet cloth, felt hat, and leather gauntlets. Second dress 
as gipsy : Short white skirt ; tunic and bodice of amber ; scarf 
round hips ; square bodice, sleeves to wrists ; with a scarf of 
many colours tied to form a head-dress ; hair hanging down 
back ; gold ornaments ; tambourine. Or, crimson and gold 
satin dress, with red stockings, gold sandals, red handkerchief 
tied round the head. 

so long a period various changes of attire held good, but the 
style which at fancy balls is generally supposed to represent 
the century is a full plain skirt, bordered a quarter of a yard 
deep with ermine, belt of the same round the waist ; the skirt 
looped on one side over plain petticoat ; braces on the plain 
heart-shaped bodice, also of ermine, with a stomacher and 
horned head-dress. 

FIGARETTE. A pretty mixture of red, black, and 
yellow, the skirt cut into alternate Vandykes, and edged with 
gold ; a white apron, red scarf round the hips, black cocked 
hat, brilliant yellow sleeves. This is a short costume, with 
plenty of gold trimming and gay colouring. 

FILEUSE. ^See Spinning-Girl.) 

FILLE D'AUBERGE. Short sky-blue and crimson- 
striped skirt ; pale blue tunic, trimmed with white lace ; black 
velvet bodice, laced with crimson ; white fichu, and high white 
muslin cap ; crimson stockings ; ornaments, silver earrings and 
cross. Any French peasant dress will do. 

FILLE DU REGIMENT. (6"^^ Vivandiere.) 

boots ; short skirt of red, blue, and white stripes, with a hori- 


zontal band of red just above the hem ; black cloth military 
jacket, with jockey basque at the back, pointed in front; a 
white cloth plastron covering the chest ; red and white facings 
to the cuffs, and gold buttons ; a keg slung across the shoulder ; 
muslin apron ; hair curled in front, tied at back en queue with 
black ribbon; cocked hat, with tri-coloured rosette. The 
dress of the Fille du Tambour-Major in the first act is 
white skirt, with lace-edged flounce; tunic and bodice 
of grey cashmere with black ribbon ; velvet braces ; 
square linen collar coming well down to the bust back and 
front ; a black velvet bow on the head. All the girls in the 
convent school are similarly attired, with a puritanical quiet- 
ness which in fancy ball-rooms always has so marked and good 
an effect among the gay dresses. 

FINLANDER. Blue cloth petticoat, the edge em- 
broidered with crimson ; full white bodice to the throat ; 
sleeves to wrist, rosettes of red down the front; red sash, 
knotted at the side ; velvet sleeveless bodice bordered with 
gold. Red handkerchief tied round head. A long embroidered 
over-dress is also worn by the peasantry. 

FIRE. Black tulle evening dress over red silk, tunic or 
train fringed with red and gold tinsel, bodice and skirt dotted 
with stars of the same, as also the veil ; coronet of tinsel to 
resemble flames ; ornaments, garnets. Torch carried in hand. 
It may also be carried out with black and crimson velvet 
embroidered with flames, or in flame-coloured tulle. 

FIRE -FLY. Under-skirt and jacket of black velvet; 
tunic of flame-coloured llama cut in scallops ; gold tissue 
introduced round velvet skirt and on puffings of sleeves ; cap 
of black velvet and flame-coloured llama ; black and gold 
gauze wings ; fan of black and gold. 

FISHGIRLS, FISHWIVES, &c. Boulogne Fish- 
wife. Scarlet flannel skirt, high black jacket, sleeves to 
elbow turned up with muslin, band of scarlet at neck, black 
and white tunic h la laveuse — viz., turned up in front and 
caught together at back ; cap like a net, with stiff gouffered 
frill round the face ; scarlet half-handkerchief over this ; 
pockets of white calico outside the dress ; large gold earrings 
and cross. Calvados Fishgirl. Blue and white striped 
skirt, black tunic, and low bodice trimmed with cross-cut 


bands piped with red and white, over white chemisette ; 
muslin cap ; gold ornaments. French Fishgirl. Red and 
white striped skirt, navy-blue tunic a la laveuse ; muslin- lace- 
edged apron with bib, fichu (the ends tucked into bib), and 
cap with red ribbons. Or for a Matelotte, the cap is re- 
placed by sailor tarpaulin hat ; the hair down. Bayonne 
Fishwife. Red skirt, edged with black velvet ; black 
velvet low bodice, white linen sleeves ; handkerchief over 
shoulders ; red handkerchief round head ; gold cross and 
earrings; fish basket. Scotch, Edinburgh, or Newhaven 
Fishwoman. Navy-blue under-skirt, one of yellow and 
white above, with three tucks, laveuse tunic of blue and 
white striped flannel ; Garibaldi bodice of flowered chintz, 
the sleeves rolled to elbow ; a coloured handkerchief round 
neck; short white linen apron, turned up and forming two 
pockets; a jacket of duffel, like a man's coat, tied by the sleeves 
round neck ; muslin cap, with coloured handkerchief tied 
over it under chin ; creel at back. Or, navy-blue and white 
underskirt, laveuse tunic of blue and white striped flannel ; 
Garibaldi bodice of flowered chintz, the sleeves rolled to elbow, 
coloured handkerchief, with muslin cap {See Plate V., Fig. 20). 
All these dresses are short. Black shoes with high heels, and 
coloured bows and stockings are worn, and mittens or bare 
hands, gloves are out of place. A basket of fish at the back ; 
a net slung round waist with fish attached. Fisher Girl. 
Skirt of reseda plush draped with a net, and fish attached ; the 
bodice is trimmed with lobsters and crabs, the shoulders 
covered with seaweed, the whole skirt with crabs, starfish, and 
shells ; the net tunic, with fish and coral, and with a lobster ; 
hair flowing, seagull on shoulder. Fisherwoman of 
Zuyder Zee. Petticoat of brown or dark blue frieze, red 
apron with bib embroidered with floral designs pinned in 
front of a sleeveless jacket, to match the petticoat and hooked 
at the back; the under-skirt of striped calico, just visible at 
the back, the neck and arms covered with the same ; close- 
fitting cap of coloured satin ornamented over the forehead 
with gold and silver tinsel cloth. Swedish Fish Girl. 
Wears a sugar-loaf hat of black velvet, gay coloured handker- 
chief or cape with a silver necklace worn over it; white 
linen Garabaldi with full white bishop sleeves to wrist ; black 
velvet belt and shoulder straps, blue skirt, apron striped 
horizontally, grey stockings and black shoes. Calais Fish 


Girl. Plaited muslin cap, close to the face, not standing out 
in an aureole, as in the case of the Boulogne Fish-girl ; very 
dark blue skirt, with light blue stripes, light blue jacket 
buttoned in front and apron to match. Dieppe Fishwife. 
Sleeveless vest of black "bure " or serge made double-breasted 
and fastened at the side by bone buttons ; under-dress of stout 
linen, long sleeves tucked up above the elbow, a ruching 
visible along the neck of the bodice ; short plain skirt of "bure" 
with large stripes; dark grey speckled stockings, high-heeled 
shoes with buckles ; a high Normandy cap of white musHn, 
supported by a cardboard frame; a shallow basket in brown 
osiers slung round the figure. For festivals they wear a high 
straight bodice, hooked down the front, with semi-fitting 
sleeves, black mittens to elbow secured by bows. Gold 
earrings and chain with saint Esprit. French Fisher Maid. 
Blue sailor jacket bound with silver braid, blue upper skirt 
with tricolour apron. Scarlet and white striped petticoat and 

FIVE-O'CLOCK-TEA. Short white skirt embroidered 
with cups, saucers, and teapot ; blue tunic and bodice, muslin 
fichu and apron, with dial of clock pointing at 5, embroidered 
teapot beneath ; head-dress, a tea-cosy ; silver chatelaine, with 
teaspoons and sugar-tongs ; ornaments, silver spoons, and 
cups. Instead of embroidery, chintz cups and saucers may be 
gummed on. Long dress of soft terra-cotta silk, with belted 
heart-shaped bodice, long hanging sleeves, with saucers 
painted over them, small cap like a saucer, with aigrette of 
sugar-tongs ; spoons round the neck. 

FLAG, BRITISH. Tricolour skirt, draped with Union 
Jack, the bodice ornamented with a flag to match. Or, brown 
dress looped with white flags ; white sash across the bodice 
with name of yacht, and burgee in hair. (See Yacht.) 

FLAG, PILOT. Two flags on one side of black tulle 
skirt; the head-dress crossing hals way down, and composed of 
india-rubber tubing, from which is suspended a pilot flag, navy 
scarlet, and white silk ; two smaller flags in front of bodice, 
two carried in the hand. 

FLAME. {See Fire.) 

FLORA. A white silver-spangled tulle evening dress 


covered with flowers ; shoes embroidered with the same ; veil 
dotted with small blossoms ; a maypole or a cornucopia 
carried in the hand. Or a classic dress with floral insignias. 

FLORIAN SHEPHERDESS. Short skirt, trimmed 
with white flounces ; lilac silk tunic, looped with garlands of 
flowers ; pink silk tunic draped as paniers ; pointed bodice ; 
muslin stomacher crossed with ribbons, rosettes at each side ; 
the bodice bordered with pink passementerie, short sleeves, 
silk cape, with ruffles ; pink hat, lined with lilac, pink roses ; 
crook with flowers. 


Pale pink satin skirt, trimmed with gold braid ; brown velvet 
bodice, with pink satin stomacher, cut low at back, having two 
upstanding collars of velvet lined with satin ; fichu of gold 
embroidery behind these collars ; four rows of beads round 
throat, two falling on bust ; sleeves, two large puff's, divided 
by jewels ; rest of sleeves tight to wrist, with ruffles ; large hat 
and feathers' 

FLEMISH FLO^V^ER GIRL. Black velvet pointed 
bodice, and short skirt ; muslin stomacher, and puff'ed sleeves 
to wrist, with a shaped band of velvet covering the fore-arm. 
The bodice is laced across with black velvet, and has an 
upstanding collar, edged with silver braid. Over-skirt, pink 
cashmere ; embroidered muslin apron ; high felt hat, velvet 
brim, and pink feather ; pouch iDag at side, slung by cord ; 
pretty plaited lace caps are worn. (See also Vierlander.) 

FLEUR D'ETE. (6"^^ Flowers.) 

FLEUR DE CHAMPS. Petticoat of striped silk, rose 
and white, trimmed with rows of velvet, edged with gold ; a 
green satin tunic looped up with wheat ears ; on the right side 
a bouquet of wild flowers ; velvet bodice, Louis XV. style, 
trimmed with gold ; a collar of green satin, forming revers ; 
apron, with lace pocket and bib ; a coquettish hat, with wild 
flowers, and placed on the side of the head. 

FLEUR DE LYS. Brocaded skirt over a farthingale, 
silver lilies embroidered on satin tunic, bertha studded witli 
lilies, and fastened with silver lily ; hair powdered, diamond 
lily in the hair, 

FLEUR DE THE. A Japanese costume made of 


Japanese cotton, with broad band of Oriental twill, gold silk 
tunic, broad sash ; embroidered fans ; gold pins in the hair. 

FLEURETTE. Red satin short quilted skirt; white 
brocaded over-dress, trimmed with lace and flowers ; powdered 
hair ; S(juare bodice ; ruffles ; fan ; red stockings ; black shoes. 
Also a Normandy or Breton peasant costume with sabots. 

FLORA MACDONALD. White satin dress, made 
with plain skirt and half-high bodice ; hair in curls ; plaid of 
Macdonald tartan (Clan Ronald) over the head; buckled 
shoes ; long mittens. 

FLORA MclYOK {lVa7'er/e}'). White silk skirt and low 
bodice ; tartan scarf draped loosely across, secured with Scotch 
brooches on shoulders ; long hanging sleeves ; hair in curls ; 
black velvet Scotch bonnet with plumes. 

FLORENTINE LADY (from Taddeo GaddVs picture). 
Dress of rose-coloured satin over a peacock-green skirt ; 
bodice square and close-fitting, bordered with gold braid ;, 
tight sleeves, with pendent ones from shoulder, trimmed with 
ermine, which is also carried down the side of skirt, made as^ 
a train, open half a yard from edge, on both sides showing 
under-dress ; skull cap of green velvet, embroidered in rose- 
and gold colour, with tulle veil ; hair flowing. 

FLO^WER-GIRL. May be carried out in various ways.. 
A tulle evening dress besprinkled with all kinds of flowers, a. 
straw hat with flowers on head. A poudre dress with flowers... 
The most general style is a short bright-coloured skirt, velvet 
bodice, laced stomacher, muslin apron with or without bib,, 
bunches of flowers about them ; a basket of the same in hand y. 
a straw hat with ribbons, or a wreath of flowers. {See Plate V., 
Fig. 1 8, also Vierlander). Sometimes a chiffonier's basket is 
carried at the back filled with flowers, and a Normandy cap 
worn. A pretty dress is a laced bodice and skirt of pale blue 
serge, edged with rows of velvet ; cambric apron ; basket of 
flowers; sleeves puffed to wrist. Or, a pink sateen, with black 
velvet bodice. A Vaudois flower girl wears a wheel-shaped 
lace cap, and straw hat above, with woollen skirt ; square 
bodice ; low under-bodice ; velvet yoke, and ribbon streamers. 
Sometimes bright-coloured silk handerchiefs are draped about 
the head. 


FLOWERS. A fashionable evening dress trimmed with 
any flower, and called after it, is the easiest kind of fancy cos- 
tume ; a tulle veil with wreath is often worn with this, and 
china floral ornaments ; a basket of the flowers carried in the 
hand. Sometimes the flower is imitated ; as for example : 
Blue Belle, blue shoes, stockings, and short skirt cut in 
Vandykes, yellow bodice, cap like an inverted bell, with green 
stalk. Sometimes the dress is the colour of the flower, viz., a 
violet evening gown made up with silver gauze and green leaves 
for a Violet. Forget-me-not, blue satin dress, border of 
flowers, muslin fichu and cap, apron trimmed to match, blue 
hose, shoes, and mittens; or the dress is embroidered with wild 
flowers, wallflowers, apple-blossom, ivy, fern, snowdrop, la mar- 
guerite, heartsease, forget-me-nots, buttercups, or any flower per- 
rsonated. Fleur d'ete, Fleur des Champs, and Oracle 
■des Champs, can be rendered after these fashions ; or if more 
•of a fancy costume is desired, the lower part of skirt is gathered 
in diamonds, and outlined with silver or gold braid, or leaves 
and flowers ; the bodice made d la Louis XV., and trimmed 
with gold or silver ; an apron with bib, and a coquettish hat at 
one side of the head entwined with the particular flower. 
For Water-lily, see Water-nymph ; for Rose, see R. ; Pear 
and Apple Blossom, &c. 

FLY. Black tulle dress, veiled with dark blue gauze ; wings 
of the same ; low bodice ; a cap representing the head of fly. 

FOG. Smoke coloured net, with silk bodice, and tulle 
scarf bound round figure ; long grey gloves ; shoes, hose, and 
fan, all deep grey. 

FOG, YELLOW. Carried out in deep orange tulle, with 
one skirt of grey tulle thrown all over it ; a veil of grey over 
orange tulle falling from the one shoulder ; hose, shoes, and 
gloves orange. 

FOLLOW MY LEADER {Sforefs Picture). Red-coat 
bodice, with revers ; wide silk band and sash about the waist ; 
cocked hat and feathers ; short blue skirt. 

FOLLOW THE DRUM. Short dark blue skirt and 
jacket, braided with gold and red facings ; three-cornered hat 
and long white feather ; drum carried at side. {See Vivandiere.) 

FOLLY, FUN. Short white satin skirt with plaited 

17. "Jroilx^. 


/CC . lUruioai? C4^- .ht^io ^/vJi 


flounce, three over-skirts, of alternate colours, cut in Vandykes, 
edged with gold braid, a bell at each point ; low bodice and 
short sleeves, w^ith bertha and basque cut in points of alternate 
colour, tipped with bells ; cap of the two shades, like an 
inverted cornucopia ; a fool's bauble, viz., doll's head and 
skirt, carried in hand ; ornaments, bells. Good mixtures of 
colour are pink and blue ; red, yellow, and black ; blue and 
red. Or, square cut bodice with square collars and streamers, 
bordered with bells ; high boots. (See Plate V. Fig. 17.) 
Goddess of FoJly, white satin dress made en sacque, 
decorated vv'ith discs of black velvet ; a fool's cap to match. 
Priestess of Folly wears a white satin sleeveless robe and 
the black velvet Phrygian cap ; silver snake ornaments ; 
powdered hair. {See also Polichinelle.) 

quilted skirt ; maroon double-breasted tail-coat, brass buttons ; 
black waistcoat showing beneath the jacket in front, and 
lace ruffles ; hair powdered ; tricorn black and gold hat ; gold- 
headed cane in hand. {See Plate V., Fig. 19.) 

FORD, MRS. {Merry Wives of Witidsor). Pink silk skirt 
of walking length, with rows of black velvet, worn over hoop ; 
a black velvet train bunched up ; low black pointed bodice, 
pink bows down front ; a muslin fichu edged with lace over 
neck, with bow in front ; five rows of pearls tight round throat ; 
sleeves to elbow, with ruffles ; hair turned off face in double 
roll, and powdered ; black hat, with pointed crown and pink 
ribbons, and bound with pink ; pink stockings and black 
shoes. Any colour is admissible. 

FORGET-ME-NOT. Skirt formed of festoons of blue 
tulle ; baby bodice of same, with short sleeves, all bordered 
with forget-me-nots ; hair loose ; head-dress of blue silk like 
large inverted forget-me-not, with green stalk ; blue shoes. {See 


FOUNDLING DRESS. {See Charity Girls.) 


distinguishing features are : flowing skirts ; bodices coming 
\vell down on hips, with stomachers ; cloak from shoulder ; 
head-dress with veil. Sumptuary laws prevented the wearing 

G 2 


of costly fur by any but noble ladies or their attendants. This 
period includes the reigns of Edward 11. III., Richard 11. , 
Henry II. It was a time when very extravagant materials 
were employed. The spencer or jacket bodice was bordered 
with fur, having sleeves to wrist, and often long pendent ones 
over these. The Cote-Hardie was also worn. Parti-coloured 
dresses were adopted; and the sideless garment faced with 
fur ; long streamers from the elbow. The reticulated head- 
dress towards the latter part of the century showed the hair 
gathered in a caul at side, a veil at back. 

FRANCE. Short white satin dress with stripes of red, 
white, and blue, emblazoned with arms in gold ; low bodice 
draped to correspond, gold filigree eagle on the shoulders, 
and in the hair with bows of red, w^hite, and blue ; square fan 
covered with red, white, and blue. Or, white satin dress, the skirt 
trimmed with three rouleaux of colour, interlaced with gold 
cord, two satin pockets in front, with two tricolours escaping 
from them, festooned at the side, and joined to two sash-ends 
of tricolour at the back ; long satin bodice of pale grey, 
trimmed with gold; scarlet satin cap; shoes; white stockings 
with red clocks. 

FRANCIS I. {Time of), costume worn by Duchess of 
Leinster at Marlborough House Fancy Ball. Green satin 
petticoat, with three rows of gold embroidery ; gown of 
scarlet, opening in front, jewelled on either side, the whole 
covered with gold embroidery ; close-fitting low square pointed 
bodice, jewelled girdle and pendant ; rows of jewels at top of 
bodice ; full slashed and puffed sleeve to wrist, of white and 
green ; open hanging sleeves of red satin, lined with sable, 
fastened with jewelled clasps at elbow, lace ruffles; head- 
dress, a coronet of jewels. At this time very handsome 
stuffs were worn ; it is identical with the Tudor period in 

FRANCIS II. (1559-1560.) Is identical with'the Medicis 
period. A grande dame of the court would wear an under-skirt 
and sleeves of white satin, embroidered at the feet ; bodice 
and skirt of blue velvet richly embroidered down the sides ; 
the square bodice pointed at the waist ; outlined with 
jewelled band and festooned with jewels ; wired lace ruff from 
shoulders ; sleeves one puff to elbow, white satin slashed with 
blue; three puffs to wrist ; Marie Stuart jewelled coif, jewelled 


girdle hanging in front ; veil of gold and gauze floating at 

FREEMASON, FEMALE. Black velvet dress; white 
satin Watteau sacque, trimmed with svvansdown ; swansdown 
ruff at throat ; hair powdered ; quaint velvet hood, studded 
with pearls and Masonic emblems ; a Master Mason's apron 
and collar of office, with pendent gauntlets and Masonic 
jewels ; clock at girdle. 

FRENCH PEASANT-GIRL. Pink and white striped 
petticoat, short blue and white over-skirt ; black velvet basqued 
bodice, low square, with shoulder-straps ; white low chemisette 
and short sleeves, bodice laced in front over white, with blue 
and white cord ; white apron, with pink and blue bows ; 
dainty muslin cap. This character admits of many varieties 
and mixtures of colour. {See also White Dresses. For 
other French costumes see Empire, Incroyarle, Mer- 
VEILLEUSE, Boulogne Fishwife, Normandy, &c.) 

FRIESLAND PEASANT. The bust is encased in 
two bodices, one of cloth with sleeves of bright-coloured silk ; 
over it another, tightly laced with red or yellow ribbon, the 
tags of gold or silver on the left side for unmarried, on the 
right for married women. Out of doors, a short jacket with 
sleeves of printed calico, embroidered in gold or silver, is worn. 
The head-dress is most peculiar, made of striped calico, and 
kept out in a helmet shape by starch. It is after the old 
Phrygian order. The under-petticoat is of crimson cloth, 
with black border; over it a black plaited one, with velvet 
border ; silk apron ; chatelaine silk bag, with silver mountings ; 
bunch of keys hanging on other side. 

FRIQUETTE {Les Pres St Genmse). Short blue silk 
skirt, with white muslin lace-edged flounces ; muslin apron with 
forget-me-nots and roses on pockets ; muslin kerchief and high 
Cauchoise cap, with forget-me-nots ; hair in long plaits ; high- 
heeled shoes, blue stockings. 

FROST. (6*^^ Winter.) 

FROST, MRS. JACK. Poke bonnet for head-dress; 
white dress and cloak. 

FUCHSIA. Dress of red satin, made in the form of a 
fuchsia, and laced up the back ; sleeves also shaped like 


fuchsias, with pearl and other pendent beads ; cap of fuchsia 
form ; small fuchsias attached to bracelet and necklet. Or, a 
bodice made with no visible fastening, an effect produced by- 
turning up the two back leaves and having them laced 
together after dress is on ; sleeves in the form of fuchsia 
with the stamens falling on the arm to elbow ; made of pearls 
and other beads ; cap ; a complete fuchsia necklace and 
bracelets formed of several pendent fuchsia. 

FUN. (See Folly.) 

GABRIELLE D'ESTREES (Mispress of Henry IV.), 
1589. She was dazzlingly fair, with brilliant dark eyes, and 
had abundant hair worn brushed back from the forehead and 
temples in a double roll, and encircling the head in coils, 
entwined with pearls. Her rich brocades stood alone. Flemish 
or English point lace should be worn. Bodice long-waisted, 
close-fitting, high to neck, with Elizabethan ruff. She was 
fond of black satin, embroidered in pearls and precious 
stones. Her dainty silk stockings and high-heeled shoes were 
famous. Violet velvet over skirt and bodice ; sleeves trimmed 
with fine Indian muslin to wrist ; plain white satin under-skirt 
trimmed with gold lace, and gold cord over a farthingale ; 
violet velvet head-dress, with ^ white feathers; large ruff of 
pointed lace. 

GAINSBOROUGH {After), generally represented by 
the famous Duchess of Devonshire. This celebrated picture 
was 60 inches high by 45 wide ; it was supposed to have been 
painted about 1783. It is described as "Duchess of Devonshire 
in a white dress, and blue silk petticoat and sash, and a large 
black hat and feathers." The figure is shown only to knees. 
Supposed to be a portrait of Georgiana, the beautiful Duchess 
of Devonshire. In 1876, it was purchased for ;^io,iooby 
Mr. Agnew, and shortly after it was stolen. Blue satin flowing 
skirt ; long over-skirt of figured cream silk ; long sleeves and 
belted bodice of same ; kerchief, bordered with frill, crosses in 
front, ends disappear in waist band. Hair powdered, and 
turned off face in a large roll, larger at the sides than the top,, 
ends curled, floating on shoulders ; or the hair powdered ; long 
strip of muslin entwined with it, forming a turban ; almond- 
coloured kid mittens ; high-heeled black shoes ; very large hat 
of velvet or satin, with plumes. May be carried out \w 


velvet, brocade, or satin ; diamonds, pearls, and old lace. 
A simpler style after this artist is a short, scanty, white 
muslin dress, with a flounce round the edge, blue sash with 
large bow at back ; muslin fichu and cap bordered with 
frills ; tight sleeves to wrist. (See Plate VI., Fig. 24.) Lady 
Barbara Yelverton (after Gainsborough). Wears a 
plain white muslin gown with short sleeves ; ruched at the neck 
and elbows with bows of rose-coloured or blue ribbons; a large 
sash of corresponding colour tied round the waist; an 
elaborately-trimmed lace cap. A Grey Gainsboro', 1775. 
Upper skirt and bodice of pale grey ottoman ; silk petticoat, 
pale coral broche velvet ; hat of grey silk, with pale coral 

GALATEA. Long white cashmere skirt, Indian muslin 
embroidered with a Greek scroll. A peplum of the same 
coming from the shoulders, forming points at the side, termi- 
nating in tassels, bordered with gold braid and fringe ; armlets 
and bracelets with chains ; gilt band round the head and 
waist, hair flowing. 

GALICIAN MATRON. Skirt of dark coloured 
brocaded cloth in plaits a quarter of a yard wide ; bodice 
buttoning in front, with a double turn-down cape, edged 
with narrow plaiting and buttons, showing white under-bodice, 
with two up standing frills, and many beads ; bonnet made 
of same material with white lining in front, and revers of 
same material dress ; tight sleeves to elbow. 

GARDE CHAMPETRE. Short brown skirt draped 
with dark blue velvet ; bodice of the same, high, and jacket- 
shaped with brass badge on the sleeve ; high hat covered with 
birds ; red necktie. 

GARDENER'S DAUGHTER {Ficture by Mdlle. 
Achilles Fould). Chiffonier's basket slung at back, with 
flowers therin ; lace fichu tied carelessly round the neck ; red 
woollen skirt ; white muslin apron ; black bodice loosely 
buttoned in front ; white sleeves peeping below tight long ones ; 
a bunch of flowers in the hand. 

GAULEUSE DE POMME. Short petticoat of blue; 
over-skirt and bodice of white and chocolate stripe, with blue 
waistcoat cut low in front ; white muslin short sleeves, pay- 


sanne cap of muslin, with rosette of two colours, black shoes, 
striped stockings. Basket of apples carried in the hand. 

GEM OF THE OCEAN, THE. The idea of this 
dress is taken from the anemone tanks of an aquarium. The 
dress, pale coralline satin ; the trimmings, fringes, and groups 
of natural seaweeds, all of the most delicately-tinted kinds, 
small pearly shells, and large pink anemones, imitations of the 
real actiniae, with their spreading tentacles placed here and 
there all over the dress — on the shoulders, front of bodice, and 
in the hair (interspersed with seaweed), and looping up the 
poufs of satin on the skirt. Very palest shade of green would 
have a charming effect. Shell ornaments round the neck. 

GENERAL {Lady). High leather boots, kilt-plaited red 
cloth skirt, green cloth pointed bodice fastened at the side ; 
field glass slung round figure ; cocked hat. 

MERCY {after Wilkie Collitiss heroine). Black stuff 
dress, hardly touching the ground, high bodice, sleeves to 
wrist, linen collar and cuffs ; muslin cap. At Fancy Balls 
the dress is sometimes made of green merino ; bibbed apron 
of cambric, the lower edge turned up, forming pockets, with 
rolls of lint for bandages, and small cases of plaster; the 
badge, viz., a red cross on white, fastened on right arm below 
the shoulder, either cloth or muslin. {See Plate IX., Fig. 33.) 

GENEVIEVE DE BRABANT. Mediaeval skirt of 
gold brocaded tissue, over-dress, bodice and tunic one side 
pink the other white, trimmed with hearts and caught up 
with a girdle ; it hangs as a train at back ; gold brocaded 
sleeves, tight to wrist, pink satin hanging ones, lined with 
amber ; steeple head-dress of pink satin bordered with ermine. 
A gauze spangled veil depending. 

GEORGE I., 1714-24; II., 1717-60; III., 1760-1820; 
IV., 1820-30 {Time of). The ladies wore powder up to 
1795, and hoops from 17 11 to George IV. 's reign. The 
Georgian dress for Fancy Balls is a satin skirt, plain or 
quilted, over-dress of brocade, velvet, or silk, with coloured 
embroidery. Sometimes the skirt has a petticoat and tunic, 
sometimes a train and front breadth trimmed with lace, 
flowers, pearls, and diamonds ; the bodices pointed, low, 


or high square, with stomachers trimmed. Elbow-sleeves, 
with ruffles ; jewelled necklaces, or floral ones, made with a 
puff" of ribbon and a flower alternately, tied tightly round the 
throat. Sacques were much worn {see Watteau). Feathers, 
pearls, and flowers on the powdered hair ; also flat caps and 
gipsy hats. In George Ist's Reign, 17 14-1724, women 
wore hoops, the sacque was introduced ; the hair dressed low 
and covered with frilled caps, and aprons were universally worn. 
George II., 1727-1760. Long trained skirt; powdered hair, 
fichus ; large hats and feathers ; sashes about waist ; lace 
rufiles ; long gloves ; large gold w^atches and chains showing 
at side. The taste of the day was mock pastoral, and men 
and women of the court — as Corydon and Sylvias— dressed 
as shepherds and shepherdesses. The hoods of the ladies 
denoted their politics by the colour. The Spectator writes, 
"I took notice of a little cluster of women sitting together 
in the prettiest coloured hoods I ever saw ; one of them 
was blue, another yellow, another philomel, the fourth 
was of a pink colour, the fifth of a pale green. I am 
informed that this fashion spreads daily, inasmuch that 
the Whig and Tory ladies begin already to hang out diff'erent 
colours, and to show their principles in their head-dress." 
The hood was succeeded by the capuchin ; long gloves 
were ruffled on the arms; huge watches and chatelaines hung 
at the side ; the women's hoops, however, grew and grew ; they 
were made of whalebone, and rendered life a struggle. How to 
get in and out of a room, and how to get into a sedan, 
occupied thought and attention, and the satirists of the day 
hurled their shafts without mercy. In the Georgian period 
the prettiest shoes found favour; high heels, pointed toes, 
rosettes, diamond buckles, and embroideries. In George 
III., 1 760-1820, they wore petticoats flounced, long trains, 
square bodices, and wide open elbow sleeves; older women, lace 
hoods. The hair was powdered, drawn off" the face over very 
high cushion, and long chignons at the back with powdered 
marteaux ; long buttonless gloves, often embroidered on the 
outside of the hand, large painted vellum fans; bracelets, jewelled 
necklaces, such as the esclavage ; rows of gold chains ; beads 
or jewels falling in festoons, covering the neck ; the Macca- 
roni head-dress was worn, all curls, puff's, and flowers, with long 
side curls ; hoops, and paniers, bodices with long waist. {See 
XVIIIth Century.) In the latter part of the reign short waists 


came in. George IV., 1820-30. During this reign short waists 
and plain short skirts prevailed, together with huge flap hats. 

GERMAIN E {Les Cloches de Corneville). Brown stockings, 
high-heeled black shoes ; short skirt, with two box-plaited 
flounces of cerise and white silk ; plastron waistcoat of the 
same ; white scarf tunic, brown velvet low square jacket-bodice 
with striped pockets ; transparent sleeves from shoulders ; 
cerise silk cap. Second dress : Short skirt, tunic, and low square 
bodice of brown, bordered with yellow ; muslin fichu inside ; 
brown cap and tassel. Blue and white, and pink and cardinal, 
sometimes substituted. 


Stiff skirt touching the ground, lined half a yard up with 
velvet, a wide band of the same above; long white apron 
worked in cross-stitch ; low square velvet bodice, high white 
chemisette, sleeves tight but puffed and slashed at shoulders 
and elbows ; satchel bag and keys at side. This is a very 
favourite style for XVIth century. German costume. 
Sometimes a large linen cap and veil are added ; and a stiff 
ruff like a collar, of the same material as bodice. In the 
upper classes much profuse embroidery was introduced on 
front of bodice and throat band. 

GERMAN PEASANT. Short skirt, green or red, 
plaited to waist, bordered with gold ; large square apron, white 
chemisette, and long sleeves ; low velvet bodice, laced across 
with silver ; round velvet cap and streamers, worn at the back 
of head. This is the ordinary German peasant dress. 
German Peasant Brides appear in gorgeous raiment. A 
Mecklenberg bride, for example, has a high tapering silver coro- 
net, rows of beads round the neck, a red sash round the waist, a 
skirt of brocaded silk, the stockings red, and rosettes on the 
shoes. At Starnberg the brides wear large white embroidered 
aprons, almost covering the dress, and a fichu of the same 
tucked into the laced velvet bodice, a wreath replacing the 
usual fur-shaped busby. {See Starnberg.) At Fancy Balls 
becoming dresses are more studied than the correctness of the 
national costume. {See Bavarian, Black Forest, and 
Austrian Peasants.) 

GILLE. White silk short skirt, trimmed with box-plaited 
flounces ; blue silk tunic ; coat bodice cut as low square ; vest 
of blue silk; revers, cuffs, and collar of the same; short 


sleeves and long gloves; white hat; black shoes; blue 

GILPIN, MRS. JOHN. Short white or brocaded dress, 
with paniers and fichu, trimmed with lace ; large satin hat, and 
hair poudre, or mob cap. 


AND ZINGARI. For the pedlar and fortune-teller order of 
Gipsies, a short red, black, or print skirt, loose red bodice, with 
belt ; yellow handkerchief round neck, red cloak, straw bonnet, 
and basket stocked with laces, clothes-pegs, cheap jewellery, 
packs of cards ; bright red petticoat with band of black velvet 
and gold braid on either side. Algerian tunic, velvet bodice, 
low square short turreted sleeves, trimmed with gold braid and 
sequins, gold cord from shoulder attached to a small dagger at 
the waist ; chemisette of soft muslin with puffed sleeves tied at 
elbow with black velvet ; orange and red handkerchief tied 
round head, the ends crossing at back fastened with large gold 
pins ; coin ornaments. Or, a striped woollen petticoat, a 
blue jacket, cut V-shape at neck, lined with maize; a 
muslin apron and bib, playing-cards sewn to skirt; worsted hand- 
kerchief tied over head. The more ornamental Gipsy Queens, 
&c., wear short dresses of red, yellow, and black satin be- 
trimmed with gold, as follows : Red satin petticoat, with black 
velvet and gold hieroglyphics, trimmed with coins and gold 
fringe ; gold satin upper-skirt, covered with a gold trellis-work, 
and Vandykes with coins, Spanish balls, and fringe ; silk scarf 
of many colours round waist, stay-bodice of black velvet, 
trimmed with gold, short sleeves, black velvet bag ; gold crown 
with coins, bracelets and armlets united by chains, coin orna- 
ments ; a tambourine in hand. This is equally applicable for 
a Zingari or Bohemienne, except that a gold net and coins is 
best fo'- the head. High black satin boots with gold trim- 
mings, or black shoes embroidered in gold, and sometimes a 
white chemisette above the low bodice, black gloves, black 
stockings ; pale yellow flowered skirt, draped with jonquil 
satin, crape sash studded with stars ; red satin bodice over 
lace ; yellow gauze draped across the shoulders ; scarf of red 
and yellow gauze about the head. {See also Portuguese 
GiTANA, Preciosa, and Esmeralda, and Coloured Illustra- 
tion V.) 


GIRL GRADUATE. In academical robe and cap, 
which may be of plain or brocaded silk in black orcolours. Or, 
dark blue velvet dress with black University gown faced with 
blue; doctor's hat ; scarlet stockings ; black shoes; lace cravat; 
hair tied in a cue with ribbon. {See Plate VI., Fig. 21.) 

GIROFLE, GIROFLA. White skirt, trimmed with 
gold braid ; draped tunic, embroidered in gold and confined 
by gold girdle ; bodice low, trimmed with gold lace ; ruffles ; 
festoons of pearls about bodice ; Spanish comb and veil. Or, 
front breadth of quilted satin intersected with pearls ; long 
flowing skirt trimmed at the back with bands of colour ; square 
bodice ; elbow sleeves ; Spanish veil of white lace, and high 

GIRO LA {Manteaux Noir). Black satin dress with gold 
braid and gold butterflies ; gold and white scarf across the 
skirt ; black satin bodice embroidered with gold, sleeves of 
gold beads ; head-dress of black satin and gold braid, in form 
of toque ; red and white bouquet. 

GITANA. Red shirt, black tunic, with black velvet 
bands embroidered with gold and coins ; red body and cap ; 
black gloves and shoes. {See Gipsy and Portuguese.) 

GLEANER. Short yellow skirt ; red tunic ; black velvet 
low bodice, laced across the front, cut in tabs at waist ; short 
sleeves and low chemisette ; hat with flowers, sometimes a 
coloured handkerchief wound about the head. Or, an evening 
dress of maize and brown tulle, all trimmed or embroidered 
with wheat, cornflowers, and poppies ; a sickle at the side ; 
wheat-sheaf and wreath. Or, amber satin skirt, red over-skirt 
and bodice, with large muslin kerchief; hat enriched by wreath 
ofgrain and poppies; sickle at one side. Rachel the Gleaner: 
orange-coloured handkerchief loosely thrown over the hair 
and tied in front ; grey bodice with cream fichu, quite plain 
and unfrilled ; over-skirt grey with wheat ears in the lap ; 
orange-coloured petticoat ; grey stockings or tanned shoes ; 
sickle in hand, and bunch of corn poppies and juettes. {See 
Plate VI., Fig. 22.) 

GLEE MAIDEN", THE. White satin dress, trimmed 
with blue satin and silver lace, blue satin ribbons hanging from 
the waist, with silver bells round the skirt ; jacket of blue 
satin and silver, ornamented with bells, under which are worn 


.Sa/IV SiocLuate 

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three waistcoats of different coloured brocade ; head-dress, 
gold and silver net, and silver bodkin ; boots, blue satin and 

GLOAMING, IN THE. Dress of grey tulle, or 
muslin, or gauze over satin, made as an ordinary evening 
dress, or in classic fashion; a veil of the same material ; fire- 
flies imprisoned in the tulle ; bat fastened on one shoulder, 
an owl on the other ; silver and smoked pearl ornaments. 

GLO^WWORM. Evening dress of light brown satin or 
tulle with an electric star in the hair. 

GOAT GIRL. JRed and white striped skirt, with red tunic; 
black velvet bodice, faced with red ; straw hat, with flowers. 


GODMOTHER FAIRY. (See Hubbard, Mother.) 

GOOD LUCK. White satin dress with silver spangled 
tulle ; skirt made short, bordered with a box-plaiting, on each of 
which a horse shoe fastened with a nail. Over this tulle, 
draperies and deep bands of satin from the waist, fastened 
with horse-shoes, as if nailed down ; white satin cuirass 
bodice ; diadem in form of horse shoe. 

GOOSE GIRL (fairy Tale). A fashionable white satin 
dress covered with silver tissue, lace, and silver trimmings. 
Short skirt, low full bodice with silver belt, cap of silver tissue. 

GOLD. Dress of gold tissue, with fringe and coins 
introduced on it and the head-dress, fan, and ornaments. (See 
Money and Coins.) 

GOLD, A SHOWER OF. Short white satin petticoat, 
draped with lace, the whole skirt entirely covered with gold 
sequins ; round the bottom a full frill of white lace sequins and 
gold fringe. Bodice of gold tissue webbing, with short sequin 
sleeves ; wide band of very pale blue satin, tied round under 
the arms and across the front, matching another band roiind 
the head. The whole body trimmed with chains of sequins. 

GOLD MINE. Dress of white and gold brocade or 
tulle, made as a fashionable evening dress, trimmed with 
sequins ; a painted panel let into one side, with a sketch of a 
gold mine. 

GOLDEN HEN. Bodice, wings, and tunic made of 
brown feathers to resemble the body of the hen ; flounced 
skirt of ecru lace ; belt and shoulder-sash of soft gold lace ; 


gilt eggs in basket ; lace mittens outlined with gold ; hen's 
head for head-dress. {See Cock.) 

GOLDEN IDEA. White satin skirt trimmed with gold 
braid, gauze fringe, and sequins ; polonaise of cream material 
embroidered in gold, caught up with bunches of golden lilies, 
ferns, and daises : bodice with revers of gold lace ; hair 
powdered with gold dew, spray of golden flowers on one side ; 
shoes embroidered with gold. 

GOLF. Grass green tulle skirt, fringe of grass and gorse ; 
scarf of sand-colour draped round waist, and ornamented with 
balls and clubs ; and bright red golfing coat. 

GRACE DARLING. Short skirt, striped bodice and 
tunic in one, belt at waist ; sailor collar and tie ; a red silk 
sailor's tasselled cap on head. Wide sleeves lined with white 
and rolled up. A life-buoy fastened to back of dress, a small 
lighthouse and anchor as a chatelaine, ropes round the waist, 
a lighted lantern in the hand, a fishing-net on shoulder. This 
may be carried out in navy blue and red and white cotton, or 
serge ; or more prettily, in red, and red and white soft silk. 
Hair curled, a coil at back. (^S"^^ Plate VI., Fig. 23.) A more 
fanciful rendering of the character is a sky-blue petticoat 
bodice and tunic of striped plush in scarlet, yellow, sage, and 
brown. The tunic edged all round with red life-buoys, and 
looped at the side with cord from which hang a lantern and 
large life-buoy of a yellow colour; blue sailor collar; blue 
turned back cuffs to the sleeves. 

GRACES, THE (Aglaia, Thalia, and Euphrosyne). 

Dressed in similar classic dresses, but of different colour ; 
Thalia in chiton, and under-dress of pale blue and silver ; one 
white and gold ; the other pale green. When intended to 
represent statuary, all in white ; faces powdered ; batting over 
the hair. 

FRONDE (1647). White dress, immense black hat, and 
cane in hand. (See Louis XIV. 

GRANDMOTHER, MYGREAT, or theGhostof my 
Grandmother, is generally rendered by a poudre dress of bro- 
cade, with large cap, sacque, fichu, quilted skirt, high heels, and 
stick ; lace mittens. Another style is a black dress with folds 
of muslin crossing the bust, large cap, spectacles, and white 


curls. For the Ghost of my Grandmother it must be all in 

GRANNY. Black satin gown with plain skirt ; white lace 
fichu ; muslin cap ; powdered hair. 

GRAPE GATHERER. Dress of red satin and purple ; 
the short under-skirt red, bodice and tunic of purple, with a 
panel of white satin on one side completely covered with 
bunches of green and white grapes ; a basketful of the fruit 
carried in hand. 

GRASSHOPPER. Tight fitting suit of sage green plush, 
with cap showing the .intennae ; or short green tulle dress 
over satin, with two green gauze wings on the sides of skirt ; 
low bodice ; cap of velvet, close fitting, with the horns of a 
grass-hopper at the top ; fan, a gauze leaf, veined. 

GREEK. Ancient Greek. — Wore the chiton or under- 
garment of linen or wool girded round the waist ; over this 
the diploidia which was wrapped round the shoulders and 
fastened on one side with a brooch or button serving for a 
cloak. In later days this was superseded by the chitonion, a 
sort of jacket joined on the shoulders and falling in points 
at the side, hiding the bodice : and also by the himation, 
also draped about the figure; the whole showed beautiful 
borderings of Greek designs and work. Only wool or linen 
are correct riiaterials. At Fancy Balls the costume is ren- 
dered by a flowing skirt of cashmere, the hem braided in gold ; 
chitonion, or sleeveless jacket, draped over the figure, made 
also in cashmere and braided. Gold belt, armlets, bracelets, 
and fillet on head. Modern Greek. — Hair in two long plaits, 
interwoven with gold ; round velvet cap and tassel ; silk 
trousers to ankle ; short skirt, sleeveless paletot, opening 
in front ; Zouave jacket, with long sleeves, green, red, 
or blue, the usual colours, trimmed with gold — it can 
hardly be too richly embroidered in gold ; an Oriental scarf 
round waist, loose sleeves, and veil of gold-spangled gauze. 
{See Maid of Athens. Plate XHL, Fig. 51.) 

GREENMANTLE. (&^ Walter Scott.) Plain skirt 
of yellow satin, slightly distended with hoops; loose green 
jacket, with deep basque and hanging sleeves ; lace ruffles ; 
long gloves ; fan ; black quilted hood, lined with yellow. 

GRETCHEN {Faust). Plain pink short skirt; flowing 
over-dress of blue ; square bodice, coming well down on the 


hips ; long skirt sewn to edge, bordered with gold ; white 
chemisette ; sleeves with white puffings at shoulder and elbow; 
hair in plaits ; rosary. Or, dress of grey cashmere made long 
and full, caught up with crimson bows, and a girdle and 
pouch, over a crimson velvet petticoat ; square bodice, with 
thick white chemisette to throat ; long sleeves puffed at the 
shoulders ; hair in two long pendent plaits. Or, hair covered 
with striped handkerchief, and one long plait ; grey stuff dress 
looped over scarlet petticoat, edged with dark blue, on which 
are rows of blue, scarlet, gold, and brown braid ; grey bodice 
with brown velvet braces ; sleeves large, puff at shoulder, 
upper portion plain, slashed at elbow, tight to wrist, falling 
over the hand in a cuff of pointed shape ; chemisette tied 
round neck with pale blue ribbons. 

GREY, LADY JANE. Generally represented in grey 
and white satin, or black velvet and white satin. The surcoat 
opens over jewelled stomacher and kirtle, and is bordered 
down the sides and bodice with ermine. The bodice is pointed 
at waist, square at neck ; chemisette of satin, quilted with 
pearls inside ; close honeycomb ruff at throat, a velvet coif, 
like Marie Stuart's, less i)ointed, bordered with pearls ; gauze 
veil. Long hanging velvet sleeves, tight under-ones of satin, wuth 
ruffles ; cloth of gold, the richest jewels, velvet, and brocade 
are admissible for her more prosperous days. Jewelled girdle, 
often pearls. The skirt or surcoat is full, and touches the 
ground. The kirtle is embroidered or quilted with pearls. 
{See Plate XIV. Fig. 53.) 

GRIGNAN, MADAME DE (Zom's XIV. reign). 
Quilted skirt and sacque, trimmed with lace, flowers, and 
pearls ; high-heeled shoes ; powdered hair ; wreath. Rose 
and ruby, white and pink, yellow and violet, are happy 
mixtures for this dress. 

GRISELDA OLDBUCK (T/ie Antiquary). Train 
and bodice of old-fashioned brocade, over satin-quilted petti- 
coat, and pointed stomacher ; sleeves to elbow with large 
ruffles ; lace apron ; antique gold ornaments, large eyeglass 
and chain ; long embroidered gloves, high-heeled shoes and 
buckles ; hair powdered, lace cap, patches. 

GRISETTE DE LA VENDEE. Short grey dress ; 
white apron ; low bodice made with a cape and revers, and 


full ; short sleeves ; cap pointed back and front forming a 
pouf over the face, J3ordered with lace. 

petticoat, tunic and Pompadour bodice of contrasting shade, 
hair powdered, small muslin cap and apron, high-heeled shoes, 
and mittens. 

GUARDIAN ANGEL. Wings of feathers attached to 
side, arching above the head, and descending below knee, 
made on a wire foundation, covered with net and feathers ; 
loose robe of white cashmere ; hair bound with gold fillet. 

GUINEVERE {Idylls of the King). Costly dress of 
gold tissue, velvet, and brocade ; the skirt long and flowing, 
fastened from neck to hem with jewelled clasps, if possible an 
emerald in each ; square-cut bodice, with jewelled bands round ; 
sleeves tight at lower part, of a distinct colour to the bodice, 
the upper portion slashed, and jewels introduced ; coronet of 
pearls ; hair in plaits. A long brocaded cloak enveloping the 
figure may be added. 

GYMNASIA. Red velvet short gown, with trapeze, 
dumb bells, parallel bars, and other gymnastic paraphernalia 
festooned about the bodice and skirt, and introduced as orna- 

GYNETH. Long skirt of soft white woollen stuff; bodice 
and tunic of grey satin bordered with gold ; jewelled girdle ; 
quiver slung round waist, bow in hand ; green cap with jewels 
and eagle plume. 

HAGAR. Long Jewish robe of grey, with hanging sleeves 
over yellow silk ; head enveloped in white muslin, hung with 
coins, or a loosely twisted turban of muslin with a veil 
depending therefrom. 

HAILSTORM. Short dress and long veil of spangled 
white tulle. 

HAMBURG FLOWER GIRL. {See Vierlander.) 

HAMILTON, MARY. {See Maries, the Queens.) 

HARDCASTLE, MISS {She Stoops to Conquer). Short 
skirt of olive green, made plain ; high-heeled shoes to match ; 
pink tunic open in front, pinned back with bows ; the bodice 
has elbow sleeves and a muslin fichu ; the becoming lace cap 
is cut with square ends at the back, and is trimmed with green 



ribbon. When the piece was acted, in 1773, the first dress 
was white figured with black; a silk scarf folded round the 
shoulders and tied behind the waist ; hair in ringlets ; large 
flat straw hat trimmed with ribbons. The second dress : 
plain silk, neat apron, small cap and mittens. Mrs. Langtry in 
the character appeared as follows : — First dress : pale lemon 
satin petticoat puffed and trimmed with embroidery ; pointed 
bodice, cut low; elbow sleeves, trimmed with old point; 
satin train, with brocade of moss rosebuds and leaves on gold 
ground ; point lace ruffles ; diamond buckles. Second dress : 
cream embroidered India muslin and Sicilienne square 
bodice, pointed in front, Watteau back, and elbow sleeves, 
trimmed with marigold ribbons and marigolds ; lace ruffles 
and fichu ; brown velvet hat and cream plumes ; Suede gloves. 
Third dress : short skirt of blue grey cashmere rolled to 
waist ; tunic at back ; pointed bodice ; elbow sleeves ; fichu 
apron ; ruffles of muslin ; cap of muslin and lace, with revers ; 
trimmed with coloured ribbons. Bunch of keys, scissors, 
needlebook, and pincushion attached to side by red ribbon ; 
grey stockings. {See Plate VII., Fig. 25.) 

HARDCASTLE, MRS. Plain satin skirt ; chintz over- 
dress; pointed bodice; elbow sleeves; fichu ; powdered hair; cap. 

HARDY, MISS LETITIA {Belle Strafageme). In first 
scene : wears grey brocaded satin gown made short; high heeled 
black shoes ; pink stockings ; white muslin hood fastened 
under chin with pink ribbons, and over it a hood of grey 
cloth, with rose lining ; carries a grey pink lined muff. In 
the next act : a white muslin and lace dress with sacque of 
lemon-coloured satin brocade ; pattern of brown foliage and 
blue blossoms ; wreath of yellow flowers knotted with blue 

HARLEQUIN ETTE. Short skirt of orange, blue, and 
scarlet, arranged in. diamonds ; jacket, bodice and tight sleeves, 
opening over a white waistcoat, a red scarf round the hips ; 
black cocked-hat, black cloth gaiters, black silk mask, and 
black wand ; or wooden baton in the hand. Or, white tulle 
dress and low black velvet bodice, with diamonds. Or, 
orange, black, and red satin carried diagonally across skirt to hem; 
mask and wand. This character is suitable for children. Or, 
short pleated black, red, and yellow satin skirt draped with 
red satin; tunic meeting cuirass bodice, copied from harlequin ; 

VII U:)0 CHai<jLcao tu., 

26. Jiaairwi. 

1^1 . Ji-tttet. 

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tight fitting coat ; short black satin shoulder cloak, with straight 
upstanding collar ; lined red ruff at throat ; cocked hat ; 
powdered hair. (See Arlequinette. Plate XV., Fig. 60.) 

HARVEST. Maize or brown tulle evening dress, 
trimmed with silver or gold lace and fringe, and chatelaines 
and garlands of poppies, wheat-ears, and silver or gold oats 
and corniowers, marguerites, and bunches of wheat tied with 
ribbon. A small wheatsheaf carried in the hand, a sickle at 
the side, diadem of field flowers. Or, gold train from the 
shoulders, lined with blue satin ; cream and blue satin dress, 
trimmed with gold wheat, poppies, and cornflowers ; on head, 
a wreath and gold scythe ; scythes on shoulders ; flowers on fan. 
August is dressed the same. 

HAWKING DRESS. Skirt of dark claret velvet ; over 
this a green velvet skirt, caught up at the side ; long basqued 
jacket ; with gauntlet gloves, cavalier hat and drooping feather ; 
high boots ; hooded falcon on wrist. XVIth-Century 
Hawking Dress : Long plain cream dress ; cream velvet 
over-dress ; bodice and skirt in one ; square at neck, with gold 
embroidery round hem and square bodice ; rolled epaulette ; 
hanging sleeves bordered with gold; caul cap; white under- 
chemisette; hawk on hand. 

HAYDEE. In modern Greek costume. Under-dress 
embroidered in pearls and gold ; over-dress lined with a con- 
trasting colour, edge trimmed with gold ; bodice and skirt in 
one ; trousers of striped silk or gauze ; folded turban with 
ornaments in fi"ont ; long veil and sleeves of gauze ; Oriental 
shoes, suitable colourings : blue and gold, red, green and 
gold. {See Greek.) 

HAYMAKER. Stuff petticoat of bright colour, tunic of 
a contrasting shade turned up over it ; loose chintz jacket with 
belt ; large straw hat, red handkerchief or sunflower hanging on 
shoulder ; basket at back, rake in hand. Or, petticoat of 
sage green, with salmon coloured bodice and tunic embroidered 
with grasses, buttercups and daisies, trimmings of miniature 
rakes and pitchforks ; a sunbonnet tied round the neck. 

HEARTS, QUEEN OF. (6*^^ Cards.) 

HEARTSEASE. Yellow satin petticoat and purple 

velvet tunic trimmed with gold. Or, short skirt of pale 

mauve tulle trimmed with thick purple velvet ruche at edge, 

lined with moss green, edged with silver cord, caught down 

H 2 


here and there with yellow pansies ; over-skirt, veils of shaded 
tulle, the lightest at the top, covered with pansies ; long loops of 
purple velvet lined with moss green at side ; pointed bodice, laced 
at back, of mauve satin, the basque bordered with gold fringe, 
front covered with a large purple heartsease ; elbow sleeves ; 
pansy fan; pansies in hair. Or, light straw-coloured skirt, 
with short veiled gold-threaded gauze ; stay bodice, straw 
coloured satin trimmed with heartsease; a large one forms the 
stomacher and the bodice ; a smaller one on the head. 

HEBE. Classical dress of white cashmere trimmed with 
gold ; loose peplum with gold belt, the sleeves short, fastened 
outside the arm with three buttons ; a gold fillet about the 
head ; classical ornaments. 

HELEN MACGREGOR. Short tartan skirt; low 
velvet bodice, laced across the front ; a plaid fastened with 
a brooch on one shoulder : Scotch bonnet of black velvet with 
an eagle plume and cairngorm, or red bonnet and feather ; 
sword and pistol at the girdle. Or, dress of dark material, short 
sleeves and skirt ; over it the Macgregor tartan, black and 
fed ; hair flowing ; Scotch hat and feather ; heather collarette 
.and belt ; plaid stockings. Or, plain green dress, with short 
sleeves ; gold band round head ; plaid over shoulders ; Scotch 
±)onnets ; word in hand. 

HELEN OF TROY. Classic under-dress of white 
woollen stuif, sleeveless, and just resting on the ground ; the 
.bodice full, clasped on the shoulders with gold ornaments, a 
gold zone at waist : over it a tunic, set in a band at neck and 
. ending below the hips, open at the sides, the points ending in 
a tassel ; Etruscan gold ornaments, gold armlets ; hair fastened 
'in Hebe knot, with curls escaping, three fillets of gold braid ; 
long veil ; sandals and gold braid. {See Greek.) 

HELENA [Shakespeare). Mediaeval robe of pale blue 
•satin, cut square at neck, trimmed with silver gimp or 
.embroidery, the skirt trimmed and draped with silver cord ; 
.a peacock fan ; Girard de Narbonne's prescription in the 
satchel pocket ; wreath of ivy-leaves ; veil of silver gauze. 

HELENA FORMAN. Rubens's second wife. {See 


HELIOTROPE. Heliotrope crepe draped with gold 
brocade ; the flowers introduced on to a fashionably-made even- 
ing dress. 


HELOISE {frovi Heloise and Abelard). Petticoat of 
white satin ; blue satin over-dress trimmed with black velvet 
and gold braid ; a black velvet satchel pocket and band loops 
up the skirt over the petticoat ; the bodice is cut square, and 
filled in with folded muslin ; long sleeves with muslin puff at 
elbow ; head-dress of blue satin and white muslin trimmed 
with velvet ; veil of white muslin. 

HELP, LADY. Neatly-made print dress such as domestic 
servants wear, high to the throat ; sleeves to the wrist ; linen 
collar and cuffs, Imen apron, a dust-pan and broom suspended 
from the waist. 

HEN. {See Golden Hen.) 


HENRY I. Period of (1135). The sleeves, trains, and 
veils, at this time were of tremendous length. There was 
a long robe with a shorter garment over ; the hair hung, 
in plaits; the period in the Health Exhibition of 1884 
was illustrated by two figures from the Aschafifenburg library ; 
one wears a white printed cotton under-garment ; a yellow, 
red, and black parti-coloured habit over, called the super- 
tunic or surcote, divided down back and front ; one half a 
figured stuff of yellow, black, and dark blue ; the other green, 
mauve, &c., the sleeves vice-versa^ fitting the arm closely to 
wrist ; the garment laces in front ; the hair hangs in one long 
plait encased in a woollen cover, and entwined with braid. The 
other figure was a woman of higher rank, wearing a white woollen 
under-dress trimmed with green, white, and slate, bordered with 
braid ; over-dress green, bordered with yellow, opens at side to 
show belt ; bodice round at throat, showing white under-habit; 
veil at back ; band beneath chin. 

HENRY II. Period of (1154-1 181). (6"^^ Eleanor of 

HENRY III. OF ENGLAND. Period of (1216-1272). 
The hair was worn in a coil, encased in gold thread ; the under- 
dress was confined by a waist-band ; the sleeves to wrist had a 
turn-back cuff" of lace ; the bodice was laced, and the over-dress 
reached to the feet. For example, a red robe fitting the waist, 
trimmed witli gold applique ; short sleeves bordered with gold, 
the hem also; white head-dress with wired wings at side; 
long veil ; green mantle lined white, fastened with gold clasp ; 
handsome materials were worn. 


HENRY III. OF FRANCE. Period of (1574). Dress 
of period, old gold broche ; under-dress of old gold guipure ; 
the bodice pointed, fastened with large, pearls ; farthingale round 
hips lined with ruby satin ; over-dress meeting bodice like a 
cuirass of diamonds and rubies ; rows of pearls round neck. 

HENRY IV. Period of (1399-1413). The cote Hardie 
flowing skirts fitting close to hips ; soft turban head-dresses 
were the leading features. For example, long skirt of pink 
cashmere ; grey bodice, trimmed wdth fur, forming a stomacher 
or surcote ; tight grey sleeves ; turn-down collar ; huge reti- 
culated head-dress of pink and white muslin, with veil. These 
head-dresses met with much ridicule ; the women were compared 
by satirists to horned snails, harts, and unicorns ; slit coats 
showing the under-dress through the apertures, and the 
sideless gowns, were also objects of popular derision. 

HENRY V. Period of (1413-1422). In this reign the 
horned head-dress assumed enormous proportions, great horns 
were added to the cauls, with the veils stretched to their fullest 
extent; the waist of dresses became short, and the sleeves 
covered the hands. 

HENRY VI. Period of (1422-1461). The trains grew 
longer, and were tightly girdled ; turn-down collars, of fur or 
velvet, came to a point over a distinctive stomacher ; horned 
head-dresses still worn ; turbans were carried up in a peak 
over the face. The Hennin, from Flanders, was in vogue, 
made of muslin with horns, ornamented with precious stones. 

HENRY VII. Period of (1485-1509). This period was 
illustrated in the Health Exhibition as follows : Maid Ser- 
vant, from picture at Obervvesel : Grey cashmere skirt, bound 
with w^hite, edged with black ; bodice to waist, cut low in front, 
outlined wath a band of white edged with black; white chemisette, 
showing close horizontal plaits ; white turban-like head-dress, 
black braided star in front. And a costume from the tapestry 
at Orleans : Brown under-dress and bodice with the belt and 
skirt trimmed with white ; the other robe loose and distinct, 
with turnback collar; over-dress brown, and reddish leather 
colour ; printed velvet, bordered with a strip of white ; sleeve 
in one puff to elbow, and then tight to wrist ; cap like a turban 
in the two shades of the dress. 

HENRY VIII. Period of (1509-1547). (.S"^^ Catherine 
OF Aragon ; Anne of Cleves ; Anne Boleyn ; Catherine 
Howard ; Jane Seymour ; Catherine Parr). Lady of 



(' .VI IWI 


the period : Under-skirt and sleeves of a light yellow-green 
satin, with an arabesque design in gold thread ; over-skirt, 
or kirtle, and bodice of violet velvet, embroidered with gold ; 
the kirtle lined with green, like the under-skirt, showing 
where the dress is looped up ; ruff of pleated cambric ; head- 
dress of violet velvet, encircled with pearls, and ornamented 
with a long white plume at the back ; worn over a chaperon 
of violet velvet, also edged with pearls. 

HERALD OF SPRING. Short full skirt of pale grey 
tulle, the lower part scattered with silk appliques of swallows 
holding in beak violets or primroses ; round the skirt, scarf of 
silver gauze tied behind and fastened on one side with apple- 
blossoms ; pointed laced bodice ; pink satin, or pink and silver 
brocade, cut low and draped round the neck with silver gauze, 
trimmed with cordons of violet, primroses, leaves ; short 
sleeves of silver gauze, across which are festoons of violets ; 
powdered hair, wreath of apple blossoms on one side ; on 
the other a stuffed swallow, in its beak a diamond heart ; wand 
in hand, with spring flowers tied with pink ribbon ; chain of 
shaded violets round neck ; pale pink shoes and hose ; fan of 
pink marabout, swallow in centre. 

HERMIONE. White cashmere or long loose red silk 
robe, made low and sleeveless, with belt. Over it a cloak of 
the same, all trimmed with gold fringes, crossed in front and 
draped ; diadem on head, flowing veil ; the whole as statuesque 
as possible. 

HERN AN I. Cream-coloured low square dress with 
train, trimmed with gold braid and Spanish lace, the sleeves 
slashed with crimson velvet ; hat of crimson velvet, and 
feather. Madame Sarah Bernhardt thus dressed the character. 

HERO. {Much Ado About Nothing). Dress of white satin, 
the skirt touching the ground, wrought in pearls, with gold 
and white ; over-dress of the same, forming a high square to 
low bodice ; the stomacher worked in pearls ; there is a wired 
ruff starting from the front of bodice widening at the back 
tight sleeves, lace rufiies at wrist, and epaulettes puffed and 
entwined with pearls on shoulder ; coronet, or band, or coif of 
pearls on the head ; the hair hanging in long ends, interplaited 
with pearls; pearled shoes. {See Coloured Illustration, No. VI.) 

HESTER GRAZEBROOK {She Stoops to Conquer). 
Grey cashmere dress with ruffles, fichu, and cap of soft muslin 
and fine lace. 


HIBERNIA. Long green classical robe; hair flowing ; 
a harp attached to the long peplum, the word Hibernia on the 
edge. {See Erin.) 

HIGHLAND LASSIE. {See Scotch Costume.) 

HINDOO LADY. {See Indian.) 

HOARFROST. White crystal tulle dress, the front of 
the skirt looped across with beads and crystal over silver 
tissue ; veil of the tulle, spray of frosted flowers on one side ; 
bodice, silk with silver tissue and crystal ; aigrette of frosted 

HOLBEIN, STYLE OF. {See Henry VII. and 
Henry VIII. , and his several wives.) 

HOLLAND. {See Dutch.) 

HOLLY. (&^ Winter.) 

HORNET. Short black or brown dress of velvet or 
satin ; boots to match ; tunic pointed back and front, with 
gold stripes; satin bodice of black or brown with gold 
gauze wings ; cap of velvet with eyes and antennae of insect. 
{See Coloured Illustration, No. VII.) 

HORTENSE, QUEEN. Dress of pink satin and 
silver embroidery, large bunch of natural violets on left 
shoulder ; round the short waist a zone of diamonds ; hair 
raised high ; diadem of pearls and diamonds. 

HOURS. Long flowing cashmere dress, with loose low 
bodice and pendent sleeves ; scarf draped on shoulders ; 
round the skirt a band, half blue half gold, with the hours 
upon it ; the hair flowing ; a crescent coronet of gold. Veil 
of spangled tulle ; gold armlets and necklet ; sandals. 

HUBBARD, MOTHER, Mother Bunch, Mother Ship^ 
ton, Nance Redfern, Dame Irot, Enchantress, Witch {see 
Coloured Illustration, XV.), and Fairy Godmother, are all 
dressed much alike. Mother Hubbard in a quilted petticoat 
touching the ground ; a chintz tunic open in front, bunched 
up ; muslin apron; low velvet bodice with deep point, laced 
across the front ; sleeves to elbow with ruffles ; muslin kerchief, 
close ruff ; spectacles, mittens, and stick ; a lace mob cap, and 
a high-pointed velvet sugar-loaf hat with peacock's feather over 
it ; high-heeled shoes with rosettes ; a small white dog ; the 




hair powdered or not powdered. Or, blue satin petticoat, 
cerise moire skirt, and laced body, looped up. Insignias, cat, 
or white Pomeranian or other dog, real crook, ebony stick, 
tortoiseshell rimmed spectacles, loaf of bread, bottles of 
white and red wine, and bone, &c. Highlow shoes, hair 
poudre^ with small steeple-crowned hat, lace apron and kerchief, 
Or, a print gown ; white apron ; red cloak with hood ; poke 
bonnet ; white cap and stick. She is sometimes accompanied 
by a boy dressed as a dog in white skin with large tail and 
nose. Mere Michel is the French Mother Hubbard. She 
wears a flowered chintz gown, white linen apron, checked 
handkerchief, while muslin cap, spectacles, blue stockings, 
feather broom. Mother Bunch is 2i\\i?iys poudre ; the same 
in other respects. Dame Trot wears a pointed hat not so high. 
Nance Redfern, Mother Shipton, and the Old Woman who 
Swept the Sky {see O), being witches, carry brooms, and on 
their skirts are toads, cats, serpents, curlews, frogs, bats, and 
lizards in black velvet ; a serpent twisted round the crown of 
hat, an owl in front, a black cat on shoulder. Sometimes a 
scarlet cloak is attached to the shoulders, and the velvet bodice 
is high, with pendent sleeves. 

HUGUENOT {after Millais). Black skirt and close- 
fitting bodice, with gathered basque of figured velvet, the 
sleeves to wrist, with lace cuff slashed with white satin at top ; 
close plaited ruff at throat ; hair waved and rolled from the 
face ; round velvet cap with row of pearls and white feather. 
(Plate VII., Fig. 26.) Or, satin dress, bodice to waist, and 
high to throat, the front with silver cloth let in ; ruff ; sleeves 
with six puffs to wrist, slashed ; hat of satin, bordered with 
silver, and a feather. 

HUGUENOT PERIOD. Long plain skirt of velvet ; 
low sleeveless bodice of the same, with white lace ; berthe and 
white muslin sleeves, coming below the elbow ; a band of 
velvet round the head ; the hair dressed in a coil, with curls 
depending from it. Or with a high bodice and deep basques ; 
tight-fitting sleeves, with a puff at the shoulder, slashed with 
satin ; a ruffle of velvet and satin, with a lace ruff inside ; 
white lace cuffs. Or, dark blue velveteen ; long plain skirt, 
and low sleeveless bodice, almost hidden by white lace berthe, 
also low ; sleeves of white muslin, confined below the elbow 
by narrow blue velvet run through lace ; hair loosely drawn 


back into a smooth knot, from which depend one or two long 
curls ; piece of blue velvet round the head, fastened with a 
bow at the top. Or, a long dark brown velveteen dress ; high 
bodice, with very deep basques all round ; tight fitting sleeves, 
with puff at the top, slashed with amber sateen ; ruffle of 
brown and amber lace ; white lace turned-down cuff's. 

HUMMING-BIRD. Dress of white tulle scattered all 
over with feathers and jewels ; the train composed entirely of 
feathers, ending in a point like a humming-bird's tail ; four 
little wings fastened between the shoulders ; a small bird on 
the head. 

HUNGARIAN. Short white or red satin skirt, with rows 
of gold braid and ermine ; blue or ruby tunic, with ermine ; 
low satin bodice, with ermine and bands of velvet ; jacket of 
velvet bordered with fur slung from shoulder ; round cap bor- 
dered with fur ; high patent leather hunting-boots. Or, some- 
times a long pelisse high to the throat replaces the jacket tunic 
and low bodice ; a gold and red scarf round hips ; ornaments, 
glass beads of different colours ; high boots bordered with fur ; 
the hair hanging in plaits, plain in front. Gold and silver 
embroidery admissible. 


White and gold dress over black Astracan ; short petticoat ; 
short cape on left shoulder ; black Astracan and blue busby. 
Or, blue under-skirt trimmed with silver bands ; dark green 
velvet over-dress, bordered with the same ; sleeves em- 
broidered in silver ; blue and silver cord across chest ; mantle 
and hat blue, trimmed with fur. 

HUNGARIAN PEASANT. White woollen skirt with 
rows of green velvet and red satin edged with gold ; low 
square red velvet bodice, braided in gold across the front, and 
cut in tabs, each ornamented with an Hungarian knot ; a watch 
hangs one side ; the Parta (head-dress) is of striped red, white, 
and green ribbons, the national colours ; white lace fichu ; red 
leather boots. The Hungarian peasant in the Bukowina wears 
a curious head-dress of silk, gold braid and feathers, and fur, 
fixed to a card-board foundation ; sleeveless leather jacket 
with the soft bunda, the hairy surface turned inside forming 
a furry edge ; linen sleeves, with Oriental embroidery ; sash, 
bright coloured silk, with bright velvet band. Another 


peasant costume is a head-dress formed of a bright coloured 
kerchief shaped Hke a fez ; plaited skirt of dark cloth 
trimmed with red and green ribbons ; silk apron of contrasting 
colour with bow and streamers ; white under-dress with long 
sleeves ; two coloured kerchiefs, one above the other, cover the 

HUNTING COSTUME {Louis XIII.) Close fitting 
bodice of peau de Suede ; skirt of emerald satin looped with 
gold braid ; boots and gloves of grey kid ; grey felt hat ; green 
and white feathers. 

brocaded silk and velvet laced with gold ; point lace cravat 
and ruffles ; three-cornered hat of white velvet laced with gold ; 
riding-whip with jewelled handle; hair turned back and 
powdered, and tied in a queue. 

HUNTRESS. Full satin skirt gathered at waist, well- 
fitting coat of contrasting satin, with coat tail, and large velvet 
hat with diamond aigrette and feathers, the pockets and cuffs of 
coat fastened with diamond buttons ; lace tie. Huntress of 
the Black Forest. A green velvet dress, quite short, trimmed 
with gold fringe ; high boots and gloves edged with fur ; bow 
and arrows slung across the back, and hunting-knife in the 
girdle ; cap of gold and green velvet. Time of Louis XIV. 
Short plain skirt of pink sateen ; waistcoat of white brocade, 
square pockets ; mousquetaire coat of blue satin, braided with 
silver ; three-cornered hat with feathers ; powdered hair in a 
queue ; whip and horn ; dark green trousers meeting the top of 
boots; green cloth petticoat with velvet hem ; dark green velvet 
coat with old gold satin cuffs and revers ; bag netted with gold 
cord ; the high hat has green-feathers. 

HURDY-GURDY GIRL. Short petticoat of light blue 
satin with band of Havana brown ; tunic of Havana brown ; 
loose bodice of white jaconet, open at neck ; full sleeves to 
elbow ; braces of black velvet united by three straps across 
both back and front ; cap formed of a blue and brown striped 
handkerchief; brown shoes; blue stockings; a hurdy-gurdy 
slung round neck. Or, white folded head-dress, red bodice, 
yellow skirt, imitation sabots, miniature organ, stuffed monkey. 

HUSSAR. Short blue velvet skirt and polonaise, and 
shoulder cape fastened on the left side with silver cord. 


trimmed with sable ; hussar jacket ; blue velvet cap, with a 
band of sable and white ostrich feather ; high boots trimmed 
with fur ; diamond earrings and brooch. Or, skirt of white 
silk and gold lace ; white jacket with gold facings, like an 
officer's full-dress uniform ; white military hat and aigrette ; 
high boots with gold lace ; military gloves. For Polish 
Hussar the Polish hat is worn. (See Polish.) 

ICE, ICICLE. A short white satin dress, draped with 
crystal fringe, silver tissue or swansdown, and tulle ; em- 
broidered silver veil, caught up with narcissus or frosted 
mother of pearl flowers ; hair powdered ; silver wreath of 
narcissus ; shoes and stockings embroidered with crystal beads. 
{See Winter.) 

ICE MAIDEN. White gauze dress; pointed tulle cap 
and veil fastened with wreath of icicles or ice-flowers spangled 
with powdered glass ; long gloves ; bracelets and chains of 
icicles ; girdle of falling icicles made of glass. 

ICE QUEEN. Soft white satin skirt, trimmed with 
frosted gauze, glass fringe and tiny silver bells ; bodice of 
crystallised gauze dotted all over with glass beads ; frosted 
holly, and robin redbreast nestling on shoulder ; a wreath of 
holly and glass beads. 

ICELAND, COSTUME OF. Black cap with long 
silk tassel on one side, the hair flowing loosely ; black jacket 
and skirt with apron of variegated stuff. This is the ordinary 
dress. Holiday attire is as follows : — White helmet-shaped 
cap, a golden diadem round the temples, wide over the fore- 
head, narrow at ears, tied behind with silk bow ; thin white 
veil ; black cloth bodice embroidered in gold round the 
neck, to the waist ; golden belt with pendants to knee. The 
black skirt is embroidered round the hem. 

ICELANDIC BRIDE. High black cloth dress, with 
long sleeves ; the stomacher embroidered in fine gold-work ; 
high white horn-shaped cap, with gold embroidered band ; 
lace veil ; large silver belt. 

IDA, PRINCESS. [SeeV.) 'Cassock of yellow brocaded 
silk, over flowing robe of white plush ; yellow stockings with 
white clocks ; academical cap. 

IDYLLS OF THE KING. {See Elaine, Enid, &c.) 



V I I'. l> 

il-. 1.1 /. 


IGNOLA {detta La Bella di Tiziand), (See Venetian.) 
IMOGEN. A long robe of soft white silk, made high to 
the throat, but without sleeves ; the full bodice girded in at 
the waist with a dead-gold band, and from thence the skirt 
flows evenly to the feet ; a gold band round the neck, and a 
circlet of the same, or a chaplet of pearls, on the hair, which 
might be left flowing ; on the right arm one bracelet, a thick 
band of beaten gold is best ; shoes of white wash-leather ; no 

INCROYABLE (1789). Short red, white, and blue 
skirt ; blue satin coat with tails lined with red, and revers ; lace 
rufiles ; gold buttons ; cravat of old lace ; gendarme hat, with tri- 
colour rosette ; black shoes and buckles, blue stockings. Old- 
fashioned gold-headed cane ; fob, eyeglass. (Coloured Illus- 
tration, Plate VIII.) Or, striped satin skirt, red, white, and 
blue ; gold satin tunic, looped up with red roses ; handsome 
long-tailed coat of blue satin, lined gold, and large gold 
buttons, and bouquet of roses in buttonhole ; high frill 
and jabot at throat; chapeau a la claque, trimmed gold and 
brocade, tricolour at side ; blue silk stockings, worked in 
gold, and patent shoes ; eyeglass, and elaborate jewellery. Or, 
long-tailed coat of sky blue velvet, with large pearl buttons, 
and a white waistcoat of satin, embroidered with coloured 
flowers ; a skirt of grey tulle with long tunic of soft grey silk 
looped up gracefully with pale blue satin ribbon ; grey silk 
hose embroidered with coloured silk flowers ; dark blue 
slippers, very large satin bows ; powdered head tied with a 
queue ; cocked hat, wide lace cravat ; cane with gold head, 
quaint scissor-shaped eye-glass of the period. This is a very 
favourite costume. Sometimes the skirts are hand-painted ; 
sometimes there are triple revers to the coat, for which plush 
is a good material ; blue with white satin skirt, trimmed with 
gold, is a good mixture. 

INDIAN DRESSES should come veritably from the 
country, and are of great variety. North American Indian Queen 
for fancy dress wears a brown satin cuirass bodice and skirt, or 
black cloth embroidered with red, yellow, and white, bordered 
with cut leather fringe ; sandals ; a diadem of coloured eagles' 
and vultures' feathers; bird's wings in front, and a great many 
beads for jewellery. {See also Ranee, Nautch Girl.) 

INDIAN GIRL, LUTI. (In Mrs. Browning's poem. 


A Romance of the Ganges.) For a dark girl with smooth black 
hair. A close under-dress of dark red or white, showing the 
arms and part of the neck, and over this, wound round and 
round the figure, a drapery of any closely-clinging, soft, dark 
red stuff — Indian muslin or silk are the best ; as many Indian 
gold and silver ornaments as can be obtained may be worn ; 
in the hand a small Indian lamp and flowers ; hair dressed 
with yellow jasmine. 

INDIAN QUEEN at a Fancy Ball might wear short 
skirt of Indian material intersected with gold ; violet velvet 
bodice trimmed with gold ; shoulders covered with Indian 
gauze ; full trousers to ankle of soft silk ; Indian scarf round 
hips, Indian fan, Indian ornaments ; Oriental shoes, pink 

INDIAN WOMAN, EAST. Full trousers of thin silk 
to ankles ; tunic of printed cotton ; silk scarf draped round 
the waist as a petticoat, and round the back over left shoulder 
and head, just covered with a white handkerchief, bordered 
with band of embroidery ; silver bangles ; necklace of sequins ; 
embroidered slippers. The Moosulman women wear the 
choice, a sort of short bodice with tight sleeves coming half- 
way to elbow, bordered with embroidery ; the Hindoo women 
wear it longer. 

INFANTA OF SPAIN. Skirt of gold brocade, mixed 
with black satin, and white satin creves ; damask train, gold 
ground, studded with enormous flowers in red and gold ; the 
paniers lined with satin, the trimming of the sleeves likewise 
satin; pointed bodice, enormous velvet ruff embroidered in 
pearls ; hair crepe, and turned back from forehead with a 
pearl coronet at the top. 

INSEGTIFUGA. This can be represented by every 
variety of insect, dotted over a fashionable black or white 
tulle evening dress. 

lONE {Last Days of Pompeii). Classically draped robe 
of some delicate tone. {See Greek). 

lOLANTHE. The dresses in lolanthe are as follows: 
The Lord Chancellor, close-fitting black cloth court suit, 
breeches, and silk stockings; over this a Lord Chancellor's black 
satin brocaded robe, trimmed with gold, with the white wig. 


The Peers in the first part wear flowing satin or velvet cloaks, 
and a rich under-dress, such as is worn at a coronation, silk 
stockings, and coronet caps ; afterwards Earls Mountararat 
and ToUoller wear velvet court suits. Private Willis is in the 
uniform of the Grenadier Guards. Strephon is a charmingly- 
pretty dress of an Arcadian shepherd ; pointed shoes with 
bows, silk stockings ; striped breeches with bunches of ribbon at 
the knees ; flowered coat and waistcoat ; powdered hair ; three- 
cornered hat; playing-pipe in hand, with ribbon streamers. The 
Queen of the Fairies has the cap of Mercury, with wings on 
either side ; a long cashmere skirt bordered with gold em- 
broidery, a gold scaled cuirass bodice, wings at back, golden 
hair, a trident in her hand. lolanthe first appears in a dress 
all seaweed and grasses, and then in a soft classic white 
dress, with sandals, long sleeves, wings at the back ; the bodice 
low and clasped on the shoulder, just bound with girdle at the 
waist, a diamond band crossing the bust from shoulder to 
shoulder ; a wand in the hand. The character is sometimes 
dressed at Fancy Balls in white crepe over silver petticoat; with 
silver fringe and stars. She has six attendant fairies in antique 
Greek dresses made in mauve, laburnum, coral, pink, creme, 
and green, soft Liberty silk with silver wings and stars. Phillis, 
the Arcadian shepherdess and ward in Chancery, is a most 
harmonious combination of blue, pink, and white ; powdered 
hair, blue satin hat with roses and ribbons ; long bodice with 
paniers ; stomacher, and bows of ribbon in front ; short 
striped skirt with lace and ribbons round the edge. 

IPHIGENIA. Loose classic dress ; the diploidon pure 
white, bordered with Greek honeysuckle ; embroidered veil ; 
wreath ; cloak from shoulders ; sandals. 

IRELAND. {See Erin.) 

IRENE {Rienzi). Square-bodied close-fitting white and 
blue dress, under portion blue ; over it a juive robe in white, 
embroidered in gold ; diamond crown ; regal mantle of blue 
satin embroidered in gold. In last act wears a similar dress 
of black velvet and jet. 

IRIS. White silk dress with ruches of tulle in rainbow 
colours ; grey tulle tunic spangled with rain drops ; head-dress, 
coronet with grey tulle veil. {See Rainbow, Arc-en-Ciel.) 



IRISH PEASANT. {See Colleen Bawn and Con- 
naught Peasant, Arrah-na-Pogue.) 

IRISH POTATO-GATHERER. Striped petticoat, 
short ; loose flowered chintz jacket tied in at waist, small red 
and black shawl on shoulders ; crash apron ; red and yellow 
handkerchief on head ; hoe and basket of potatoes. 

IRISH QUEEN. Dress of light blue and amber; 
petticoat trimmed with gold shamrocks ; scarf of tulle edged 
with fringe crossing the front ; bodice low, square, long blue 
satin basque, gold-coloured stomacher worked with shamrocks ; 
crimson scarf fastened on shoulder with gold harps ; crimson 
velvet cap, blue velvet coronet and shamrocks ; massive gold 

ISABEL DE CROZE {Quentm Durward). Costume 
of Louis XI. period. White satin flowing skirt, tight sleeves, 
loose bodice and girdle, all worked in gold fleur-de-lys, bordered 
with ermine ; horned head-dress, and veil. {See Henry III. 

ISABEL OF NAVARRE. Long white satin dress, 
embroidered with fleur-de-lys and other heraldic devices ; 
bodice and train of ruby velvet, bordered with ermine ; 
plastron of white satin, worked in gold ; long sleeves with 
ermine ; gold crown and muslin veil. 

ISTHMUS OF SUEZ. Short skirt of white satin, 
bordered with gold ; green satin embroidered tunic, at the 
edge palms and Oriental figures ; low round bodice of cloth 
of gold, richly embroidered ; turban of gold and red, with 
flowing veil ; blue shoes, red stockings. 

ITALIAN PEASANT {Contadind). This is carried out 
in most incongruous materials for Fancy Balls. The Roman 
Peasant's dress is a short blue skirt, which may be trimmed 
with gold, a red upper skirt forming a point on the left side ; a 
low white chemisette, the sleeves coming above the wrist ; and 
on the lower portion of the arm only, over the white sleeve is 
one of red, like a gaiter. Roman lace and embroidery are often 
introduced on the top of the chemisette and shoulders ; the 
bodice is a low black or red corselet forming points in front, 
bordered with gold and laced ; a long apron of bright-coloured 
stripes is fastened round the waist, with no gathers, a third of it 
turning down outside. The head-dress is usually made of white 



/. I I'l i> {' 'i I J /, (; 


linen of oblong shape, the portion resting flat on the head lined 
with cardboard 6 inches square, the end plain, or having bands 
of lace across it High-heeled shoes ; and coral and blue 
beads and gold for ornaments. (Coloured Illustration, Plate 
IX.) The Neapolitan Peasant at a Fancy Ball is clad in 
lighter colours, such as pink and green, or blue and maize ; 
the sleeves to match the corselet, coming often to the wrist ; the 
tunic ofAlg^rienne; the head-dress satin or silk. ALombardy 
Peasant wears a scarlet and white embroidered petticoat ; 
blue bodice, and tunic trimmed with gold ; white kerchief on 
shoulders ; blue silk handkerchief on head ; Swiss belt of black 
and silver. A Sorrentine Peasant, amber satin skirt, 
edged with scarlet, over-skirt of scarlet ; black velvet bodice ; 
white silk chemisette ; scarlet silk head-dress, with gold clasps. 
Red and blue velvet trimmed with gold lace are favourite 
materials for Italian costumes, which should always be of bright 
colours. {See Marsetta.) 

ITALIAN STATE DRESS (1497). Long skirt of 
bright-coloured brocade ; tunic of another tone, opening in 
front, and caught together in three festoons of pearl fringe, 
tunic bordered with same ; bodice low and long waisted, with 
jewelled stomacher; sleeves to wrist, leg of mutton shape; 
hair dressed low on cheek, surmounted by crown and veil. 

IVY. White tulle evening dress, trimmed with ivy ; basket 
of ivy in hand ; ivy wreath. 


of soft grey cashmere ; full plain skirt ; short -waisted bodice ; 
sleeves demi-long, piece of muslin turned up for cuffs ; muslin 
cape ; muslin cap, without lace, bordered with hemmed frills. 

JACOBINE, CITOYENNE (1789). White silk skirt, 
covered with lace ; pink silk train, with lace and tulle ; the 
tunic-bodice with elbow sleeves, trimmed with lace ; French 
mob cap with hawthorns and forget-me-nots ; powdered hair 
and patches ; ornaments, old French diamonds and pearls. 

JACOBITE LADY. Dress of old-fashioned brocade; 
short-waisted square bodice ; plain skirt, looped over cream- 
coloured petticoat ; cambric kerchief ; mittens ; lace cap. 

JAMES II. PERIOD. {See Orleans, Duchesse.) 

JANE GREY, LADY. {See Grey.) 

JANE SEYMOUR. (1509-1547.) Train of black velvet 



embroidered with pearls, over a brocaded silk petticoat showing 
in front ; long bodice with girdle and chatelaine of pearls, and 
trimmed with Venetian point j coif of velvet with jewelled coronet. 

JANE SHORE. (1461-1483.) A fair beautiful woman, 
the wife of a baker, the mistress of Edward IV., who died 
a pauper in extreme old age. Jewels in the hair ; low bodice ; 
dress with girdle round waist ; flowing skirt, looped over satin 
petticoat ; dress bordered with ermine ; stomacher revers to 
low bodice. (For style, see Edward IV.) 

JANUARY. Similar dress to Winter, made of white 
satin, short, trimmed with jet and icicle fringe; powdered 
hair with cluster of snowballs ; high white satin boots. January 
is also represented as a Snowdrop, in white satin skirt, shaped 
as a flower, trimmed with tulle and snowdrops, leaves formed 
of green satin ; a large snowdrop for cap ; bracelets, earrings, 
and fan of same flower. 

JAPANESE. The colouring should be bright, and the 
dresses trimmed according to the season of year. Loose outer 
robe crossed in front, and only fastened by broad soft silk 
belt ; wide hanging sleeves, the edge wadded. Two under- 
skirts, plain and bright coloured; hair rolled back and fastened 
in large bows with flowers and golden pins. {See Mikado.) 

JAPANESE (FANCY). Pale blue silk trousers set in 
claret velvet bands ; cream china silk tunic embroidered in 
colours ; claret velvet bodice with tulle sleeves worked in gold 
and silver ; three Japanese fans for head-dress. 

JAPANESE LADY. Pale blue skirt, embroidered in 
pale yellow ; robe crossing in front, of Japanese crepe with 
large flowers ; yellow sash, tied at back ; bright pink crepe 
fichu : Japanese head-dress with pins ; fan in hand. 

JAPANESE LANTERN. Striped blue and white 
short skirt, forming pouf at back ; tunic of old gold satin, bor- 
dered with black and gold fall fringe, with large tassels on 
the hips ; bodice matching skirt, bertha-like tunic ; hat of blue 
and old gold satin formed like a lantern; lantern carried in hand. 

JAVOTTE {La Cruche Cassee). Short skirt, dark blue, 
with rows of black velvet and orange-coloured ribbon; black 
and white striped over-skirt ; yellow apron, with bib and heart- 


shaped pockets ; black velvet sleeveless bodice open at neck ; 
large hat set at back of head ; blue stockings, black shoes with 
orange rosette. The colouring is optional. 

JEAN, MISTRESS. Quilted silk petticoat; yellow 
satin upper skirt, trimmed with old Irish point ; bunch of keys 
and pin-cushion hung at side, and large white satin pocket 
embroidered with gold ; powdered wig ; mutch, with red. 
ribbons ; blue stockings and shoes. Or, pale blue satin skirt 
and low square bodice, trimmed with pearls ; muslin kerchief;, 
mob cap with yellow ribbons ; muslin apron trimmed with lace^ 

JEAN IE DEANS {Heart of Mid-Lothian). Scarlet 
tartan short dress ; loose chintz bodice, with basque drawn in 
at waist by band ; hair in curls, bound with a snood ; plaid 
about the head, hanging down on to the dress. Or, short 
blue cotton dress ; belted bodice, much open at the neck ;. 
hair bound with blue snood, falling about shoulders. 

JEANNE D'ALBRET. Dress of crimson satin made- 
ong, trimmed with ermine ; sleeves slashed with white satin : 
pendant sleeves ; close-fitting bodice, high, with ruff; cap of 
crimson, with pearls and white feather. 

JENNY JONES. In Welsh Dress. {See Welsh- 

JESSICA {Merchant of Venice). Long plain stuff or 
velvet skirt; large apron; velvet bodice, white slashed sleeves y. 
keys hanging at side ; pointed head-dress. 

JESTER'S WIFE. Cardinal satin skirt with silver bells ; 
pale blue satin over-skirt and cuirass bodice, with red sleeves ; 
small satin cap of two colours, with bells, fan, &c., to match. 

JEWISH COSTQME. Loose under-dress with hanging 
sleeves, over-dress low, opening en cceur^ fastening only on the 
shoulders and round the waist with girdle ; veil or turban 
about the head ; many beads round neck. Or, sandalled shoes, 
short full skirt and sleeveless bodice, bordered with em- 
broidery, opening to show full over-dress to throat, made with 
long pendent sleeves ; flowing cloak from shoulders, caught 
together in front, forming a sort of tunic ; gold coronet on 
head ; veil of soft woollen stuff. 

JILL {Jack and Jilt). Jack, in a smock frock and round 

I 2 


felt hat, is companion to Jill. Jill in flowered cotton bodice 
and tunic, over a short petticoat ; small shawl ; poke bonnet, 
or Dorothy hat. Both carry pails. Their names are often 
embroidered on their pockets. Another rendering : Brown and 
yellow striped petticoat ; yellow silk bodice laced over white 
chemisette ; brown silk tunic; yellow stockings ; brown shoes ; 
straw hat with wreath of poppies and cornflowers. {See Jack.) 

JOAN. {See Darby in Appendix.) 

SCOTLAND (1357). A sideless gown of gold-coloured plush, 
edged with the fur-like brown marabout trimming, with a wide 
border of the same round the hem of the trailing skirt. The 
under-dress should be a spun silk jersey of a golden-brown tint, 
and the fur trimming of the over-dress should be clasped with 
golden " owches " down the front. The hair is confined within 
a net-like coif of gold wire or thread and pearls ; while a wide 
gold kirtle, low on the hips, supports an embroidered pouch 
-of brown and gold. The shoes, of brown velvet, are worked 
with gold, and made with very long, peaked toes. No gloves, 
;but a book, bound in white vellum and clasped and edged 
with gold, in the hand. The ruby heart on throat. Period 
1357. The costume, as worn at the Queen's Ball, 1842, by the 
.'Duchess of Roxburgh, was a skirt of red and blue satin, 
embroidered with arms of England, and bordered with ermine ; 
cuirass bodice of ermine with jewels down the front ; tight 
Ted satin sleeves to wrist ; embroidered blue velvet cloak 
■l)ordered with ermine, fastened on shoulders; badge of St. 
Andrew on left shoulder ; hair in gold, side nets with crown. 

JOAN OF ARC. White plaited cashmere skirt ; a suit 
of armour, with helmet and plume, mailed feet, gloves ; 
red cloak at shoulder. Or, as she appeared at the coronation 
of the French king, skirt and tunic of blue satin, spangled 
with fleurs-de-lys ; silver helmet with white plume ; coat of 
mail, mail on arms, gauntlets, feet encased in long boots ; 
sword with cross on hilt, and shield ; the hair floating on 
shoulders. (Plate VII., Fig. 28.) The suit of armour may be of 
silver, burnished steel, or what is called scale armour. But 
it can also be made by cutting out in strong brown paper the 
various pieces required, copied from any illustrated history, or 
from Knight's " Shakespeare," pasted over with silvered paper. 
Round the edges inside strips of linen should be pasted to 
strengthen tnem, so that tapes may be sewn with which to tie 


them on. Leather gauntlets, covered with the same paper, and 
plates for the elbow joints of brown and silver paper ; the 
helmet made in the same way and wired. The hair should 
be rolled under, after the manner formerly called Joan of Arc ; 
and a cloak of cashmere to match the skirt should float from 
the shoulders. 


skirt and bodice of grey cashmere ; a tunic of blue sateen 
bordered with black velvet ; square bodice and short sleeves ; 
small muslin cap. 

JOAN, JUMPING. Suitable for a Child. Tall and 
pointed cap, pink and white stripes carried round; soft 
pink silk dress with honeycomb yoke, a skipping-rope round 
waist ; sleeves with puff at shoulder, slashed puffs at elbow, 
cuffs falling over the hand. 

JOCKEY, FANCY. Silver moire skirt, wreath of field- 
flowers round hem ; over-skirt green silk^ with cards of races ; 
small gold coins hung between ; red satin bodice trimmed 
with gold ; head-dress, jockey cap of green and white. 

JOCKEY, LADY. Short skirt, bright-coloured satin 
over-skirt of contrasting colour, with cards of the races printed 
or tacked on it, and bunches of coins between ; bodice to 
match ; upper-skirt made as short jacket to waist, buttoning 
down the front, sleeves matching under-skirt ; jockey cap of 
two colours. The coins and cards may be omitted. Orange and 
red, brown and blue, red and green, are good mixtures of colour. 

bodice of moss-green velvet, kiltings of mushroom pink surah 
in front ; ballet skirt of pink tulle ; high bronze boots with 
golden spurs, whip, Szc. ; toque of moss green and mushroom 
pink in quarters. 

JOCRISSE. Short skirt of dark blue satin, with a gold 
wand ; crimson satin jacket with long gilet of yellow, bound 
with gold, cut square in front, and having pockets ; elbow 
sleeves with Louis XV. cuffs ; the jacket has revers of blue 
satin, and a lace ruff; tricorn hat. 

JOKETTE. Short skirt of lemon-coloured muslin flounced 
to waist ; cuirass bodice of brown velvet laced at the back, 
with elbow sleeves, bordered with yellow lace, fastened with 
silver horseshoes ; brown velvet boots ; jockey cap of brown 
and yellow ; whip in hand. 


JOSEPHINE, EMPRESS. Scanty skirt of white 
satin, embroidered round and down the front in double rows ; 
very short-waisted bodice with jewelled girdle, puffed sleeves 
with low upstanding frills of lace, rounded to top of shoulder ; 
tnecklace of pearls ; hair curled ; large jewelled coronet and 
•comb. Lady, time of Empress Josephine. Clinging dress, 
-short - waisted bodice beneath arm-pits, with short puffed 
•sleeves ; full ruche at the edge of the skirt ; hair arranged 
-in small curls with rows of pearls intermixed. 

JUBILEE. Short white satin dress with front breadth 
painted with the word Jubilee and the dates 1837, 1887 ; 
powdered hair. 

JULIA MANNERING {Guy Mannering). An amber 
stuff dress, short-waisted, with puffed sleeves and large hat ; 
or in an arriving dress, a sort of princess pelisse with treble 
cape made of puce satin, and large hat. 

JULIET {Romeo and Juliet). Flowing dress of silk or 
satin, with golden girdle, the bodice cut low in front ; pointed 
•elbow sleeves caught up inside with gold ornaments, and 
• trimmed with gold lace ; gold girdle; pouch at side; pearl and 
velvet or satin head-dress ; long veil. Miss Terry wore, first, 
-a sleeveless gown of creamy white satin, bordered with blue, 
under-sleeves of soft woollen stuff; hair on shoulders ; crowned 
with wreath of yellow marguerites. Second dress : Large 
brocade, blue and gold, hem bordered with band of cinnamon 
brown, embroidered in gold; a square-cut bodice and long 
open sleeves ; tight under-sleeves ; dark blue silk dress, 
gathered at waist ; blue girdle. Third dress : Woollen under- 
-dress made plain and full, gathered at the waist, over it a 
ioose white silk gown, open in front, with square sleeves to 
'Clbow. Miss Anderson wore a long cloak from shoulder em- 
■broidered in pearls ; satin dress with bands of pearls ; puff at 
•each shoulder, muslin peeping in at elbow ; satchel bag ; flow- 
ing hair, with filet and jewelled band. {See Plate VII., Fig. 27.) 

JULY, (6*^^ June and Summer.) 

JUNE, Evening dress of rose and white tulle, covered 
with roses ; veil depending from wreath of roses. 

JUSTICE. Short white satin dress, scales in black 
velvet appliqued upon it; black velvet jacket with policeman's 
badge on one arm ; a leather belt ; a truncheon in hand, and 
policeman's helmet. 


JUST 100 YEARS AGO. A favourite name for a 
pretty poudre dress. {See Poudre.) 

JUTLAND PEASANT GIRL. Green, black, and 
red striped petticoat ; large black and green apron with 
border ; green velvet bodice, tight sleeves trimmed with band 
of embroidery across front to imitate square bodice ; red and 
black handkerchief about head, with revers of lace turning up 
from ears. 

KATHARINA {Taming of the Shrew). Plain satin skirt 
touching the ground; low pointed bodice with basque all 
round formed of loops of ribbons; a ruff from shoulder widen- 
ing at the back, supported by wire, edged with pointed lace , 
the sleeves tight to wrist, with lace cuffs ; puffed epaulette, and 
over-sleeves, which button at elbow and hang therefrom in a 
straight piece; a velvet head-dress, bordered with pearls of Marie 
Stuart form. A satchel bag attached to girdle falls loosely 
round hips. 


KITTY OLIVE. Dress of blue cashmere ; plain skirt ; 
bodice square cut with white stomacher and black velvet bands ; 
sleeves turned up at elbow, with square cuffs, full muslin sleeves 
beneath ; muslin apron trimmed with lace ; cap of same, with 
black velvet bow ; powdered hair. 

coat of rich brocade, trimmed with lace ; black velvet sacquc, 
lined and trimmed with crimson satin, velvet, and pearls ; 
stomacher of amethysts, rubies, and pearls ; diamond orna- 
ments ; hair powdered, with crimson velvet and lace head- 

LA LIBERTE, Classic cashmere dress embroidered in 
pearls, pearl girdle ; the red cap of Liberty studded with pearls ; 
a white satin banner, embroidered with the word " Liberte," 
carried in the hand. The dress is made with a long skirt, 
loose, low, full bodice, pendent sleeves. (For style, see Greek.) 


LACE COLLECTION. Red satin petticoat; up the 
front a plastron formed of short lengths of different kinds of 
lace, narrower towards the top ; flounce of red satin and a 
band of lace round. The black satin paniers bordered with 


short lengths of lace secured by red bows. Round the black 
tunic a band of red with tassels of lace upon it. A low black 
square bodice with lace scraps carried up the front and on the 
sleeves. A black band round the bodice with the names of 
old laces worked in gold. A lace lappet round the neck, 
lace at the top of the gloves, on the red cap, and on the fan. A 
lace pillow with bobbins hung at one side ; also a parchment 
with a piece of lace begun on it. 

LACE MAKER. This could be represented by a 
Dutch Frau, with the lappeted cap and stuff gown. Or, by a 
woman of Louis XIV. period, with bunched-up dress ; long 
lace edged apron; lace cap; half high bodice cut in points and 
elbow sleeves. Or, by a woman of the Louis XIII. period ; 
the bodice with long basque cut up into tabs ; full plain 
skirt ; sleeves puffed inside the arm with linen revers, edged 
with lace on bodice and sleeves. 

LACE TRADE. Dress of flounced muslin, each flounce 
edged with a different sort of lace ; bodice and paniers of 
lace, with bows of lace and ribbon at the back ; elbow sleeves, 
composed of rows of lace ; lace cap ; mittens ; fan ; bow of 
lace under the chin ; on left side of skirt, lace cushion, with 
piece of unfinished lace, bobbins, &c. ; across the shoulders a 
white band, with " Lace Trade " in gold letters ; basket 
attached, with odds and ends of lace and pricked parchments, 

LADIES' BATTLE. Leonie de Villegontier. Short 
muslin dress, tucked ; short-waisted bodice with fichu ; wide 
striped lavender sash ; necktie of white muslin ; hair curled ; 
long mittens tied with ribbons above elbow. As the Countess 
d'Altreval, Mrs. Kendal wore a grenat satin made as a train, 
with short-waisted Empire bodice, large bow of the same at 
back of the waist, tight sleeves to wrist, slashed with figured 
silk of a violet-grey tinge, which forms the front of the dress ; 
a white tulle fichu fastened in front, with a bunch of flowers 
at the side ; muslin Steinkirk tie round neck ; hair curled 
and parted at the side, on it a close muslin cap. 

LADYBIRD. Suitable for a child. Skirt of grey tulle, 
in three thicknesses. Low square grey velvet bodice, the 
sleeves of grey tulle, with red silk wings for epaulettes. The 
tunic in the form of two wings of red silk, with black velvet 
spots. Tiny wings as a coronet, white stockings, black shoes-, 
red rosettes and red sash. 


LADY BURLEIGH. White satin under-skirt trimmed 
with old lace, caught up with loops of pearls on wire in large 
festoons ; tunic of large patterned brocade with pearls and 
cardinal ribbon ; pointed bodice cut low ; powdered hair ; 
pearl ornaments. Or, short-flowered skirt, simple striped 
over-dress opening in front, gathered on to pointed square- 
cut bodice ; muslin fichu inside, sleeves to wrist with frills ; 
high muslin cap, the shape called Olivia. 

LADY COQUETTE. {See Coquette.) 

LADY HELP. XlXth century. (.S<?^ Help.) 

LADY JANE {Patience). Long close-fitting Japanese 
robe of dark blue silk embroidered in gold, with design of 
peacock's tail and scrolls ; light blue scarf at the back. 

LADY OF THE LAKE {Sir Walter Scott). White 
muslin dress flounced to waist ; low black velvet bodice, with 
white stomacher, laced with silver ; tartan scarf of satin fastened 
with Scotch brooch on shoulder; hair in curls; light blue 
snood. Or, skirts and bodice of silver tissue trimmed with 
water lilies and any water plant. 


LAHORE, REINE DE. Train of white satin, draped 
with red India cashmere, richly embroidered in gold ; head- 
dress, a jewelled coronet, tulle veil with gold tassels. {See 


LAKME {Delibes' Opera.) An Indian dress; pointed 
jewelled cap with fringe of beads; many beads round the 
neck. Long soft falling white dress bordered with gold ; over 
it a species of Senorita jacket with short sleeves all jewelled ; 
gold cloak ; a scarf of many coloured Indian cashmere 
crossing left shoulder, under right arm ; a jewel on the 
shoulder ; bracelets like serpent. 

LALLA ROOKH. A rich Oriental dress. Petticoat and 
trousers full to ankles, of gold tissue over pink ; green satin 
over-dress long; a skirted paletot with over-sleeves trimmed 
with gold ; the front of bodice pink, embroidered in gold, silver, 
and jewels ; pink under-sleeves. Green satin cap with heron's 
plume like a fez ; gold-spangled veil ; green^ satin boots ; the 
hair in two plaits entwined with pearls ; strings of jewellery 
round the neck ; pointed sandals for shoes. Or, full white 


silk trousers and vest ; bodice of chartreuse satin bordered with 
gold; petticoat of silver tissue with border of gold jewelled 
embroidery ; girded closely round the hips by scarves of pale 
orange and heliotrope silk, finished off with tassels of pearls ; 
jewelled cap, an aigrette on one side, fastened by a jewelled 
clasp ; fringe of pearls and emeralds round the neck. 

LAMBALLE, PRINCESSE T^K {As worn at Marl- 
borough House). Pale blue satin over-skirt fastened to white 
satin petticoat with a bouquet of roses, the front breadth 
sprinkled with shaded roses. The bodice comes to the waist 
only ; a low, double, lace-edged pelerine drapes the shoulders ; 
the sleeves are of a bell shape ; the hair turned over a large 
cushion and powdered ; wreath of roses on one side, with 
pearls, ribbons, and veil at the back, falling over curls. Rich 
velvet, satin, lace, and jewels are suitable. 

LANGE Mdlle. {Madame Angot). An Oriental 
striped-dress with coins ; afterwards a long beflounced cream- 
coloured silk with low bodice and sleeves ; and in the duet 
scene a black and red-striped petticoat, a large blue serge 
apron and velvet bodice, and a huge cap. 

LASS OF RICHMOND HILL (1760). Blue and 
striped satin skirt ; bodice and paniers of white brocade ; 
powdered hair; hat with streamers. For style, see George III. 

LAURA {Petrarch's). Long white flowing robe, em- 
broidered in silver; bodice cut low, edged with gold braid, 
two rows round neck, one round arm-hole and elbow sleeve ; 
beneath this a red and white under-sleeve, fitting to wrist ; 
hair in coil ; black shoes, pointed toes. 

LAUREL ROSE. Pink nun's cloth bordered with the 
Greek key pattern in silver, made as a full skirt ; and low bodice 
with peplum basque, a silver tassel at the corners ; cloak of 
green satin arranged to form a bertha to the top of dress, fas- 
tened with jewelled clasp ; straw hat, high, with bands of 
ribbons round the crown ; white and red oleander blossoms 
in front, silver crook with pink ribbons. 

LAVENDER, FRESH. {From C. E. Ferugini's 
picture). Suitable to fair, slight girl ; a simple coloured cotton 
dress, with elbow sleeves ; mob cap ; tray of lavender carried 
in the hand. 



times for these only an ordinary lawn tennis dress and pouch 
are worn, with a bat attached to the side. A better represen- 
tation is a green satin skirt, a bat fastening a silver net, 
forming paniers, pouches and balls on the shoulders, which 
drape the skirt ; scarf across bodice, with lawn tennis in silver 
letters; black bodice with white circles to resemble balls ; high 
pointed black hat with a bat as an aigrette ; brown stockings 
and shoes. Or, a short plain skirt of grass green satin, 
gathered at back, trimmed round the edge with two rows of 
grass fringe, headed by a flat band of white satin an inch and 
a half in width, to represent the boundary of court ; six lines 
of the same round the skirt at intervals ; a tennis net draped 
from waist, edged with scarlet and white worsted balls ; 
miniature tennis bats hold up the drapery ; bodice of green 
velvet, long sleeves to wrist, all bordered with gold braid and 
scarlet and white balls ; epaulettes of scarlet and white satin 
ribbon ; red and white satin peaked cap, with daisies and 
leaves beneath the flap ; Suede gloves, and black shoes ; scarlet 
stockings ; ornaments, gold tennis bats ; fan like a bat, in red. 

LECZINSKI, MARIE. Pale pink robe of state, the train 
scalloped round and richly trimmed with lace ; fine diamond 
crown, and diamond ornaments ; snuff-box carried in hand. 

LEMONS. {See Oranges and Lemons.) 


LEONORA (// Trovatore). Satin skirt, with tunic caught 
up on one side ; long low black velvet bodice, with puffings of 
muslin round top ; the long all-round basque, cut in tabs ; 
elbow sleeves, with treble row of lace ; ribbon bandeau in hair. 

LIBERTY. Short red, white, and blue striped satin skirt, 
made plain, with perpendicular stripes ; low red satin bodice, 
with coat-tails ; plain muslin fichu, tucked inside, lace frill and 
cravat in front ; cap of Liberty, tri-colour at one side ; leather 
belt ; dagger stuck in sleeves to elbow and rolled. 

LIGHT OF HAREEM. (.9^^ Oriental Costume and 
Lalla Rookh.) 

LILAC. Mauve satin dress with a front embroidered with 
lilac on crepe lisse ; bunches of the flower on dress and head. 
A fashionable evening gown of tulle, white and mauve, is also 


LILY. Yellow shoes and stockings ; the short white satin 
skirt cut in Vandykes ; green bodice ; cap like an inverted 
bell with green stalk ; a full plain skirt of white moire, draped 
at the back with large sash of the same ; tablier of gold satin, 
covered with pearls and crystals ; square-cut bodice, with high 
pearl collar, lined with gold satin ; and a large soft white hat, 
trimmed with lilies and ostrich feathers. 

LILY {Arum). A white satin gown draped with tulle; 
large white velvet arum leaves falling on the skirt from the 
waist ; an upstanding ruff to low bodice formed of the same ; 
arum fan ; powdered hair. 

LILY OF LEOVILLE. White cambric head-dress, 
goffered all round, and trimmed with falling ends at either side 
of gold silk ; brown velvet bodice opening a la Breton over 
white chemisette, trimmed with gold braid and beads ; Swiss 
belt of brocade ; lace collarette and elbow sleeves ; blue satin 
skirt with bands of brown plush ; very large apron of light blue 
silk bordered with insertion ; gold cross round neck. 

LITTLE BUTTERCUP. {See Pinafore.) 

LIZARD BIRD. Yellow satin skirt, bodice of green 
jet ; lizard birds on the head, and perched on the shoulders. 
LORELEI. Dress of watered silk, shot with silver, draped 
with green, and caught up with water lilies, coral, and 
diamonds ; veil to match ; sometimes soft muslin is draped in 
classic fashion ; the hair flowing ; a coronet of silver on the 
head ; an old fashioned lyre carried in the hand. {See Water- 

LORN, MAID OF. White muslin dress, with scarf of 
tartan of the clan. Lady Elizabeth Campbell appeared thus 
in the character at the famous Waverley Ball at Willis's Rooms. 

LORRAINE PEASANT. Mob cap of fine muslin, a 
cockade in front ; brown dress ; bodice opening in front ; 
white muslin fichu ; lace ruffles. 

LOUIS XIII. {temp. 1610-1643). A petticoat of satin 
or brocade, an over-dress either fastened down at the side 
or loose and flowing; the bodice cut in one with the skirt 
or pointed ; gauze sleeves, puffed from shoulder to wrist, and 
pendent ones over, lined with a contrasting colour ; the bodice 


high at the back, and square in front, with either a falling collar 
of lace, or a ruff supported on wire ; the hair is not powdered. 
The following is a good rendering : Grey silk skirt, with 
flounces ; cardinal tunic, trimmed with white lace, and caught 
up at side ; round bodice of grey silk ; stomacher of gold ; 
tight sleeves, with epaulettes ; grey paniers and rich cardinal 
sash ; muslin and lace fichu, and boa round the throat, the 
ends fastened at back ; large white hat, trimmed with cardinal 
satin and three white ostrich feathers, the whole costume 
trimmed with gold. 

LOUIS XIV. (1643-17 15). In this reign ladies wore 
the hair powdered over high cushions ; hoops were in fashion, 
and sacques ; also patches, and very long gloves. The 
following is the usual style for fancy balls : Satin petticoat, plain 
or quilted with pearls, or with rows of lace across headed by 
tulle puffings and roses ; a velvet, brocade, or satin train 
rounded in front, coming from the waist or en sacque {see 
Watteau), trimmed with lace, headed by ruchings and pearls, 
carried up the sides, and bodice which should be cut as a 
low square ; the stomacher pointed, with rows of ribbon 
across, a bow in the centre ; the sleeves to the elbow, 
with ruffles ; pearls and flowers on the powdered hair. 
A lady's hunting dress of this reign is made with a plain 
skirt, a very deep satin waistcoat with square pockets, and a 
longer basqued jacket with mousquetaire cufls and ruffles; a 
lace tie and frill at the throat and a three-cornered hat over 
powdered hair. Laitiere de Bagnolet. Blue short skirt 
embroidered round the edge ; yellow bunched-up upper skirt ; 
red pointed, low, square-cut bodice, bordered with gold, over 
white under-bodice ; sleeves with turn-back cuff at wrist ; white 
cap with a red and yellow handkerchief tied over it. Mar- 
quise. A red plush coat, with silver buttons and braid, 
showing a vest of cream satin ; a cream satin dress ; a cloak of 
red plush, lined with cream satin, fastened to the shoulders 
with silver cord and tassels ; three-cornered hat of red plush, 
with cream feathers and silver cord on the powdered hair ; 
riding gloves with gauntlets, and a riding whip. Peasant. 
Short cream dress of cashmere, embroidered with roses ; 
moss green apron, and white fichu crossed on the bust. {See 
also Plate XIV., Fig. 56.) 

LOUIS XV. (17 15-1774). A similar dress to that 
described in Louis XIV. 's time is worn. The following are 


pretty costumes of the period : A Marquise. Pink silk 
skirt bordered with a lace flounce, caught up in Vandykes, 
with pink roses and silver tassels ; long upper-skirt of silver 
gauze, with strips of pink satin ribbon, and silver tassels and 
roses, keeping it in its place; low stiff bodice with gilet of silver 
cloth; powdered hair; blue silk skirt with lace flounces, headed 
by bands of pink silk laid on in double gatherings ; pointed 
stomacher of the same, with pink bands and bows across; 
skirt and bodice of pink silk, bordered with the same plaiting in 
blue, elbow-sleeves and ruffles ; powdered hair. Or, dress of 
embossed velvet broche with bouquets of roses on a ground 
of oyster-grey satin, the hips padded as worn at that period. 
The front of the skirt vieux rose silk with flounces of antique 
point de gaze ; bouquets of variegated roses to match the broche 
loop up the drapery ; bodice of the broche trimmed with the 
lace ; the hair powdered ; patches. A young girl might wear 
a muslin dress with silk sacque, train and bodice. ^Waiting 
Maid. Short silk skirt, two flounces gathered at edge; square 
bodice, and bunched-up tunic in contrast; bibbed apron; 
powdered hair. Peasant Girl. Linen striped skirt, blue, red, 
and white; red tunic caught together, high at the back; square, 
sleeveless, blue cashmere bodice with velvet bows and trim- 
mings ; loo?e linen under-sleeves, flat muslin cap, black velvet 
bracelets, and band round neck. Flower-Girl. Pink and 
blue costume, covered with garlands of small roses, draping 
the Pompadour skirt ; pink tunic, ruched with pink satin ; 
bodice to match ; white muslin apron with pockets, trimmed 
with pink and blue ruches ; large flat basket suspended from a 
garland of flowers passed round the neck and filled with real 
flowers ; hair powdered ; white muslin cap ; at the side tufts 
of roses and loops of blue ribbon. [See Bourgeoise.) 

LOUIS XVI. (i 774-1 789). See Lamballe, Princesse 
DE ; Marie Antoinette ; Elizabeth, Madame. {See also 
PouDRE Costumes, and Shepherdess.) The bodices are gene- 
rally low. The following illustrate the style. White silk long 
skirt, and jacket of striped gold and red silk, long sleeves 
and low neck, finished off with a cambric fichu, showing 
the neck, a rose in front ; the jacket is cut away in 
front, has gold buttons, and displays a full white under- 
bodice with straps of red across. The hair is powdered, and 
a small toque of r-ed silk bordered with the stripe, a diamond 
aigrette and bunch of flowers worn on one side. Long skirt 


and jacket of canary silk; deep flounced basque at back 
bordered with a ruche of the same. The jacket in this opens 
heart-shape, a musUn fichu inside, elbow-sleeves ; hair pow- 
dered; white silk cap trimmed with black and canary. White 

silk front breadth and low bodice trimmed with rows of gold 
braid ; long skirt and low bodice of blue silk, falling collar of 
lace, long sleeves, a puff from the elbow with turn-back cuffs of 
lace, and also trimmed with gold braid ; hair not powdered. 
A curious costume, d'aprh Debucoure, 1787, is as follows : 
Light blue under-skirt with a flounce round the edge, blue train 
bordered with gold, red bodice terminating at waist with gold 
belt, large blue revers at neck ; white tie and chemisette ; tight 
sleeves to wrist, blue cuff's ; enormous yellow hat with floral 
wreath over powdered hair ; stick in hand. Another rendering : 
White satin petticoat; skirts of white lace, pink and blue 
satin ; powdered hair, and feathers ; diamond star, turquoise 
and diamond ornaments. Very large hats were worn at this 

LOVE. — White satin dress with low cuirass bodice, out- 
lined with red velvet, displaying white hearts ; red velvet 
hearts appearing on the skirt ; wings at the back ; coronet 
head-dress with red heart ; the skirt is caught up with an arrow 
and quiver. 

LOVE BIRDS. The skirt a series of scolloped green 
silk flounces, with birds' plumage, tail for tunic ; the cap made 
to resemble the head and beak ; the veritable birds perched 
on right shoulder of bodice formed of green feathers. 

LUCAS (1785). Short stufl" skirt pinked out at the edge'; 
large pink apron ; the bodice striped and laced in front ; linen 
kerchief ; ruffles at elbow ; large hat with pink ribbons. 

LUCENA, QUEEN OF THE MOON. Pale blue silk 
skirt ; small tunic of fire-coloured gauze ; velvet bodice sur- 
rounded by galon and gold stars ; diadem on head ; a band 
with moon and signs of zodiac carried in the hand. 

LUCY {The Rivals). High-heeled shoes, with plain 
buckles ; stockings, with silk clocks ; quilted satin under-skirt ; 
bodice, and bunched up over-skirt ; lace tucker round bodice ; 
small mob cap. Colours to be chosen to suit wearer, not 
pronond. Black lace apron. 

LUNA. {See Moon and Lucena). 



LURLINE. Dress of frosted or silver spangled tulle, 
over white or green, caught up with crystal and aquatic plants, 
such as water-lilies and grasses ; a veil of tulle to match dress 
hangs over the floating hair, which should be covered with 
frosting powder ; bodice of silver tissue ; diamond ornaments. 
(See Water Nymph.) 

LUTIN. Short white muslin skirt with two flounces ; 
satin tunic, caught up at side by bands of black velvet; 
corselet bodice of black satin, embroidered with gold, double 
braces of the same, worn over muslin ; under bodice open at 
neck, with elbow-sleeves ; cap and mittens. 

LUXURY. A black or white evening dress covered with 
fruit, flowers, shells, seaweed, gems, birds, &c. Head-dress of 
fruit, necklace of cherries. 

LYDIA LANGUISH. Dress of white India muslin, 
trimmed with lace ; sash and breast bows of dark violet ribbon ; 
hair in curls, pearls round neck. Or, as in last scene, a silk 
hood, black silk scarf, long gloves. Or, handsome red and 
white brocaded silk dress, looped up over a white satin petti- 
coat ; hair powdered. 

LYONS, LADY OF. (See Pauline, and Melnotte, 

MABEL (-Ro^ J^<^y)' Plain skirted dress, of soft wool ; 
bibbed apron ; fur edged hood. 

MACBETH, LADY. First dress : A long velvet robe, 
with a narrow velvet tunic fastening down the front, with brode- 
quins ; low bodice, showing white chemisette slightly at the 
neck ; plaid scarf flowing loosely ; short sleeves ; massive brace- 
lets ; long hair ; a velvet cap secured by a broad ribbon passing 
under the chin. Second dress : White satin trimmed with 
silver; scarlet mantle with ermine ; silver coronet surmounted 
by cross. Third dress : White wrapper trimmed with lace. 
Witches. Short skirt with frogs and toads appliqued in black 
velvet on quilted satin skirt, chintz tunics; black velvet 
bodices laced in front ; ruffles at elbow ; cats and owls on 
shoulder ; short cloaks with square collar at back ; high black 
velvet hats, entwined with serpents. 

MACGREGOR, HELEN. (5^^ Helen.) 


MACINTYRE, MISS {The Antiquary). Crimson 
velvet bodice, flowered petticoat and sleeves ; dress turned up 
d, la laveuse ; broad Brussels point collar ; crimson stockings, 
with white clocks ; black shoes, with crimson heels and bows, 
diamond buckles. 

MACONAISE {Peasant of Bourg-eti-Brise). Brown cash- 
mere dress, with blue silk bibbed apron ; low bodice, with 
shawl and elbow-sleeves ; large black hat, round, made on net, 
with a huge knob in centre, trimmed with gold cord, tassQl 
and net streamers; black stockings and shoes. Or, short 
striped red woollen petticoat ; red corselet bodice ; muslin 
chemisette ; small red cape slung round shoulders ; round flat 
cap with an upstanding tail like a rat's. 

MADALENE {On the Eve of St. Agnes). Skirt of white 
satin, bodice blue velvet with pendent mushn sleeves; a 
white chemisette, trimmed with bands of blue velvet and 
pearls ; a blue girdle and aumoniere bag at the side ; the hair 
hanging about the shoulders ; and a chaplet of pearls. 

MADAME DE MAINTENON. (1643-1679.) Black 
velvet skirt, open in front, showing under-petticoat of brocade,, 
trimmed with lace or plain satin, richly embroidered ; the: 
bodice should be low, cut high on shoulders, pointed in front,, 
sleeves to elbow, with ruffles ; gloves without buttons ; high- 
heeled shoes, pointed toes and diamond buckles ; missal! 
hanging at side ; hair in flat curls, and head-dress of many 
jewels ; veil floating at back. 

MADAME LE DIABLE. Blue sandalled shoes;: 
short pink petticoat, bordered with band of blue, with small 
black imps in applique ; low bodice over white chemisette ; 
white full sleeves to elbow ; square Italian head-dress of pink 
and gold fastened with pins in the form of horns. {See 


MADEIRA PEASANT. Short striped red, blue, and 

white skirt; red stay bodice embroidered all over ; a linen 

chemisette with turn-down open collar at the throat ; white 

MAD ELI N A {Rigoletto). A short Spanish costume ; red 
satin skirt, with gold braid and fringe ; blue upper skirt ; black 
Spanish jacket, laced across front, over white loose bodice, 



which forms a puff at the waist ; long sleeves slashed inside 
the arm showing white muslin through ; gold betrimmed epau- 
lettes ; gold net, with sequins. 

MADELINE (in Belphegor, Scene 3rd). Short crimson 
cashmere skirt trimmed with black velvet, tucked up over a 
petticoat of pale blue cashmere ; crimson vest, with bodice of 
black velvet strapped over it ; small white apron, with pockets 
and scarlet bows ; French cap, period of Louis XVIII. ; shoes 
same period ; antique French cross, fastened round the neck 
with black velvet ; earrings to match. 

M ADO LI NAT A {From Wagner's PicUire). Front gold 
brocade ; over-dress velvet bordered with gold ; bodice low, 
square jewelled stomacher; high stiff ruff standing up at 
shoulder ; full puffed sleeves to wrist ; hair curled on fore- 
head ; rolled above and entwined with pearls. 

MAGDALEN MAGPIE. Miniature boating hat 
with black and white streamers on powdered hair. Black 
silk jersey, scarf, sash, and satin kilted skirt striped white and 
black, and pompons of the same colour. Black stockings 
with white rosettes on the shoes. Shield of Magdalen College, 
Oxford, fastened to bodice. La Pie Voleuse has a magpie 
on the shoulder with a diamond ring in its mouth. 

MAGPIE. Half black, half white dress ; hair powdered 
on one side and not on the other ; one glove and one shoe 
black, one white ; short satin skirt, with gauze tunic bordered 
with fringe ; basque bodice ; gauze fichu ; satin ribbon tied in a 
bow at the throat ; gauze cap. All half black and half white, 
so that the wearer seems on one side all black, on the other all 
white. A magpie on the right shoulder. (For an original 
rendering, see Coloured Plate X.) The front of skirt is 
striped black and white satin plaited ; the bodice cut in one 
with long side revers of black, lined and turned back with 
white ruching to the hem of skirt, opening down back to 
show full plaited skirt. The black bodice bordered with 
white ; low striped vest ; magpie on the shoulder and in hair, 
which may be powdered or not, or half powdered. 

MAHOMEDAN LADY. Loose trousers of striped 
silk, tunic of gold-spangled muslin; bodice and sleeves of 
crimson satin striped with gold ; pendent sleeves hanging in 
front of crimson gauze ; bangles round ankles and arms ; 




pointed shoes ; many beads round neck ; pointed head-dress 
of gold and beads. 

MAID MARIAN. A brown satin short skirt, bordered 
with dark fur ; a peHsse of Lincoln green velvet, the skirt gathered 
to the bodice, with revers of red satin, and red and brown on 
the cuffs ; the sleeves long, bordered with fur, light brown satin 
ones beneath ; leather band and knife round the waist, with 
quiver at back; round velvet cap bordered with fur. This 
costume looks well in green satin and black velvet. Pelisse 
with green revers, the green carried down front ; green cuffs and 
sleeves ; the velvet cap with a piece turning up in battlements. 
A horn is carried at the side ; boots bound with fur ; hair in 

MAID, MY PRETTY. (" My face is my fortune, sir, she 
said.") Plain yellow satin skirt, antique over-dress of cream 
print, pattern wild flowers ; sacque back ; bodice square in 
front ; bibbed muslin apron ; mob cap trimmed with yellow ; 
black silk stockings and satin shoes. 

MAID OF ATHENS in Greek Dress. {See Greek 
and Athens, and Plate XIII.. Fig 51.) Trousers, short jacket; 
full skirt and under-bodice ; girdle round waist ; cap and 

ENGLAND. Black velvet skirt with lace down side, quilted 
satin front ; square low bodice of black velvet, pointed in front, 
laced at back ; epaulettes trimmed with pearls ; puff of velvet ; 
tight sleeves between arm and wrist, puff of white to wrist, 
frill of white inside ; ruche round neck ; black velvet pointed 
head-dress edged pearl. 

MAID OF LISMORE. Long plain skirt of satin; 
half-high bodice, front fastened with pearls ; sleeves full to 
wrist, with turned back cuff of lace ; Tudor head-dress of velvet 
and pearls. 

MAID OF OLDEN TIMEl. White satin petticoat, 
quilted with pearls ; paniers and bodice of brocade ; crimson 
roses ; old lace and pearls ; powdered hair. 

MAID OF SARAGOSSA. Short blue woollen skirt 
trimmed with red ; upper-skirt of red, drawn through the 
placket-hole at the back ; a low bodice, made stiff and firm, 

K 2 


lacing across the front, displaying a low white linen under- 
dress ; the hair drawn from the face, and gathered in a knot 
at the back, a dagger thrust through it, and a red handkerchief 
wound about the head. 

MAID OF THE MILL. Short dress of white 
muslin or silk ; muslin apron ; bag of flour at side ; cap 
with windmill. 

MAID, SERVING. Black velvet corselet bodice 
over white chemisette ; long sleeves let in a band; high ruff; 
red skirt ; white lace-edged linen apron ; muslin cap. 

scarlet petticoat, with flowered polonaise ; muslin fichu ; cap, 
and mittens ; clothes-pins hung on cord round waist, basket 
with clothes in hand, and blackbird on the shoulder. 

MAIDEN ALL FORLORN. Pretty figured cotton 
dress ; the petticoat of pink and white striped print ; jacket 
of blue and white print tied round waist ; sleeves rolled 
to elbow ; white apron all in holes pinned to left side with 
gold-headed pin ; white sun bonnet ; brown stockings and 
shoes ; milking stool under one arm, milk pail on other ; 
hair dishevelled. 

MAIDENS, LOVE-SICK {Patience). Loose flowing 
skirt ; half high classic bodice, with ribbon belt round the 
waist, tied in a looped bow in front and forming braces at the 
back ; the long drooping sleeves fasten with three buttons on 
the outside of the shoulders, and spring from the fulness of 
the dress at the back. The best colourings are, dark blue 
serge and sunflowers, white with dafl"odils, sickly green and 
passion-flowers, terra-cotta with gold, light blue and claret. 
Lyre in hand ; fillet round head. 


MALAPROP, MRS. {School for Scandal). Brocaded 
sacque, caught back with bows, over quilted petticoat ; 
peaked stomacher, laced with ribbons ; hair rolled over 
cushion ; lace cap ; black mittens ; black velvet round neck 
and wrist ; high-heeled shoes ; muslin kerchief, tucked into 
bodice ; old-fashioned fan. 

MALTESE FALDETTE. Black silk dress, touching 
the ground, and a black silk head-dress made like an apron, 


with a piece of whalebone, half a yard long, sewn into one 
side ; the gathered part comes a little in front of left cheek, 
and the whalebone forms an arch over the face. 

MANETTE, LUCY (Tale of Two Cities). White muslin 
dress, with square bodice, single flounce on skirt; wide blue sash; 
hair drawn up over cushion and curled, a la Gainsborough. 

MANOLA. Dress of amber and blue satin trimmed 
with sequins and gold braid ; dark blue senorita jacket and 
satin cap. Or, large felt hat, trimmed with red ; grey silk 
skirt trimmed with scarlet ; amber merino over-skirt em- 
broidered ; bodice red, trimmed with grey silk, black beads, and 
iace ; overskirt gold trimmed with gold silk fringe. 

MARABALL {See Lalla Rookh). Rich Eastern dress. 

MARCH, A tulle dress trimmed with primroses and 
violets, with a weather-cock in the hair. 

MARCHANDE DE BALAIS. {See Buy-a-Broom.) 

MARC HAN DE, LA. Yellow and red short skirt, 
striped ; white bibbed apron and chemisette and sleeves, with 
pink corselet bodice and Normandy cap. 

MARGARET, LADY {Lay of the Last Minstrel). White 
satin dress, embroidered with jewels, veil at back, wimple of 
clear muslin reaching to elbow ; a knot of plaid ribbons 
fastened on the left side ; wreath of white roses round head. 

MARGARET OF ANJOU, 1422-1461 {Wife oj 
Henry VI.). Hair hidden by curious head-dress of the 
period, or gold coronet and gauze veil; shoes broad over 
instep, and pointed and embroidered; blue velvet square 
bodice, filled in with lisse, quilted with gold; front breadth 
gold brocade ; jewelled girdle. 

MARGERY DAW. Grass green dress, made with 
plain short skirt ; low bodice, large, short puffed sleeves ; round 
cape, with mittens to elbow. 

MARGERY, MISTRESS. Petticoat of rose-coloured 
silk; rose-coloured train lined with pink; bodice to corre- 
spond ; fichu of lace ; hair powdered ; lace cap. 

MARGUERITE {Faust). Short skirt of cashmere, bor- 
dered with rows of black or contrasting velvet ; long skirt over 


this, trimmed in same way, and caught up by means of a 
satchel or pocket, and girdle on left side. The skirt is sewn 
to a long close cuirass bodice made of the same cashmere, 
coming well on to the hips, where it is trimmed with bands of 
velvet or tabs of velvet. It is cut square at the neck, over a 
linen chemisette ; the sleeves are made with horizontal puffs 
to the elbow, where a close-fitting portion of the sleeve meets 
them, and falls a little over the hand. The hair is worn in 
two long plaits. Grey cashmere with black velvet ; white with 
blue can be used. Miss Terry wore full white chemisette to 
throat, hanging sleeves, and bodice of brownish velvet, front of 
dress a lighter shade, train at back ; close cap ; satchel pocket 
attached at side. (See Plate VIII., Fig. 31.) Or Marguerite 
may wear a dress of cream cashmere or flannel made all in 
one, closely fitting, and the bodice fastened at the back ; the 
skirt should be looped up with a baldric belt and pouch, so as 
to show an under-skirt of warm brown-red stuff, the sleeves 
being slashed with the same ; the bodice is square cut, and 
filled in with a chemisette, and with a close small ruff at the 
throat ; pointed brown shoes ; small coif, the same colour as 

MARGUERITE DE VALOIS {Married, 1572, to 
Henry of Navarre, subsequently Henry IV. of France). Long 
skirt of satin or velvet, of contrasting colour to petticoat, which 
is trimmed with bands of gold at the hem ; a jewelled girdle 
encircles waist and falls down centre of skirt ; square bodice, 
trimmed to match, with a high ruff on wire from the shoulders ; 
the hair turned off the face in double roll, not powdered ; a 
jewelled crown ; the sleeves in longitudinal puffs to the wrist, 
with bands of gold between ; lace cuffs ; feather fan ; pointed 
satin shoes. (6"^^ Coloured Illustration I. — Frontispiece.) Or, 
red velvet bodice and train embroidered with gold ; vest and skirt 
of yellow satin, front of red and gold embroidery ; sleeves 
puffed and striped with gold ; crown of red velvet and jewels. 

MARGUERITE, LA. (^-^^^ Flowers.) 

MARIA (School for Scandal). White muslin frock 
with sash ; in last act ivory satin cape and pelisse trimmed 
with white-fox; a white beaver Gainsborough hat, ostrich 

MARIANA (Measure for Measure), Plain flowing tulle 
skirt ; velvet bodice, open, heart shape, with low chemisette ; 


sleeves to wrist, with puff at elbow ; fur round neck of bodice ; 
hair in coif of gold and pearls. 

MARIE {Cinq Mars). Under-skirt of yellow satin^ 
brocaded in gold ; over-skirt of blue velvet, embroidered in 
gold ; gold waistbelt ; hat and feathers ; bodice low, with 
Medici collar; short upper sleeves, under sleeves slashed 
with white. 

MARIE ANTOINETTE. Pale rose brocaded 
sacque over petticoat trimmed with bronze and lace ; large 
hood ; high powdered wig, plumes of pink feathers ; red 
velvet round neck and wrist. In her prison days (after 
Paul Delaroche), she wears a plain, long-skirted, short-waisted 
black silk dress, the sleeves short and turned up with a band 
of muslin ; a long muslin scarf fichu over the neck, the 
ends falling in front of the skirt ; the hair white, and tied with 
a black ribbon at the back, turned off the face in front ; na 
ornaments ; a black bow and band of velvet round the neck. 
{See Plate VIII., Fig. 32.) In the famous picture at the 
Trianon (the costume worn by the Countess of Wilton at 
Marlborough House) the dress is three skirts over a large hoop ;. 
the first, blue brocade, embroidered in silver; the second, 
white, embroidered with gold ; and the third, pink satin, caught 
up with white satin bows and silver tassels ; the bodice low ; 
the pointed stomacher a mass of diamonds ; a pink satin train 
from the left shoulder, embroidered with fieurs-de-Hs and 
silver fringe and lace ; the hair powdered, and a large blue- 
velvet cap with feathers and diamonds. Another charming 
costume, as Dauphine (after Le Brun's picture), has the hair 
powdered and turned off the face, with a large toque of velvet, 
aigrette of diamonds and feathers, a rouleau of gauze surround- 
ing it, and hanging at the back ; the bodice is low, and a lace- 
edged gauze fichu is draped over it, showing the neck and cross- 
ing in the front without ends; the tight velvet sleeves come to 
the wrist, and are bordered with fur ; so is the velvet skirt, which 
opens over a satin skirt ; long mittens. The dress worn at the 
Trianon : A short quilted skirt ; square bodice; elbow-sleeves, 
and train of brocade ; powdered hair ; large velvet hat and 
feathers. Another rendering : Pale blue satin skirt, trimmed 
with festoons of pale yellow lace, looped up all round with 
small wreaths of pale pink '' pompon " roses ; upper skirt of 
pink brocaded satin, exactly matching the roses in colour, 
looped rather high upon the hips a la Watteau ; square bodice 


of pink brocade, richly trimmed with the same lace as skirt 
and pompon roses ; tight elbow-sleeves, with falling lace and 
pompon roses ; hair dressed high and powdered ; aigrette of 
pink roses and a mass of most magnificent diamonds and 
pearle, which were also profusely scattered over the body and 
other parts of this beautiful costume. 

MARIE DE MEDICIS {2nd Wife, Henri Quatre). 
Wears full skirt of rich brocade, just touching gound, with or 
without distinct embroidered jewelled front ; pointed bodice ; 
stomacher jewelled and embroidered; large upstanding ruff 
coming from back of shoulder ; folds of muslin and lace laid 
on top of bodice, meeting in front with brooch; sleeves to 
wrist in graduated horizontal puffs, cuffs of lace ; hair turned 
back from face over cushion ; hair powdered, and covered with 
gold dust. Or peach satin, or red velvet with silver tissue, or 
gold brocade. 

MARIE, LA, DE VILLAGE. Short white silk skirt, 
trimmed with blue and orange bows ; blue satin apron trimmed 
with guipure lace ; white lace cap fastened with g(Jld pins. 

MARIE STUART {7vhen wife of Francis IL, King of 
France). Costume worn by the beautiful Countess of Bective 
at her own Fancy Ball, 1877 : satin dress, front of gold brocade 
covered with jewels, high bodice jewelled, jewelled ruff, sleeves 
with puffings at the shoulders of gold brocade and red velvet ; 
train of ruby velvet bordered with ermine, embroidered with 
fleurs-de-lis, &c. ; white satin pointed cap of the Marie Stuart 
form, covered with jewels. The Princess of Wales, as Mary 
Stuart, at the Waverley Ball, wore a petticoat of cloth of gold 
embroidered with pearls, a dress of ruby velvet with point- 
lace, the bodice made with a satin habit-shirt quilted with 
pearls ; the sleeves with a puff at the shoulders coming to 
the WTist ; the bodice ruby velvet, the stomacher worked 
with precious stones ; head-dress of ruby velvet studded 
with diamonds and pearls; veil of lisse, jewelled girdle, 
and fine parure of jewels. {See Plate VIIL, Fig. 29.) 
As Schiller's heroine, Marie Stuart wears white. As Mary 
Queen of Scots, she is generally represented in black velvet 
and white satin. The velvet robe opens straight down 
over the satin petticoat, at a little distance from the centre ; 
the velvet bodice is a low square over a satin quilted habit- 
shirt ; the sleeves have one puff at top, and are straight to the 


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wrist with lace cuffs turning upwards ; a close ruff" round the 
throat ; the black velvet Stuart cap bordered with pearls, a 
clear musUn veil edged with lace hanging at the back; a 
rosary at the side, and a medallion or cross hung round the 
neck. {See Plate VIII., Fig. 30.) 

MARIE THERESA {Empress of Austria). White 
satin petticoat and bodice ; jewelled and embroidered train 
from shoulders, of purple velvet bordered with ermine ; crown 
on head, and long veil. Or, Costume de Chasse, black 
trimmed with gold ; red velvet waistcoat ; scarlet petticoat 
with gold band ; cocked hat and white feather ; Brussels lace 
cravat ; diamonds. 

MARIES, THE QUEEN'S; viz., Mary Beton, 
Mary Seton, Mary Hamilton, and Mary Carmichael, 

all wear dresses of the Marie Stuart order. Mary Beton, 
the eldest, handsomest, and haughtiest, a petticoat of pale blue 
satin festooned with pearls ; a train of white satin embroidered 
with gold and draped with roses ; a square bodice slashed 
with blue ; stomacher and girdle of diamonds and pearls ; 
lace ruffles and Marie Stuart cap and veil. The laughing, 
roguish, irregular-featured, dark-eyed Mary Seton, ruby 
velvet train trimmed with silver; a white satin under-skirt 
and stomacher, with lattice pattern of silver and pearls ; and 
a black velvet coronet with pearls ; a white veil spangled with 
silver. Mary Hamilton, beautiful, pale, dark-haired, and 
melancholy ; a blue velvet train over canary bodice, blue velvet 
slashed with canary, trimmed with gold braid and pearls ; coif 
and veil ; ruff and girdle, with pearls ; and Mary Car- 
michael, a dress of cramoise satin (between crimson and 
plum colour), with white satin petticoat, trimmed with gold and 
pearls, silver brocaded front ; satin head-dress to match ; the 
dress also trimmed with pearls ; veil and ruff ; pearl ornaments. 

MARIONETTE, LA. White satin over blue, trimmed 
with roses and forget-me-nots ; black velvet hat and feather. 

MARIOTTE {La Fainille Trouillat). Yellow cashmere 
skirt with rows of black velvet ; scarlet cashmere tunic ; black 
velvet square bodice ; leg-of mutton sleeves ; blue silk apron 
and bib ; Normandy cap, trimmed with lace fastened with gold 
pins ; long gold earrings ; gold chatelaine ; blue silk stockings, 
black shoes tied with scarlet. 


MARITANA. Rich black ^Spanish dress and veil ; red 
silk skirt, yellow sash, and black bodice ; red cap ; the whole 
trimmed with sequins and gold trimmings ; ornaments, 
diamonds, sequins, and corals. Or, short skirt with satin 
tunics, rose, black, and blue, bordered with gold lace ; low 
black velvet bodice, with stomacher trimmed with gold ; blue, 
red, and black bows on shoulder ; square Italian head-dress of 
white silk, trimmed with bands of red and gold ; a tambourine 
carried in the hand. 

MARJOLAINE, LA {Role Jeanne Granier). A 
short, striped brown and white petticoat, bordered with blue ; 
high-heeled shoes, with blue bows ; brown stockings ; yellow 
tunic, lined with blue, forming a pouf at the back ; a blue 
bodice wdth a double basque — one all round, one cut up in 
front and at the side This bodice is laced across with brown 
and shows a white chemisette beneath. The sleeves are bell- 
shaped, and made of brown and white, like the petticoat ; a 
coachman's white cape, with yellow revers collar and silver 
clasps, covers the shoulders; a high-pointed hat, with blue 
feathers ; a yoke across the shoulders, with four Dutch clocks 
suspended, completes this dress. The other is even more 
piquante : a short white skirt, bound with pink ; white shoes 
and pink rosettes ; pink tunic ; white apron ; high jacket, 
opening in front to show a waistcoat ; both white, bound with 
pink and trimmed with gold ; a close-plaited ruff round the 
throat ; a white silk hood lined with pink. Or, dress of rose 
and grey satin ; bodice laced with gold ; shoulder knots of 
cerise ; pink shoes ; gold bands ; flowers in hand. 

MARMITON. Short skirt of brown satin ; white linen 
over-dress and bodice with rows of red braid, cut low and 
edged with lace ; apron, one corner tucked into waistband ; 
blue scarf on shoulders; belt, with knife at side. 

MARQUISE. {See also Louis XIV., XV., XVI., and 


MARQUISE, FRENCH. Petticoat of rich blue 
brocaded satin, trimmed with rose point ; train of rose point 
and ponceau velvet ; floral trimmings; bodice blue satin and 
rose point, with diamond stars ; flowers, feathers, and diamond 
ornaments ; tiara and necklace of diamonds. 

MARSEILLAISE, LA. Short black velvet riding- 


habit, with tricoloured sash ; vest and revers of white satin, 
embroidered in gold ; conical hat of black velvet, with tri- 
coloured plumes j lace ruffles ; whip in hand. 

MARS ETTA {Mada?ne VArchiduc). Pink satin skirt, 
trimmed with gold and diamonds, white cashmere embroidered 
in gold over pink satin; corselet bodice over white bodice; 
square Italian head-dress, and veil of gold-spangled tulle. 

MARTHA. Short skirt of red merino ; bodice of 
grey trimmed with cerise and black velvet ; coronet of black 
velvet ; gauze veil. Or, stuff under-skirt, with long over-skirt 
caught up with girdle and satchel ; long bodice, sleeves puffed 
at shoulder and elbows ; white linen chemisette ; suited to 
mddle-aged woman. (See Plate XIV., Fig 54.) 

MARY II. OF ENGLAND, 1689-1702 {Wife of Wil- 
liam of Orange). Petticoat of orange poult-de-soie with medal- 
lions of black velvet, pearls, and diamonds ; tunic of light blue 
satin trimmed with ermine and gold ; bodice and sleeves to 
match; bodice low, front studded with jewels ; manteau de cour 
of light blue satin bordered with ermine and gold, fastened with 
diamond stars ; coronet of diamonds ; order of the Garter. 

MARY OF MODENA. Black velvet cap bordered 
with diamonds, diamond crown in centre ; bodice of dark 
velvet made low ; high ruff at back, quarter of a yard deep, on 
wire ; blue satin carried round the front and neck, the puffed 
sleeves slashed with it; velvet train showing satin front, worked 
in pearls. 

petticoat, with coloured pictures of " pretty girls all in a row," 
bordered with silver cord ; satin tunic with silver bells, having 
garlands of cockle-shells and primroses; the bodice a low 
square, with long sleeves trimmed to match ; satin hat with 
primroses, bells, and cockle-shells ; silver chatelaine of spade, 
hoe, rake, and watering-pot ; tiny watering-pots for earrings ; 
cockle-shell necklace ; mittens ; high-heeled satin shoes. Pink 
and blue, white and blue, and pale green are suitable colours. 
Or, white satin short dress scolloped and bound with pale 
blue and edged with plaits ; silver hanging bells introduced 
between each picture. 

MASCOTTE. Dress of cream cashmere, body and skirt 
slashed with crimson silk and gold, with epaulettes of the 


same ; tunic embroidered with gold, edged with gold fringe, 
looped with gold girdle and tassels; toque of crimson and 
gold ; vivandiere's canteen and gauntlets. Also dark brown 
wobllen dress and straw hat, large bunches of poppies and 
field flowers outside ; gold collarette ; vivandiere's barrel and 
gauntlet gloves. The gipsy costume worn by Mdlle. Dinelli in 
the third act of La Mascotte was composed of a drapery 
of crimson and gold, shorter on one side than the other, but 
nowhere reaching the ground. Coloured silk stockings and 
shoes, with sandals of gold reaching to the knee ; a handker- 
chief of red and gold tied over dark flowing hair ; tambourine ; 
no gloves or mittens worn. {See Bettina.) 

MASHER. Short and scanty black satin skirt; black 
satin coat ; shirt front and typical collar ; a cane in hand ; 
crush hat. 

MASHERETTE. Black satin tail coat and skirt, with 
white waistcoat ; black embroidered stockings ; crimson silk 
handerchief ; opera hat and crutch stick; high WeUington 
boots ; shirt front ; high collar ; eyeglass in eye ; buttonhole. 

MATCH GIRL. Short costume of blue and white 
cotton, with low bodice of cherry-coloured muslin ; kerchief ; 
hair in long plaits ; muslin cap ; basket with matches. Or, 
short stuff gown, red plaid shawl, close straw bonnet, matches 
in tray hanging from shoulder. 

MATELOTTE. {See Fish-girl.) 

MATHILDE, EMPRESS. Dress, pale blue and cream 
brocade ; long flowing drapery of cream cashmere and 
jewelled girdle ; head-dress of Indian muslin and jewelled 

MATILDA {Wife of William the Conqueror^ of iioo). 
Tunic of crimson velvet, with gold border ; blue mantle ; gold 
chatelaine ; cream satin robe, with fleur-de-lys of blue velvet 
jewelled crown, veil ; blue and gold girdle and tassels. 

MARTON. Large full red stuff gown, made to touch the 
ground ; stay bodice of the same, laced with gold, muslin 
kerchief tucked inside ; large linen sleeves in one puff to 
elbow ; becoming muslin cap, after the order of the Olivia. 

MAUD, LADY {Ages ago). White silk petticoat; 
bodice and tunic trimmed with gold lace and fringe ; XVth 


century head-dress of white satin and pearls ; veil spangled 
with gold ; red rose in bodice ; diamond and pearl 

MAY, MAY QUEEN. Flowered brocade trimmed with 
may blossom. Or, green and white striped satin skirt, pink satin 
tunic, and low square bodice festooned with may-flowers ; a 
maypole, surmounted by flowers, carried in the hand ; a crown 
of hawthorn, primroses, and marguerites, and a tulle veil. Some- 
times a simple village girl's white muslin dress is worn, with 
these floral trimmings, for this character. {See Rosiere.) 

MECKLENBURG BRIDE. (6"^^ CxErman Peasant. ) 

MEDEA. Blue velvet robe, bordered with gold, made in 
classic style ; dagger in the hand ; flowing hair, gold bracelet. 

MEDI>^VAL. This term for fancy costume has a very 
extended meaning. It is applied to almost any dress worn 
during the period of the middle ages, and after. The following 
are a few descriptions : Corselet and sleeves of bright red 
velvet with epaulettes, and plaited chemisette of pink crepe 
or gauze ; the sleeves tight to wrist with gold embroidered 
cuff's, matching the stomacher on the low square bodice, made 
with belt j short skirt of striped red and white silk, with front 
breadth of gold embroidery, satchel pocket, close plaited ruff 
at throat ; large silk or velvet hat with feathers. The German 
dresses of XVth and XVIth centuries come often under the 
category, with the low square bodice ; full white chemisettes ; 
close ruff; hair in plaits ; large apron ; skirt flowing, but held 
up by girdle, with aumoniere bag attached ; the tight sleeves 
puffed at shoulder and elbow with white muslin, the velvet cuff 
falling over the hand. Occasionally the dresses are made with 
bodice and skirt in one, or with long bodices coming well down 
on to the hips, the puffings caught down with beads. A 
Mediaeval Vivandiere wears a blue cashmere skirt, with 
bands of velvet round the sleeves of blue and scarlet, puffed with 
a check pattern on the forearm; cambric bib and apron; broad 
velvet hat with feathers ; keg slung round the figure ; the 
bodice comes high to the throat with ruff, and has rows of 
black velvet going round the neck. A mediaeval dress, well 
carried out, admits of magnificent brocade and velvet, and 
antique jewellery of many kinds. 

MEDICIS. {See Catherine and Marie de Medicis, 
Francis II., &c.) 


MEDORA. Amber satin petticoat, trimmed with gold; 
Greek bodice and tunic of black satin ; hair in plaits, round 
Oriental satin cap embroidered in gold, with gauze veil. 

MEDUSA. Black classic dress of soft cashmere, trimmed 
with lizards, scorpions, and dragons ; snakes in hair, and snakes 
for ornaments. 

MEG MERRILIES (Heart of Mid-Lothian). Blue 
riding jacket with gold lace; hair clubbed like a man, a 
bunch of broken feathers attached ; riding skirt, gloves, bunch 
of old faded flowers in front, whip in hand. 

MELNOTTE, WIDOW {Lady of Lyons). Plain 
striped grey gingham dress ; black apron ; short black cape ; over 
shoulders; cap. 

MERCURY. {Girl.) Carries caduceus. Black velvet 
Phrygian cap, steel ornament in front, white wings at the 
back, repeated on heels and at back of plaited lace ruff; white 
short dress, panels of jet. 

MERCY. {See Geneva Sister.) 

MERE MICHEL. {See Hubbard, Mother, and 

MERMAID. Dress with low bodice of eau de Nile silk, 
covered with drapery of sea green tulle, with a profusion of white 
corals, shells, marine grass, flowers, and crystallised foam ; 
the left shoulder of the dress ornamented with a cluster of 
diamonds ; the right shoulder and ceinture with silvery 
iridescent gems ; flowing hair crowned with corals, pearls, and 
diamonds, interspersed with pendants of seagrass. {See Water- 

MERVEILLEUSE. {Period of French devolution.) 
Nothing can be too eccentric. Skirt of gold and spotted 
muslin, with gathered flounces sewn with red, and headed by 
crossbands ; green Directoire bodice, with belt, lined with red ; 
double sleeves, both ending in lace ruflles, the upper one 
coming to elbow ; muslin fichu ; large jabot and ruffles ; enor- 
mous bouquet fastened on left shoulder ; crimson satin boots ; 
large hat trimmed with red and green feathers, fastened with 
tricolour cockade ; snuff'-box, gloves, and eye-glass ; hair plaited 
in pigtail and tied. The Merveilleuses had adopted all the 
vagaries of their male friends, the Incroyables — the dishevelled 
locks, the hair a la victime, hat d la Charlotte Corday, with 
tri-coloured scarf tied under the armpits, stiff stocks, eye- 


glasses, sticks, and quaint hats stuck on the head anyhow, 
with trimmings protruding in all directions. The turned-down 
collar and the revers were also copied, as well as the 
dangling watches and charms. Underclothing was almost 
dispensed with, as well as all substantial stuffs ; only muslin, 
organdy, tarlatane, gauze, and sometimes, but seldom, 
taffetas, composed the narrow dresses, which were often 
embroidered with chain-stitch, and, for evening wear, with 
gold and spangles, when the robes a rAthhiienne were 
frequently opened at the side and caught up with jewels or 
bouquets of artificial flowers, just then beginning to re-appear. 
Quite a study was required to gracefully slip the train in the 
belt or throw it over the arm. The short spencer, or ca7iezou^ 
was cut extremely low for all occasions, hence the necessity of 
always carrying a scarf ready to be thrown over the shoulders 
when required. Row^s of Roman pearls and long gloves 
covered the bare arms, and the feet were encased in tiny 
slippers, strapped round the ankles with coloured ribbons. 
Like powder, rouge had been abandoned, and blonde was the 
colour obligatory for the hair. The following could be worn : 
Narrow skirt of white muslin, or mousseline de laine, orna- 
mented with chain or satin stich ; baby bodice with sash tied 
at the side supporting a bouquet ; embroidered silk mittens ; 
reticule of plush ; large hat with soft crown and plume of 
feathers. Or, kilted skirt of chaudron nun's cloth, scalloped 
at edged and spotted with gold at every scallop; pointed 
panel and scarf in bengaline ; plastron scarf and left side 
panel in blue taffetas, the two latter richly embroidered ; habit 
bodice with long tails of pale blue satin, striped with chaudron 
velvet ; stomacher and charm-holder of brown velvet ; facings 
of brown corded silk ; silk muslin tie, fastened below the chin 
in a huge bow ; roses and aigrette in the felt hat and on the 
shoulder. Skirt of fine cream muslin slightly looped up on 
one side to show the foot in its satin sandalled shoe of a 
colour matching the Directoire coat, of pale pink satin lined 
with coloured silk and with large revers and cuffs of same 
colour. The coat cut in a low V at the throat, and filled in with 
an enormous jabot of soft creamy lace pinned with one or two 
diamond brooches; bows of different coloured ribbons forming 
shoulder knots ; the dress completed by large white felt hat 
turned up in front and adorned with pink and olive feathers ; 
diamond clasp ; long cream buttonless gloves, and pink 
and olive reticule on arm* Or, long skirt of nun's veiHng, 


the hem embroidered with pale blue and pink flowers ; a 
short-waisted tail coat, pale pink brocade with revers of blue 
satin ; large buttons, broad frills at neck and wrist ; pale blue 
satin hat, pink and ostrich feathers standing up straight on one 
side ; long cane in one hand and an eyeglass in the other. 
Or, white three-cornered hat, powdered hair, black silver 
tipped walking stick fastened with satin ribbon at handle. Or, 
short apple green skirt pinked out ; ruche of pink silk at the 
hem ; short waisted pink bodice, sleeves one puff to elbow ; 
pink sash, pink reticule ; large green poke bonnet trimmed with 
pink roses ; buttonless gloves ; fan on arm. 

MEUNIERE DE VILLAGE. _ Short white silk skirt 
and bodice, striped with rose colour ; white apron ; lace cap and 
gold windmill in it. 

MEXICAN. Short skirt of black and red, with scarf of 
many colours wrapped round the head and falling on dress. 
Much gold about the costume ; gold sequins, chains, &c. Or, 
long yellow trousers, opening near the feet on the outside of 
the leg, and showing a plaiting of muslin beneath ; the 
bodice comes low in the neck, opens on the shoulder, and is 
embroidered all round in black ; a coloured scarf is wound 
about the waist, a round hat on the head ; short skirt. 

MEXICAN GIPSY. Black satin vandyke skirt, with 
red satin scarf over black, and red satin bodice covered with 
sequins ; red satin head-dress and Mexican ornaments. 

MICAELA {Carmen). Short white cashmere skirt, bor- 
dered with band of blue ; blue over-skirt, trimmed up the 
front ; low square bodice, with grenat velvet, revers of the 
grenat velvet bordering white stomacher ; white linen head- 
dress, fastened with gold pins, and flowing at the back ; muslin 
cap. (Le Cceur et la Maift). Short striped red and yellow 
petticoat ; three tunics above of red, matching red stay-bodice, 
cut square in the neck ; large straw hat j wreath of flowers. 

MIDNIGHT. Black tulle, with ostrich feather trimming, 
and silver stars. (6'(?^ Night.) 

MIDSUMMER NIGHT. Electric blue satin edged 
with a ruche of silver gauze, with scarlet poppies at intervals, 
and draperies of blue tulle above, covered with silver stars, 
draped high on one side, with a wreath of poppies; low bodice 
trimmed with gauze, silver and poppies, with epaulettes of blue 


ribbon edged with silver ; bat wings are attached to the back, 
the veinings outlined with silver cord, the extreme points of 
the wings attached to silver bracelets ; head-dress, bat's head 
with diamond stars ; blue band round the throat, with 
diamond stars ; black gloves and stockings ; blue satin shoes, 
diamond buckles ; a fan of silver tinsel tied with blue ribbon. 

MIGNON. The beggar-girl wears a loose grey cashmere 
dress, with girdle round the w^aist and hanging sleeves ; bare 
feet and sandals ; hair flowing on shoulders. After Scheffer's 
picture : Peasant's skirt of brown woollen material ; cream- 
coloured bodice, blue posy in her belt ; 2nd dress : Page's 
costume of blue velvet ; 3rd dress : White silk Watteau 
trimmed with pink. 

MIGNON ETTE. Short quilted satin petticoat of palest 
yellow, with narrow brown braid between the diamonds ; pale 
olive-green brocaded bodice and tunic, the bodice high, 
turned back at the throat to show the lining of light brown, 
and laced down the front with brown cord, over a chemisette 
of pale yellow satin; the tunic has the corners turned 
back to show the brown lining ; plain white kerchief round 
the throat ; hair in a knot at the back ; mittens ; light 
brown silk stockings, and high-heeled shoes with buckles ; 
a bunch of mignonette to fasten the kerchief at the side of 
the hair, and another bunch in an old-fashioned basket on 
the arm. 

MIKADO. The Three Little Maids wear robes so close- 
fitting that they materially interfere with the free action of the 
feet and legs ; very wide sashes defining the waist, and at the 
back forming huge bows. Each dress is flowered and em- 
broidered all over. Yum-Yum, one of a deep fraise ecrase 
shade. Pittl Sing, white and gold. Peep-Bo, bluish green ; 
their hairs are dressed in the loops and bows associated with 
Japan, thrust through with tiny fans. Katisha, an elderly 
lady in love with Nanki-Poo. Elaborate dresses in same style, 
two shades of terra-cotta, almost hidden with gold embroidery. 

MILK GIRL. Bodice and skirt of some woollen fabric 
with tunic ; a check woollen kerchief crossed over the neck, 
and tied at the back ; white apron with tucks at the edge, and 
large pockets on either side ; large poke bonnet of straw 
trimmed with blue ribbons, yokes on the shoulders. Or, a sage- 



green skirt ; nasturtium Pompadour polonaise, short sleeves ; 
muslin kerchief and mob cap ; and carries the orthodox pail. 

MILKMAID. {See "My Pretty Maid.") 

MILLER'S DAUGHTER. Similar dress of white 
cashmere trimmed with gold. Sometimes this and Miller's 
Maid are made of white sateen, and worn with powdered hair. 

MILLER'S "WIFE. Stripped woollen skirt with laveuse 
tunic of plain colour ; low striped bodice with white sleeves ; 
toy windmill on the top of muslin cap. 

MILLINER, ^y^HITE {Comedy by Douglas Jerrold). 
FuUskirt of soft white lawn, over-skirt opening in front, caught 
up in a pouf about the hips ; large lace-edged apron with a 
bunch of white ribbons on one side ; pointed bodice laced in 
front, cut square, with elbow sleeves, fichu and ruffles ; high 
white cap ; a white velvet mask edged with lace. 

MILLIONNAIRE. {Same as Money.) 

MINNA TROIL. {See Brenda Troil.) 


MIRANDA {Tempest). White cashmere dress, bordered 
with silver, the skirt gathered on to the long cuirass bodice, cut 
square at the neck, with hanging sleeves, a satchel pocket at 
the side ; silver coronet and veil. 

MIRTH, QUEEN OF. Rose-coloured skirt, white 
satin front, and low square bodice, trimmed with bells, 
crocuses, shamrocks, and butterflies (emblems of mirth); 
coronet and veil ; a sceptre surmounted by a butterfly ; rose- 
coloured shoes. 

MISS MUFFET. Chintz, or plain blue sateen dress, 
trimmed with gold lace ; muslin fichu and mittens ; spider in 
cap. Or, short dress of pale blue sateen trimmed with gold 
lace ; muslin apron, fichu and cap, the latter surmounted by 
a spoon and spider. 

MIST. Grey tulle, scattered over with dewdrops ; square 
cut bodice, and sacque of grey ; grey shaded tulle veil of the 
same fastened in powdered hair and to front of bodice, with 
diamonds ; grey nhoes, gloves, stockings and fan ; diamond 




MOLDAVIAN PEASANT. High white chemisette 
fastened with cherry ribbons ; corselet of same colour, trimmed 
with lace and embroidered in gold ; large muslin apron over 
short dark skirt ; hair plaited with cherry-coloured ribbon. 

MOLLY MALONE ( Widdy Malone). Red and blue 
flannel costume, made like an Irish peasant's, but with a wheel- 
barrow embroidered on the side of tunic. (See Colleen 
Bawn, Connaught Peasant, &c.) 

MONEY. Dark brown skirt, on it a row of bank-notes 
printed on white satin ; white satin tunic, with purse-shaped 
pocket and ;£". s. d. embroidered on it; gold-coloured satin low 
bodice, with long sleeves of gold-spangled tulle ; a long netted 
crimson silk scarf, with a tassel and steel rings at either end, 
slung round the waist ; a satin cap of white, brown, and gold 
satin covered, as is the entire dress, with sequins. (See Coins 
and Gold.) 

MONTE CARLO. Dress, half red satin, half black 
velvet and lace ; one shoe red, one black ; short skirt fringed 
with coins, and trimmed with cards ; pointed coronet of red 
satin, with aigrette of cards on shoulder ; croupier's rake carried 
in hand; and Rouge et Noir. {See Coloured Illustration,. 
Plate XI.) 

MONTESPAN, MADAME DE. Long full plaii> 
white satin skirt ; bodice of the same half high, pointed back 
and front ; low fichu folded above and fastened with jewel in 
front ; large puffed sleeves to elbow, slashed horizontally ;. 
hair in curls ; diamond ornaments, and sometimes a train, 
over shoulders. 

MONTHS. {See January, Febuary, March, April,. 
May, June, July, August, September, October, 
November, December.) 

CLAIRE DE LUNE. A silver-spangled tulle evening 
dress, over white satin ; a mantle of the same, bordered with 
silver lace, attached to the shoulders of the low bodice ; a 
white and silver scarf twisted round the head, fastened either 
with diamonds or with silver crescents, which must be intro- 
duced on the shoulders, front of the bodice, and skirt ; white 
satin shoes with crescents ; silver ornaments. Dark grey and 
silver is another pretty combination for the character. 

L 2 


Moonshine, all of black tulle, with a basque bodice of silver 
brocade ; the tunic edged with a most delicate fringe of 
crimped silver, looped at one side with one large star; the 
head-dress, a close-fitting turban cap of silver brocade, with a 
narrow fringe of crimped silver ; black long gloves, with bands 
of silver tissue or brocade, about an inch wide, at equal 
distances ; black fan with silver sticks. This costume could 
be called Night, if preferred, and, to make it more peculiar, a 
bat could be fixed on the left shoulder. Another costume for 
Moon is a dress of soft white silk, trimmed and bordered with 
brown velvet cut in Vandykes, three-quarter moons in gold cloth 
or yellow silk appliqued on the velvet ; plastron placed on low 
bodice, the same on short sleeves ; blue scarf round waist, 
edged with gold ; gold and silver-spangled tulle round neck ; 
sma.ll silver-spangled cap with a bunch of arrows, surmounted 
by crescent, on one side. Or, a dress trimmed with moonlight 
tints on grey and silver ; an electric star in hair is a novel 
feature. A blue gauze dress, or sometimes green, may be worn. 

MOORISH. Maize satin petticoat, embroidered with 
black ; ruby velvet tunic and jacket, trimmed with gold lace ; 
velvet shoes to match, embroidered with gold ; Moorish em- 
broidered sash ; gold coins and silk net on hair ; Algerian 
ornaments ; hair in plaits, surmounted by high Moorish head- 
dress made of white linen and bordered with gold. 

MORAVIAN PEASANT. Short cotton skirt, dark 
short apron ; white full bodice, open in front, sleeves to elbow, 
short ; low velvet bodice fastening with one button ; hair 
covered with dark silk handkerchief having fringed ends. 

TURY. Ruff of fine linen plaited and edged with lace ; 
sleeves puffed to elbow, with lace confined by a velvet band 
above the elbow ; head-dress of gold, embroidered silk scarf, 
the same at waist ; embroidered velvet bodice high to throat ; 
gay coloured petticoat. 

MORGIANA. Eastern dress of white lace with bands 
of pale grey, almost covered with sequins; drapery of red 
with gold embroidery ; small red head-dress ; hair in pendent 

MORNING. Dress of grey tulle, the upper skirt 
covered with grey glass drops. A bird on one shoulder ; veil 


of dew spangled tulle ; grey shoes and hose ; grey fan. Or, 
skirt bordered with grey, pink and blue tulle flounces and 
draperies of the same at the back with paniers of pale grey 
foulard looped with long bows of ribbon, grey, pink, blue and 
yellow; grey satin bodice with draperies of the coloured 
tulle all round ; a large pink rose covered with dew drops on one 
shoulder ; the hair powdered and dressed high with butter- 
flies quivering over it and a tuft of dew-laden roses; long 
grey gloves wdth rosebuds and streamers attached ; fan ot 
real flowers veiled with dewdrop lace ; pearl ornaments. 
{See also Night and Morning.) Or, white silk or cashmere 
dress made in classic fashion with various musical instruments 
painted upon itj an orange velvet scarf draped about the 
bodice, fringed with gold surmounted by the notes of music ; 
head-dress a crown with golden bars lined with blue ; a lyre 
carried in the hand. 

MORNING STAR. {See Star.) 

MOROCCO. Silk trousers, embroidered jacket, belt, 
coins on head-dress. 

MOTHER EARTH. {See Earth.) 

MOULIN A VENT. Short costume of pink satin, with 
low yellow satin bodice and white stomacher, laced across with 
two shades ; powdered hair, a small windmill as an aigrette ; 
windmill also on left shoulder ; the same for ear-rings, and on 
shoes, and painted on the gloves; a pink satin ribbon, with 
bow at neck, windmill depending. 

MOUSSE. Sailor's hat lined with blue. Black velvet 
jacket trimmed with gold lace and buttons, worn over a white 
satin waistcoat, large black silk bow in front ; the upper 
skirt cardinal silk bunched up at the back, displaying the 
white satin petticoat in front, striped with pale blue satin and 
edged with narrow lace ; pale blue stockings, cloth gaiters, 
and patent leather shoes. 

MOYA. An Irish girl ; costume of silver-watered tissue 
covered with water-lilies, anacharies and water-plantain ; on 
the head is a large water-lily, with long silver grass and weeds 
hanging down over the hair, which is worn flowing ; in the 
hand a long reed, from which hang valisneria, sphagnum, and 
other aquatic weeds. 



MUETTE DE PORTICI, LA. Short blue petticoat 
bound with light maize ; a muslin apron, a Roman scarf about 
the waist ; a low blue stay bodice, with shoulder-straps trimmed 
with gold braid, and worn over a white muslin chemisette, with 
long sleeves ; square Roman head-dress, fastened with coral 
pins, coral ornaments. 

MUSCADIN. White satin waistcoat ; maroon satin coat 
with gold buttons ; white satin skirt draped with blue bows, 
showing petticoat of striped Pompadour satin ; open-work 
stockings, maroon shoes, blue bows, gilt heels ; conical cap of 
silk beaver with roses and blue flowers ; directoire eye-glass, 
gnarled stick with gold knob ; powdered periwig ; lace cravat. 

MUSE DE LA POESIE. Under-skirt of blue satin 
bordered with gold cord, and embroidered with gold in front ; 
black satin train, embroidered with gold lyres ; cuirass bodice 
of amber satin, bordered with a black gold-embroidered band, 
studded with precious stones ; a crown of gold wheat-ears, 
long gold-spangled tulle veil. 

MUSHROOMS. Pale cream silk evening dress, trimmed 
with moss and mushrooms. 

MUSIC. White satin dress trimmed round the edge with 
tulle and black velvet, to represent the keyboard of a piano, 
and above this two rows of notes and lines formed with velvet 
and buttons ; a scarf draped across the skirt has the treble 
and bass clefs on the fringed ends ; the low bodice has winged 
sleeves, a lyre on the shoulders ; the same in the centre of the 
coronet, and on the shoes, made of white satin. On the bodice 
is a draped bertha fastening beneath a lyre. (See Plate XIII., 
Fig. 52.) Two sisters might appear as Music and Painting. 
(See Painting.) Or, soft dress of crepe de Chine or llama, the 
bodice low and full, with belt; embroidered with ivy leaves along 
the top, the same carried round the pendent sleeves from elbow ; 
musical instrument in the hand. Or, short eau de Nil silk skirt, 
studded with sharps and flats, five rows of velvet with notes to 
represent a piece of music. In the hand a Spanish guitar. 

skirt of American cloth with landscapes painted on it, a tunic 
of coarse linen with paint tubes and brown satin ribbon ; the 
tubes carried as a fringe all round, with alternating shells of 
gold paint ; brown velvet jacket with white muslin shirt ; a 


cord round the waist with palette and knife ; old point lace 
collar, tan gloves ; head-dress made like a flat cap. Or the 
character might wear brown sateen with other colours sewn 
upon it, to resemble dabs of colour, a red scarf round hips 
holding palette ; brown bodice, red waistcoat, muslin fichu 
and sleeves with tubes intermixed ; brushes forming an 
aigrette in the hair ; fan like palette ; brown gloves and 

"MY PRETTY MAID." Short coloured petticoat ; 
an open tunic of blue flowered chintz, pointed bodice laced 
across the front ; muslin kerchief; straw hat bound with black 
velvet, and tied under the chin; boots laced up the] front; 
yoke and milk-pails. 

NANCE REDFERN. {See Hubbard, Mother.) 

NANCIEBEL, LADY. Sage green velvet skirt, caught 
up on left side with gold girdle, showing primrose under-skirt ; 
velvet cap with heron's plume ; peacock fan. 

NANCY LEE. Blue and white striped petticoat ; blue 
or red upper-skirt, looped up with a large silver anchor ; full 
bodice, or blue cloth jacket, with sailor collar; red apron, 
trimmed with yellow ; white cap, red handkerchief over it tied 
under chin ; blue stockings, black high-heeled shoes. Some- 
times a black tarpauHn hat is worn with "Nancy Lee" upon it. 

NANCY OF THE VALE {Shensfone). Olive 
green silk dress with large bunch of daffodils on the bodice. 
Poke bonnet with yellow ribbons ; a reticule hanging from 
the arm. 

NAUTCH GIRL. Bare feet; muslin full plaited 
skirt, bordered with gold, made short ; tight-fitting long- 
sleeved under-dress ; silk drapery over one shoulder and under 
arm, bordered with embroidery ; hair in two long plaits ; 
flowers and gold and silver ornaments on head ; many beads 
about neck ; cloak of gold and white muslin from the head 
and entwined about the figure ; anklets and bracelets. 

short skirt, hemmed with a yellow band, long green silk apron 
fringed with red and embroidered with red and yellow silks ; 
low square sleeveless black velvet bodice, worked with yellow, 
and laced over a chemisette of white batiste ; white puff" to sleeves 


from shoulder, the rest velvet, tight to arm ; square Italian head- 
dress striped, with coloured beads round neck. PEASANT 
GIRL. Pink silk skirt with claret velvet round the hem : 
white silk apron striped horizontally with many colours ; 
claret velvet bodice with pink revers over low-cut waistcoat to 
match, crossed with gold bands, long sleeves ; coral necklace ; 
head-dress to match apron, fastened with gold pins ; tambou- 
rine in hand. {See Italian.) 

NEEDLES AND PINS. This dress is after the 
Mother Hubbard order. {See Hubbard and Workbox.) A 
quilted skirt, with chintz train ; low black velvet bodice, fichu ; 
powdered hair ; cap and pointed velvet hat. In front of the 
dress every kind of needle and pin is inserted. Pins forming 
the motto : " Needles and pins, needles and pins; when a man 
marries his troubles begin," on the train. 

NEGLIGE DRESS, 1791. Petticoat and sacque of 
brocade, with ruffles ; pointed shoes ; feather and pearls in hair ; 
mouche on cheek and chin. A neglige is often made of muslin, 
trimmed with lace, and looped up with ribbons over petticoat. 

NELL GWYNNE. Long pink skirt, with blue tunic ; 
low bodice ; full puffed sleeves, slashed at shoulder ; hair curled 
and confined by pink ribbon ; low muslin fichu about the 
shoulders, the ends tucked into the front of bodice. She is- 
accompanied by a pet lamb. Or, blue satin skirt draped 
with brocade ; black velvet bodice with the Nell Gwynne hat 
having loops of satin ribbon ; blue stockings and shoes. 

NEWHAYEN FISHWOMAN. (6"^^ Fish-girls, &c> 

NEWSPAPERS. {See Press.) 

NICKLEBY, MRS. Widow's cap ; a plain skirted black 
gown, a pointed bodice cut en cceur at the neck, with a turn- 
down collar and bishop sleeves, with muslin cap ; or, instead 
of the cap, a large old-fashioned coal-scuttle bonnet, with 
plaited border and large veil, or with a close plaited border to 
a cap with a raised crown. Sometimes she has a shawl about 
her shoulders ; sometimes a pelerine coming to the shoulders^ 
with a frill round. 

NIGHT. A long black tulle fashionably-made evening 
dress, spangled with silver stars and crescents, silver crescent 
ornaments, silver belt; a crescent on the head, and long crescent 


spangled veil ; a silver wand, with crescent at the top ; an owl 
on the shoulder ; black fan, having moonlight scene painted 
upon it. Sometimes the bodice is made a la Vi'erge, with 
long pendent sleeves. Black gloves, black satin shoes, with 
crescents. This is the ordinary rendering, and with stars only, 
instead of crescents, is suitable also for Evening Star, or 
Starry Night. A more original dress for Night is a black 
tulle, with a bouillonne of blue tulle at the edge, trimmed with 
silver stars ; a train of bluish-black satin, studded with silver 
stars and comets; a pale blue gauze scarf, representing 
the Milky Way ; stars seen through it ; on one side the 
constellation Orion ; the veil attached to the shoulder by a 
nightingale and the red berries of the deadly nightshade, 
surmounted by a bat with outstretched wings. This character 
is sometimes called The Trailing Garments of the 
Night. Or, dark blue tulle over satin, with silver stars dotted 
all over, the bodice trimmed with shimmering silver fringe ; 
a silver band round the head, with a crescent moon in front ; 
a long blue tulle veil, with stars of various sizes ; a dark blue 
fan with silver sticks, and a moonlight scene painted in white 
and grey; ornaments, silver stars. Or, a dress half black 
half white satin with stars and crescents, and in the hair; 
an owl in front of the bodice and at the side. (See Plate IX., 
Fig. 34.) Queen of the Night. Sapphire blue velvet, 
studded with silver poppies, and bordered with silver fringe in 
the form of rays ; a fringe round the waist of sapphires and 
diamonds ; the head-dress an enormous pouf of sapphire blue 
feathers sprinkled with silver, the hair thickly studded with 
diamonds ; and an enormous black tulle veil enveloping the 
figure, fastened to the shoulders as wings. Night and 
Morning. Bodice and short dress of velvet and white 
satin, one-half completely black and the other white ; white 
and black stockings and shoes ; velvet and white satin cap. 
Night on the Bosphorus. A blue satin dress studded 
with gold stars ; long black veil studded with silver and 
diamond crescents. Night and Morning. Chocolate 
and blue satin dress, made with a low bodice ; a striped 
skirt ; stars and moon on one side, on the other on a cream 
ground the rising sun in gold embroidery. Night and Day. 
Powdered hair, the dark purple and pure white feathers fas- 
tened in their place by a diamond star ; the bodice half dark 
purple satin, and half white ; on one shoulder a bouquet of 
small starry jewels, each one illuminated with electric light ; 


the skirt, alternate draperies of purple and white satin ; on 
the panel which represents day a clear sky is embroidered, 
and a sun in gold, and clouds in faint rose-colour and lilac, 
bordered with gold ; on the dark purple draperies, for night, 
a crescent moon and clusters of stars embroidered in silver ; 
one glove and one stocking purple, the other two white ; the 
shoes also are alternately white and blue, with diamond stars 
upon each foot. 


OF. The dresses were made with narrow skirts; short 
waists ; long gloves and large bonnets were worn. 

NOAH'S ARK {as worn at the Empress Eugenie's Fancy 
Ball). Toy Noah's Ark on head, with two little silver animals 
running into it, up the parting ; long white dress, with silver 
animals in pairs, round ; a dove of promise on the shoulder. 

NOCTURNE. In black and white, or red and white, 
after Whistler. The term is generally applied to a stylish 
evening dress of the above mixtures. The name is a fashion 
of the hour, and finds favour with those who do not care for 
decided fancy costumes. 

NORMA. {See Druidess.) 

NORMANDY FISH-WIFE. The peasant's dress 
consists of a bright-coloured petticoat, striped or plain, with 
rows of black velvet ; tunic bunched up, either by drawing 
through the placket-hole, or sewing the side breadths together 
at the back, so that the inside of the skirt is visible ; the tunic 
should form a contrast to the skirt, such as blue over red, violet 
over amber. The bodice terminates at the waist, is close-fitting, 
and has only a shoulder-strap, the linen sleeves having a wide 
band, and coming below the elbow. If this is worn over a 
linen chemisette, it is plain in front ; if a muslin lace-edged 
fichu is worn, it is laced across the front, with coloured cord. 
The following is a good rendering :— Short striped skirt; 
black velvet bodice, worn over white chemisette with sleeves 
to elbow; tunic lined with the colour; high cap. {See Coloured 
Illustration, No. XII.) A gay coloured cotton kerchief may 
be tucked into bodice ; and a large holland pocket worn ; 
with grey stockings ; black shoes ; ornaments, gold. In 
the real Normandy caps there is a great variety, and they 




are handed down from generation to generation. Two shapes 
prevail for Fancy Balls, one such as "Evangeline" wears, 
resembling the Foundling cap, made in thick muslin, with a 
high crown, low at the back, a shaped piece fitting the head 
in front, and lappets at the side, like a hound's ears, bordered 
with lace, a bow at the top, and fastened on with gold pins ; 
the other, a full-dress cap, stands up above the forehead some 
12 inches, terminating in a point of 3 inches broad. This 
upstanding crown is covered with rows of lace and bows 
of ribbon, and to the top at the back a voluminous lace-edged 
veil is attached. Large gold earrings and cross, coloured striped 
stockings, and black shoes with coloured bows and heels, com- 
plete the costume. It can be carried out in silks, woollens, 
and cotton. {See Coloured Illustration, No. XII.) A 
Normandy Fishwife, in addition, carries a basket 
of fish at her back, and has a net round her waist. A 
Normandy Bride would wear a white muslin skirt, trimmed 
with white satin, the apron bordered with swansdown ; a blue 
silk bodice and tunic ; a muslin fichu, and high cap, with white 

NORNAS. The two Scandmavian Sisters who sat 
round the Ygdrasdil tree ; one in a robe of pale green Indian 
silk, high bodice, full long sleeves ; the hem worked in silver, 
with Runic characters ; belt of silver ; hair floating on 
shoulders, mistletoe wreath. The other sister in the same, of 
diflerent colouring, mixed with gold. 


woman wears red stockings and black shoes ; a short black 
skirt, striped with red and green ; the sleeveless jacket bodice, 
made of scarlet cloth, terminates in a silver belt, trimmed with 
green and silver ; it has a low red cloth stomacher one mass of 
silver and beads ; a long-sleeved white linen chemisette high 
to the throat, with all-round collar, is worn under it, fastened 
with a silver brooch, and festooned with silver. A large white 
linen apron reaches almost to the hem of the skirt, and has a 
band across it of red and green embroidery. The head-dress 
is of white linen, hiding the hair in front like a fez, and has 
a pendent point and tassel. The hair hangs down the back 
in long plaits. Norwegian silver ornaments. The Norwegian 


Bride wears a similar dress, with large silver Norwegian crown, 
veil, and ornaments. The Norwegian Fish-girl has a net 
round waist. 

NOURMAHAL {Lalla Rookh). Short amber satin skirt 
trimmed with blue and gold ; amber satin bodice studded with 
jewels. Or, a pelisse, with bodice and narrow tunic in one, 
over short skirt ; transparent pendent sleeves ; blue and gold 
sash and cap ; the hair plaited and entwined with pearls ; white 
full gold-spangled trousers; white and gold slippers; feather 
fan. Blue and red, or red and green, may be used instead of 
amber and blue. 

NOVA SCOTIA. Skirt of red bunting draped with 
scarves of red, blue, and yellow, made of Surah silk fas- 
tened on with burgees ; low bodice edged with gold ; a blue 
ribbon with Nova Scotia embroidered in gold, crossing from 
shoulder to waist; aigrette of red and yellow ospreys; fan 
of red, blue, and yellow silk ; long Suede gloves tied with red 
ribbon. This is suitable to a nautical fancy ball. 

NOVEMBER. A fashionable evening dress of grey tulle 
to resemble a November fos. 


NOVICE. (^-^^NuN.) 

NUBIAN. Dress of rich colouring, red and yellow, with 
the hair almost hidden by a coloured handerchief twisted about 
it ; an Egyptian harp carried in hand ; many coins and beads 
for jewellery ; the sleeves are sometimes long, sometimes short; 
the bodice is a mere drapery ; sometimes a sleeveless jacket is 
worn over all. 

was worn by printers some time ago, something like a Scotch 
cap made of printed sateen, with a black satin band inscribed 
with the word " Newspaper," quill pens and sealing wax at the 
side ; necklet of white cardboard bound with pink tape ; low 
bodice and skirt of sateen, printed with news and trimmed 
with printed news ; waistband with special Christmas number ; 
chatelaine with printer's ink bottle, composing stick and roller ; 
the skirt principally of newspaper ; apron made of a coloured 
picture ; black mittens ; stockings and shoes ; bracelets of 
gold nibs, and lead type on pink. 




')d.^ Uv? UX J 1 1 IVVtO/2'C . 

^Oy^ liucb I nc I U 


NUN, NOVICE, ABBESS. These are unsuited to 
fancy costumes, but are sometimes adopted, and are usually- 
carried out as follows : — The Novice, a white dress, such as 
veritable Novices do not much affect ; viz., a long white 
muslin gown and a muslin veil attached to the back of the head, 
beneath a small wreath of white roses ; a chatelaine of white 
beads at the waist. Nuns and Abbesses at balls adopt 
flowing dresses, a knotted belt, a rosary at the side, and 
either a white or black head-dress. There is little attempt at 
consistency ; the sleeves are sometimes lined with black silk ; 
the head-dress made of crepe lisse, with a flowing black gauze 
veil. The robe of the Dominican and Augustine Nuns 
is white, with a loose oblong piece depending in front, as 
well as back ; the head-dress is black lined with white, square 
over the face where it turns up with white, and reaches below 
the shoulders, a sort of linen cape half covering the body, 
forming part of it. A long black cloak is also worn. The 
Benedictines and Ursulines have white Hnen hoods and 
capes, forehead bound with white linen with variations. 

NURSE. Embroidered muslin cap with ribbons and 
round crown ; striped gingham gown made with high bodice ; 
striped stockings ; peau de Suede shoes. (See Geneva Sister 
and Illustration IX., Fig. 33.) 

NURSERY RHYME. Pointed black hat with the 
names of Jack and Jill or any other nursery heroes or heroines 
round ; black silk stockings, high-heeled shoes, a crutched 
stick ; dress full, with short skirt of plum-coloured silk and 
plenty of white frilling beneath ; round it, effigies of see-saw, 
a cat and fiddle, sheep, dogs, or anything associated with 
nursery lore ; bodice of blue velvet cut as a low square with 
muslin fichu, skipping rope round the waist. 

NURSERY RHYMES. The characters from these 
are the fashion for children's fancy dresses, and for the Singing 
Quadrilles : the principal characters are Jill {see J), My 
Pretty Maid (see M), Bo-Peep (see B), Mary, Mary, 
quite Contrary (see M), Red Riding Hood (see R), 
Mother Hubbard (see H), Cinderella (see C), ^A?^hite 
Cat (see W), Babes in the Wood, and Beauty (see B), 

NUT-BROWN MAID. Dress of cream-coloured 
nun's veiling, looped and puffed in old English style ; knots 


of plush satin ribbon ; pointed bodice of pink brocade 
trimmed with blackberries ; Leghorn hat with nuts, black- 
berries, and loops of ribbon. 

NYMPH {See Water Nymphs). Dress of silver 
cloth with coral epaulettes, and silver coronet in the hair ; 
seaweeds and grass introduced on the skirt and low bodice. 

OARSA?V'OMAN. Crimson flannel short skirt trimmed 
with bands of velvet ; brown tunic, caught up high on hips ; 
blue bodice, with revers, and blue and white striped waist- 
coat, elbow-sleeves, white plaiting round; straw hat, with 
poppies at side ; black mittens ; black shoes, blue stockings ; 
oar in hand. 

OCTOBER. This is generally rendered after the manner 
of autumn with trimmings of leaves variegated with all the 
rich reds and browns of the autumn tints. A classic cream 
dress would show such trimmings to advantage. Or, an 
evening dress of cream and gold satin introducing acorns, with 
the leaves applied to dress and head-dress. 

ODALISQUE. Embroidered slippers ; red silk trousers ; 
short embroidered skirt ; scarf of many colours, tied round 
hips ; black corselet bodice, embroidered in pearls, half high, 
white and gold ; chemisette with sleeves, buttoned to elbow, 
silver pendants ; cap of silk, with crescent and aigrette ; 
plenty of amber beads and ornaments ; feather fan in hand. 

OLD FASHIONED GIRL, Long full skirt of soft 
muslin or wool, short waist; low bodice made full, short 
sleeve with just one puff; sash round waist ; cap of white 
muslin, plaited round the edge, cut up the back ; a bow of 
ribbon in front. 


(See Hubbard and Shoe.) 


cloak ; witch's hat ; broom in hand ; high pointed bodice with 
ruff and bunched up chintz skirt. 

OLD ENGLISH DRESSES suitable for bazaars and 
other occasions consist of sateen or quilted petticoats ; 
cretonne overskirts and bodices, laced in front ; muslin fichus, 
aprons, and caps. (See also Watteau, Poudre, &c.) 


OLDEN TIME, LADY OF. A favourite character 
at Fancy Balls, generally carried out hydi poudre costume, or as 
follows : Quilted satin petticoat ; brocaded tunic pinned 
together at the back ; a low velvet bodice laced across a white 
stomacher ; muslin kerchief about the neck ; hood and wim- 
ple on the head. Of poiidre dresses of the olden time the 
following are examples : Blue and white flowered tunic, over 
long cerise skirt ; stomacher and low bodice trimmed with 
blue and cerise, lawn ruffles ; powdered hair over cushion, with 
roses, convolvuluses, and pearls. Or, a quilted skirt touching 
the ground, chintz sacque {see Watteau); square bodice, 
with straight-cut pointed stomacher ; sleeves to elbow with 
puffs and ruffles ; muslin cap, or Dolly Varden hat with flowers. 

OLIVETTE. Tunic of black and gold-spangled satin ; 
over-skirt of blue satin ; black scarf, and pocket embroidered 
in gold ; velvet bodice embroidered to match, with blue 
stomacher of gold brocade; blue stockings, black shoes 
and mittens ; gold sequin ornaments, or cloth of gold 
trimmed with gold lace ; front of skirt coral silk ; large collar 
lined with black velvet and edged with gold beads ; head-dress 
and necklet gold filagree. Or white, as the Bride, satin skirt 
embroidered with silver beads ; Zouave jacket and high collar; 
small pointed cap with orange blossoms and feathers. {See 
Batilde, Countess of.) 

OLIVIA {Twelfth Night). Long over-dress bordered with 
gold, having a distinct front breadth ; the bodice low square, 
pointed at waist, v/ith close-set loops round the point ; jewelled 
buttons fastening the bodice in front ; a basque at the back ; 
a ruff comes from shoulder to shoulder, made of a plain 
piece of muslin edged with pointed lace, not plaited; the slashed 
sleeves have epaulettes and cuffs, and are puffed to the wrist ; 
a jewelled coif is worn on the head ; the hair rolled off" the 
face ; a veil floating at the back. 

OLIVIA PRIMROSE. {See Wakefield Family and 
Plate IX., Fig. 35.) 

OLYMPIA. Satin dress, made with close-fitting low 
bodice bordered with a broad band of embroidery, which goes 
round the skirt; full sleeves to the wrist, with lace; costly 


OPHELIA {Hamlet). Long plain skirt of white cash- 
mere, with a peplum tunic, one end caught up in the girdle, 
thus forming a lap filled with poppies, corn, cornflowers, cat- 
kins, pansies, forget-me-nots, and marguerites ; the bodice 
low and full, with long pendent sleeves, the whole trimmed 
with rows of silver braid and fringe ; the fair hair hangs over 
the shoulders entwined with flowers ; a wreath on the head, 
and lisse veil studded with flowers ; white satin shoes. It may 
also be carried out in silver tissue or white silk ; long plain 
brocaded silk bodice opening heart shape, sleeves tight to 
wrist, puffed to elbow ; hair flowing, wreaths of flowers on 
head, and side of dress caught up with girdle and puff'ed round 
waist. As Ophelia, Miss Terry wore a costume of pale fraise 
ecrase cashmere, bordered with ermine, cut in V-shape at 
throat, and draped skirt. Second dress : White satin bodice, 
studded with pearls; missal suspended from girdle, with string 
of pearls. 

ORACLE DES CHAMPS. (5(?^ Flowers.) 

ORANGE GIRL. {See Neapolitan.) 

ORANGES AND LEMONS. A fashionably made 
tulle evening dress of light blue or two shades of yellow, with 
branches of oranges upon it, a wreath of orange blossoms having 
an orange at the side ; orange and lemon leaves round the 
bodice. This offers an opportunity to a recent bride of wearing 
her bridal wreath once more. Fan with oranges painted on it ; 
basket of oranges and lemons in hand ; lemon-coloured shoes 
and gloves. Another costume is : Dress of very pale blue 
tulle, with satin bodice ; a row of orange leaves with a few 
flowers for the sleeves and edging of the bodice, and arranged 
about the skirt ; clusters of the fruit on the left of the low 
bodice, the back of the right sleeve, about the skirt, and on 
the hair ; the fan composed of leaves with a cluster of fruit, 
and a fancy basket of the fruit on the arm ; the long lemon- 
coloured gloves have the backs painted to match. Two sisters 
might dress the character as follows : White satin dresses 
over yellow ; powdered hair ; one trimmed with lemons and 
foliage, the other with oranges ; the leaves may be arranged as 
paniers, with clusters of fruit depending, the fruit forming a 
cap, with the stalk upwards and leaves around ; large fan of 
yellow gauze. Two shades of yellow are sometimes employed for 
this dress, if the person represents the two fruits. 


ORCHARD. An evening dress of red tulle, or light pink 
and white tulle, trimmed with apples and pears, fruit and 
blossoms, walnuts and leaves, plums, &c. 

ORCHARD, ENGLISH. Sacque of crimson brocade 
trimmed with old point, and apples, plums, and pears, &c. 



&C. All these at Fancy Balls are rendered with loose silk 
trousers to ankles ; a short satin skirt ; and a sort of paletot of 
satin with pendent sleeves. The whole in bright colours, much 
betrimmed with gold and sequins ; the hair in plaits ; a round 
cap on the head. A jewelled aigrette in front. The following 
costumes are effective : Eastern Sultana, or Light of 
the Harem. Petticoat of white satin embroidered in 
gold, gold and white trousers to ankles ; paletot of crimson 
striped silk, embroidered in gold and lined with green silk ; 
long sleeves, and white satin ones beneath ; Indian gold and 
. W'hite scarf round the waist ; yellow pointed shoes ; white satin 
cap embroidered in pearls ; gold jewelled coronet ; white 
muslin veil. Eastern Dress. Yellow silk veil confined 
by gold coins ; amber and claret skirt ; claret velvet paletot 
trimmed with amber and much gold ; gold sequins and amber 
beads for jewellery. Oriental Lady. Tunic of crimson 
Dacca muslin ; trousers of white muslin spangled with gold ; 
short crimson silk skirt, and jacket ; the stomacher covered 
with pearls and jewels ; sash of cloth of gold ; turban of the 
same entwined with crimson cashmere ; embroidered slippers ; 
gold spangled veil. 

ORLEANS, DUCHESS OF {temp. Louis XIV. and 
Javies II.). A coloured satin petticoat made walking length, 
embroidered. The bodice is a high square, stiff and narrow, 
with high stomacher covered with jewels j the sleeves are 
ample, and come to the elbow with ruffles ; a satin train of 
contrasting colour, bordered with the same gathered flounce, 
comes from the shoulder in box plaits ; the hair is curled, not 
powdered, and over it is the coiffure a la Stemkirk, made with 
tier upon tier of upstanding lace lappets, hanging at the back ; 
shoes with very pointed toes ; long gloves; a fan in the hand. 
(See Plate XIV., Fig. 56.) This style of dress is the one 
adopted for James II. 's reign at Fancy Balls. 



ORPHAN GIRL {Soldiers' Borne, Hampstead). Red 
.stuff skirt and bodice ; white muslin tippet, cap and apron 

ORTRUDA (Lohengrin). First dress : white flowing skirt 
trimmed with gold ; velvet over-dress trimmed with gold ; 
with cuirass bodice, buttoned on hips ; jewels, crown, and veil. 
Second dress : loose robe of velvet, square cut, long sleeves at 
elbow^ ; silver grey scarf of cashmere about head. 

OYSTERS, QUEEN OF. Dress of white tulle, studded 
with oyster-shells, coral, and seaweed ; wreath of same round 
the low bodice. 

OYSTERWOMAN. {See Ecaillere.) 

PACK OF CARDS. {See Cards. ) 

PAINTING. Red plush costume with w^hite satin tablier 
painted in water-colours to represent small pictures, the plush 
is draped with a palette ; the other side of the bodice is white 
satin, with laurel leaves and small palette ; head-dress, a sort 
of hat, formed with a palette and aigrette of brushes ; red silk 
hose, black shoes. Or, classical robe of light drab cashmere, 
low full bodice and belt, short sleeves cut in two Vandykes, 
fastened with buttons on outside of arm ; long train from 
shoulders lined with blue, palette and brush on one side ; a 
crown of bay leaves on the head. {See Art). 

PALETTE. {See Painting, and My Colour-box and 

PALMYRA, QUEEN OF. Antique costume of blue 
satin, trimmed with silver embroidery and ermine ; train of 
sapphire velvet lined with blue satin, trimmed with ermine. 

PAMELA. Richardson's heroine, as portrayed on the 
walls of the Academy, w^ears a black dress, with elbow-sleeves, 
and white cambric ruffles ; a cambric fichu crossed over the 
front of the bodice, and fastened behind ; the hair turned up 
under a small cambric mob cap, with black ribbons. At Fancy 
Balls the dress is often looped over a quilted petticoat. The 
novel was published in 1 741, so the dress is of the last century, 
and by no means costly, for Pamela was of humble origin. 
Black high-heeled shoes, silk stockings, and mittens complete 
the costume. 

PANSY. Short white dress trimmed with deep rich- 


coloured violet pansies, one large one forming the head-dress 
the petals standing well round the head, like a brim ; the 
bodice made of dark petunia velvet, arranged to simulate the 
flower, the soft peach crepe de chine draped with pansies ; a 
fan in the shape of a pansy. {See Plate X., Fig. 38.) Or, dress 
of amber-coloured soft silk, trimmed with purple bands, outlined 
with gold ; loops of purple and amber-coloured ribbons on the 
top of the sleeves ; head-dress in the shape of the flower ; white 
bibbed apron, embroidered in purple ; a gold basket of hearts- 
ease carried. Or, dress of violet tulle and satin with profuse 
trimmings of the flower ; wreath and shoes to correspond. 
{See Flowers.) 

PAON. {See Peacock.) 

PAQUERETTE (Easter Daisy). Short upper skirt 
of white tulle, green satin beneath, with large leaves ; gold 
satin corselet ; large collar of the petals of the flower ; an 
aureole of white flowers tipped with gold in hair. 

PAQUITA {Girofle Girofla). Blue and white-striped 
stockings, blue satin shoes, with high heels ; short skirt of blue 
and white-striped silk, double skirt of white silk, cut in van- 
dykes, bound with blue, and draped gracefully over the skirt. 
The low bodice, as well as this upper skirt, is trimmed with 
gold braid, and over the low bodice is a sleeveless senorita 
jacket of blue cashmere, bound with gold, having a ball fringe 
of gold ; the silk forms a puff for the short sleeve, with straps 
of blue over it ; head-dress, a white muslin veil attached by a 
bunch of roses. 

PARR. {See Catherine.) 

PARROT. A yellow gown with cuirass bodice and cap 
of green feathers like a parrot's head, tv/o long feathers form- 
ing the tail on the skirt ; the rest of the dress green satin, with 
wings at the side formed of feathers. 

PASQUINETTE. Bodice and sleeves made high ; half 
red, half gold satin, with rosettes down the centre, a wide turn- 
down frill at the throat, made of lace ; skirt of the same, inter- 
blending with a pouf all round the waist ; one stocking red, 
one gold, shoes also ; high gold-coloured hat with red spots, 
and rosettes of the two colours mixed in coloured ribbons. 

PATCHWORK. Short double skirt and low bodice a 
la Vierge, of patchwork, cut in large diamonds, with alternate 

M 2 


black and yellow dividing the other colours ; the hair is 
powdered, and pompons of ribbon of all colours are introduced 
upon it, as also for the rosettes on the shoes. Or, dress made 
of chintz patchwork ; muslin cap. 

PATIENCE. Dairymaid costume, plain skirt; flowered 
chintz tunic, bunched up over contrasting petticoat ; low 
square bodice, laced in front, short sleeves ; muslin fichu 
tucked into waist ; holland coloured apron ; large straw hat, 
wreath of flowers under brim ; carries a water or milk-pail. 
(See Plate X., Fig. 37.) {See Lady Jane.) 

PAULINE {Lady of Lyons). In first scene, pink silk, 
with a muslin frilled fichu, tied in front. Second dress, bridal 
costume, in severe style of Empire. Third dress, muslin,, 
with goffered flounce round skirt and top of bodice. 

PEACE. A flowing dress of white tulle with loose low 
bodice, and wing sleeves, trimmed with swansdown, blush 
roses, lilies of the valley, and bands of silk embroidered with 
olive-leaves ; a belt at the waist with pearls, intermixed with 
the embroidery ; the tablier tunic is caught up with olive 
leaves, and holds a couple of turtle-doves. In Paris this dress 
had the tablier also embroidered with the sentence, " Paix aux 
hommes de bonne volonte." Flowing veil and olive wreath 
completes it. It has also been rendered as follows : Dress 
of pale blue and silver brocade, trimmed with wheat-ears, 
forget-me-nots, and fruit ; a bird's nest with eggs, and silver 
wheat-ears in the hair ; an olive-branch carried in the hand. 
A white satin banner may be borne, with the word '' Peace." 

PEACOCK {Un Paon). A dark green or lemon-coloured 
tulle dress, bordered with rows of peacock-eye feathers, headed 
by gold twist ; bunches of the feathers are arranged on either 
side, and bands of the feathers round the train, the skirt 
draped with crepe ; the same bordering the low satin or plush 
bodice, feather epaulettes ; the tail, like a large fan, takes 
the place of a ruff" from behind the shoulders, and the head 
and neck of the bird form a cap, from which a veil depends ; 
gloves with gauntlets ; bands of peacock's feathers, necklace, 
feathers mounted on lace; fan of peacock's feathers; dark green 
stockings, green satin shoes with feather rosettes. Or, a dress 



c?/. J-oivence', 

38 . J OjnOAA^ 




of black and peacock-green silk, arranged in alternate flounces, 
the tail feathers spreading over the train ; cuirass bodice of 
green silk, bordered with feathers ; helmet of green feathers. 
By a simple contrivance the tail can be made to spread out 
at will. 

PEAR BLOSSOM. {See Apple Blossom.) 

PEARL. Pearly grey evening dress of gauze over satin; 
nautilus shell head-dress. 

PEA, S'WEET. Four skirts of tulle; white and green 
bodice and cap ; a bunch of the flowers in front of bodice. 

Short, striped blue and white skirt, and long jacket bodice, 
fitting the figure to perfection. It has long sleeves, all trimmed 
with bias bands, and is cut heart-shape, very open at the neck ; 
a lace-edged fichu over, with a bunch of flowers in front ; 
short draped tunic, and waistcoat of plain blue ; coquettish 
straw hat, with blue ribbons. This is one of many charming 
French costumes which require to be thoroughly well made : 
blue stockings and high-heeled shoes with blue rosettes are 
worn with it. 

PEASANTS. {See the Various Countries.) 


PEDLER ( Woman). {See Gipsy.) 

PEG WOFFINGTON {Masks and Faces). First dress : 
Black sacque of figured brocade open at the sides, quite un- 
trimmed, the bodice cut low back and front with a muslin lace- 
edged fichu over it ; the dress skirt beneath of blue figured 
gauze, and a large black hat trimmed with blue worn with it. 
Second dress : A red and grey brocaded sacque, quite distinct 
from the low pointed pink bodice and front breadth, the sacque 
made very full and low at the back, with elbow sleeves ; a 
round pink wreath accompanies this. Third dress : Brown and 
maize satin similarly made, the brown sacque caught up on 
either side of the skirt with large brown and maize rosettes. 
Or, over-dress of green brocade, pink petticoat, elbow-sleeves, 
mittens, and kerchief, the ends terminating at the waist and 
cufl". Peg Woffington is generally represented with a flowered 


skirt, caught back with coloured ribbons, showing a distinct 
front breadth ; a square pointed bodice, and sometimes a lace 
apron ; a large muslin fichu, edged with lace ; elbow-sleeves 
and lace ruffles ; and either a lace cap or a straw hat pressed in 
towards either side of the head and tied under the chin; mittens 
on her hands. For outdoors, she wears either a hooded scarf 
or a long mantle and hood. Mrs. Bancroft, as Peg Woffington, 
wore (first dress) body and train of sea-green plush, the train 
lined with paler green showing at the sides ; under-skirt of 
neutral green with three flounces, each headed by puffings ; 
the bodice came well down on the hips, was cut in tabs in 
front and square at neck, with fichu of lawn and jet ; a blue 
lace sacque fastened to the shoulders ; hat of sea-green 
plush trimmed beneath the brim with rows of black and 
white lace. Second dress : Low square dress of silver 
brocade with high ruff at back and long train ; short sleeves 
with large cuffs of gold-coloured satin, and three rows of soft 
lace below ; under-skirt of gold tissue trimmed with Venetian 
point, and bunches of buttercups and paste ornaments ; small 
stomacher to match ; a garland of sunflowers across the skirt 
relieved by bows and two long tassels of bullion on the bodice ; 
a spangled fichu with gold fringe ; head-dress of cream 
feathers and gold aigrette. Third dress : Two shades of red 
and sacque of flowered crimson silk looped over a deep red 
plush dress with train ; broad belt of scarlet round the waist 
fastened by a diamond buckle to match the shoes ; hair raised 
over a cushion with lace cap tied with black bow under chin, 
flowers between hair and lace of the cap ; train, full ; sleeves^ 
short and tight with fall of lace over elbow. Peg Woffington, 
in Smallfield's " Old Actors," wears an over-dress of green 
brocade, pink petticoat, elbow sleeves, and mittens and kerchief, 
the ends terminating at the waist. Mrs. Bernard Beere dressed 
it with a curled wig, large hat, long trained princess dress with 
tabs at the side of bodice ; large stick in hand. 

PENELOPE ( Wife of Ulysses). Ancient Greek costume. 
Long loose dress of white cashmere, trimmed with silver braid 
in Greek designs, and bullion fringe ; over this is the chitonion, 
a sort of jacket joined on the shoulders, plaited back 
and front, and falling in points OU' either side, completely 
covering the bodice, and hiding the waist ; it is bordered 
with the same braiding, a silver tassel at each point ; the di- 
ploidon, or flowing cloak, of cashmere, covered with silver 
stars, is draped from the shoulders ; a silver fillet round 


head, the hair in a coil at the back ; sandals ; gold and brown 
combine well for this dress. 

PEPYS, Mrs. Green satin dress, with pale pink front 
of satin, bodice with square tabs at waist, ornamented with 
pink bows, large pink slashed sleeves ; large linen collar edged 
with point lace ; pink shoes ; hair in curls with strings of 
pearls, pearl necklets and bracelets. 

PERDITA {^Winter's Tale). Shepherdess dress, crook 
carried in hand, entwined with blue ribbons and roses ; short 
blue skirt with two festooned flounces of silver gauze caught up 
with roses ; tunic of the same ; bodice low, and trimmed as a 
stomacher ; wreath on head. Or, as worn by Miss Leclerc for 
the character : A full white skirt coming just below the knees, 
trimmed with a blue border of the Greek key pattern ; a full 
low bodice with short sleeves, edged with the same ; a blue 
ribbon girdle, white stockings, and blue shoes, laced across, 
and rather high ; a wreath of wild flowers on the head, a 
spray hanging loosely from one shoulder across the bosom, 
and a crook with wild flowers carried in the hand. 

PERI OF OCEAN. {See Water Nymph.) 
PERICHOLE. Skirt of peacock blue; loose jacket of 
black velvet trimmed with gold sequins ; Roman sash ; Indian 
kerchief head-dress ; scarlet stockings j gold, silver, and amber 
necklet and armlets. 

PERRINE. Pointed shoes; full lace-edged trousers to 
ankle ; lace bordered short skirt ; low bodice, short sleeves 
scarf crossing bodice with ball fringe ; high hat. 

PERSIAN. The women wear clinging draperies ; the 
bodice, cut in one' with the skirt, fitting the figure closely, made 
half high, the sleeves tight to the wrist, and armlets over them 
above the elbow; jewelled girdles roujiid the waist; a sort of 
coif on the head, with a gold -spangled veil of some soft fabric, 
the hair loose or in plaits on the shoulders. Oriental-looking 
satin or cashmere, bespangled with silver crescents and stars, 
are most appropriate ; ornaments of coins and beads. 

PERSIAN PRINCESS. Green satin skirt covered 
with gold ; a black satin bodice and tunic bordered with gold ; 
crepe lisse fichu beneath, and corselet of cloth of gold ; coif, 
and gold-spangled veil ; scarf round waist. 




PESCHARD, MADAME {La Branche cassee). Short 
striped skirt, black and white; short blue cashmere tunic, 
bunched up ; long embroidered yellow apron, with bib ; a 
blue low square bodice over linen chemisette and loose sleeves, 
terminating above elbow. The distinguishing point in this 
costume is a large white cashmere hood worn on the head, 
attached to the dress in front with roses, showing the hair, a 
bunch of roses in front and at the side. A spade carried in 
the hand. 

PHAROAH'S DAUGHTER. Egyptian jewelled head- 
dress ; loose white dress, short sleeves ; bodice cut half-high, 
bordered with jewels, and gold rows of beads ; tiny bracelets ; 
long over-robe of gold brocade. 

PHILINE. ist Act: White skirt, blue satin bodice, 
cut <?;z cosur ; coquettish blue hat turned up with roses. 2nd 
Act : White brocaded gown dotted over with rosebuds 
trimmed with Valenciennes. Last dress. Long black tulle 
robe covered with gold stars, bodice of scarlet silk, fairy wand 
in hand. 

PHILIPPA OF HAINAULT. Blue velvet train 
trimmed with ermine, fastened in front with jewelled clasps; ruby 
velvet bodice with ermine carried down the front in a double 
row; a girdle of precious stones round the hips ; the front of the 
dress embroidered with the arms of the family, on gold and 
silver tissue ; a veil hangs at the back ; a jewelled coronet on 
the forehead, terminating in two large circles of gems about 
the ears. 

PHILIPPINA 'WELSER. Married 1550, when seven- 
teen ; famed for beautiful complexion. Bodice of black 
velvet, very high in throat, with linen ruff; sleeves filled in 
high to shoulder, trimmed with fur ; handsome jewels round 
neck ; plain skirt, embroidered in front ; hair turned off face, 
set in jewelled coif and coronet. 

PHCEBE {As You Like Lt). Shepherdess costume of 
grey cashmere, with bunch of flowers on side of bodice ; ker- 
chief, large full leg-of-mutton sleeves ; pointed Phrygian cap ; 
leather shoes. 

PHCEBE MAYFLOWER. Short skirt of satin, 
tunic and bodice of chintz laced across the front ; muslin 
sleeves to wrist ; apron, and becoming muslin cap with ribbons 
to match the costume. 


PHOTOGRAPHY. A green silk dress trimmed with 
tulle of the same shade; round the skirt, nestling in the bouillon- 
nes a row of photographs ; a scarf of the silk draped across 
the skirt, with medallion photographs at intervals, all bordered 
with green galon ; the bertha of the low bodice fastened at the 
front, back, and on the shoulders with them ; a cap in the 
form of a lunette, with cartes-de-visite, and a long green 
veil depending. 

PHYLLIS. {See Iolanthe.) 

PIGARDY PEASANT. Short red or blue skirt 
bordered with gold or silver embroidered leaves ; white apron 
trimmed with lace ; loose white chemisette bodice with em- 
broidered Swiss velvet belt, having points upwards and 
downwards, back and front ; black velvet braces, sleeves to 
elbow; national cap, viz., upright shape of cardboard covered 
with ribbon, with ruche of muslin next the face and on the 
crown ; striped stockings. Or, short stuff gown, sleeveless 
bodice ; white under-sleeves, linen cap. 

PIE VOLEUSE. {See Magpie.) 

PIERRETTE. Dress of black and white satin; the 
back of skirt black, the bodice opens heart-shaped over a lace 
chemisette, and a wide plaited frill stands out round the 
throat ; another at the waist ; the bodice and front of skirt 
white satin ; black skull cap surmounted by white hat with two 
red feathers ; one black and one white stocking ; long white 
gloves. Or, white satin dress trimmed with pale blue plush ; 
chenille pompons sparkling with silver, white satin pointed 
hat, or felt hat ; blue stockings, white shoes ; the dress made 
in fashion described above. Or, dress of white Nun's veiling 
trimmed in same fashion, with heliotrope watered silk. For a 
little child the character is often represented with full pink 
silk knickerbockers, a double skirt of white surah, with blouse 
to match, fastened diagonally with pompons, same on sleeves ; 
ruff round throat ; pointed felt hat with rows of pink velvet 
round, each fastened with a pompon. Or, by a kilted frock of 
pale blue sateen with scarf to match ; jacket of white cashmere, 
Avith blue chenille pompons and ribbon loops ; white felt hat 
with blue ribbons ; plaited cambric frill. Another rendering 
of Pierrette is a white satin gown worked in pearls ; bodice 
with thick plaitings at the waist ; long pendent sleeves, ruff at 
throat ; round white cap, with two white pompons at the side. 



PIGEON. (See Carrier.) 

PILGRIM. Brown woollen habit reaching to the feet, 
a cord round the waist, sleeves to wrist ; cape, and hood j 
cockle-shells on cape and on broad-brimmed low-crowned hat ; 
staff surmounted with cross or gourd ; sandalled shoon. 

PILLAR POST. Long red satin dress ; white waistcoat 
with placard bearing hours of collection printed on it ; head- 
dress, square cap, the same form as top of letter-box. (See 
PlateXV., Fig, 57.) 

PINAFORE, H.M.S. Josephine and Hebe wear 
fashionable morning dresses ; the Sisters, Cousins, and Aunts 
appear in yachting dresses with striped cotton skirts ; serge 
blouses, sailor collars, tarpaulin sailor hats. Little Buttercup 
in an old-fashioned straw bonnet, cotton gown, and black and 
red shawl pinned across her shoulders. (See B.) 

PIRATES OF PENZANCE. The daughters of 
Major-General Stanley appear in costumes of bright colouring, 
made in the fashion of fifty years ago — short flounced skirts, 
short-waisted bodices with muslin fichus, short sleeves, long 
mittens coming well above the elbow, reticules hung from the 
arm, and either poke bonnets or very large hats, with a bunch 
of roses clustered on one side. This carried out in white 
satin, pink roses, bright heliotrope or claret, would be effective 
and picturesque. (See Appendix.) 

PLANETS. White satin short skirt, bordered with a blue 
silk band and dotted with silver stars ; white gauze over-skirt and 
plaited low bodice bespangled with stars ; long wing-like sleeves 
to match ; blue satin Swiss belt cut in points, a star on each ; 
blue coronet with stars ; long veil with stars ; necklace and 
bracelets of the same. 

PLAYING CARDS. (See Cards, and Queens of 
different suits.) 

PLENTY, GODDESS OF. Fashionable white silk 
evening dress with wreaths of vine-leaves, wild flowers, and 
fruit ; the same in the hair. Or, a classical dress of cashmere 
trimmed with the same. (See Greek.) 

POCAHONTAS. Crimson velvet dress; bright 
coloured scarf to match ; skirt and bodice covered with beads, 
coins, and bangles of glass and brass ; hair in two long plaits 


falling on each shoulder ; beads strung as thickly as possible 
round neck ; long bead earrings ; richly embroidered leggings, 
Indian work of porcupine quills. 

POLAR STAR. {See Star.) 

POLICHINELLE. White satin short skirt, striped with 
crimson, trimmed with gold ; tunic half blue, half white, form- 
ing two ends at the back, bordered with gold fringe and bells, 
and entirely covered with gold spangles ; low bodice of red 
and white, with basque, trimmed with gold fringe and bells ; a 
blue and white cocked-hat over powdered hair ; a fool's bauble 
carried in the hand. {See Plate IX., Fig. 36.) Or, as follows : — 
Three skirts of alternate black satin and gold tissue, cut in 
points, a bell at each, surrounded by gold fringe ; high bodice 
of black satin, with a gold diamond-shaped plastron ; hair 
floating on the shoulders, surmounted by a cap, and bells of 
gold tissue ; Punchinelle carried in the hand, viz., a small 
doll dressed in the same way. Or, short white skirt, low cut 
bodice, striped, bordered with gold ; double-cornered cap of 
blue and red j powdered hair ; blue and white scarf of satin 
round hips. 

POLISH PEASANT at a Fancy Ball is very unlike the 
veritable peasant ; the correct dress would be a striped woollen 
skirt ; a scarlet bodice laced in front, and trimmed with yellow, 
over a high white chemisette, with long sleeves; and for a bride, 
a cap with as many ends of ribbon of all colours and widths 
as can be procured, replaced on less gala occasions by a cotton 
handkerchief folded first cornerwise, then the double-edge 
folded back twice, about 3 inches broad, and tied behind ; a 
flower stuck at the side. A fancy dress Polish costume is as 
follows : A plain blue short dress, trimmed with minever ; a 
yellow bodice with tight sleeves like a habit-bodice, with Bran- 
denbourgs in black across the front ; the Polish cap. edged 
with minever. This cap is a distinctive feature of the cos- 
tume ; it is square at the top, and hard and stiff, the four sides 
diminishing in size where they rest on the head ; the hair 
should hang in long plaits beneath it. Another style is a pink 
satin short skirt, bordered with swansdown, a polonaise over 
it, viz., a bodice and tunic in one, the latter bordered with 
swansdown and opening in front, the bodice cut to throat or 
square, and also trimmed with swansdown and heavily braided 
with silver ; the sleeves close-fitting to the wrist, also braided ; 


high, rose satin boots, bordered with swansdown; Polish 
cap of rose satin. {See Plate X., Fig. 39.) Polish Princess, 
Short skirt of white satin trimmed with gold braid, over-skirt of 
red satin trimmed with gold and swansdown ; low jacket bodice 
and hanging sleeves of black velvet trimmed to match ; the 
bodice, open in front, is filled in with gold braid ; black velvet 
Polish cap, with gold braid and swansdown ; white satin boots 
with black stripes. Polish Snow. White silk bodice and 
short skirt cut in one, bordered with swansdown, and covered 
with tufts of swansdown ; Polish cap. Polish Skating 
Dress of pale blue and crimson plush ; gold lace trimmed 
with grebe fur. Polish Hussar {see Hussar). Lady 
Colonel of Polish Regiment. Ecru petticoat, trimmed 
with blue and gold; blue bodice, trimmed with gold and 
silver ; crimson cloak, with black fur and gold ; cap to 
match ; high blue boots trimmed with black fur and gold. 
Polish national dress, as worn near Cracow : Head-dress 
called Konfederatka, made of red or blue velvet, rim of fur, 
with gold or silver ornaments at the side, flat crown ; sleeve- 
less bodice of same material and colour as the cap, trimmed 
with gold, or silver, or fur, fastened in front under white 
bodice gathered to the throat ; lace edged sleeves, with bow 
of ribbon ; skirt of coloured chintz, with band of velvet ; 
linen apron embroidered with a band of cross-stitch ; boots. 

POLYPHEMUS, H.M.S. Grey dress with badge of 
the ship in gold letters on bodice ; wooden ornaments of 
torpedoes on one shoulder and in hair. This is suitable for 
nautical ball. 

skirt to the ankles ; flowered tunic, with rose bodice trimmed 
with white muslin, rose and green ribbon; cap to match; silver 
kettle earrings ; a kettle hung at the side, with a kettle-holder 
worked with the name of the costume, and surmounted by 
grey poppies ; black mittens ; muslin apron, or chintz sacque ; 
muslin kerchief and cap. 

POMONA. Either a classic dress with fruit in the hand, 
or a white evening dress looped up with fruit ; fruit on head ; 
a basket of fruit in hand. 

POMPADOUR, MADAME, 1744. The beautiful, 
graceful, talented mistress of Louis XV. ; her name calls up 
visions of powder, brocade, ribbons and laces, ruffles, plumes, 


long-pointed waists, and rich embroidery. A pretty costume 
of hers is as follows : Long embroidered skirt of white satin, 
with pink rosebuds and silver leaves ; tunic of pink brocade ; 
long-waisted, pointed bodice, open in front, laced across, 
with a stiff and narrow stomacher ; sleeves to elbow, termi- 
nating in ruffles. Sometimes the upper skirt is open, and 
forms a train over a lower one, covered with embroidery. 
Silk, satin, and brocade are suitable. Pink and blue are 
the mixture with which she is most associated, but the 
following combinations may be employed : Black and pink^ 
blue and cerise, violet and blue, white and blue, maize and 
white, grey and rose-colour. The hair should be dressed high 
over the forehead in numerous small curls, like a pouf a la 
neige, and be ornamented with feathers, pearls, and roses. Or, 
skirt of apple-green satin, trimmed with mother-o'-pearl 
embroidery ; bunches of large roses fastened on the right side j 
the waistcoat, green satin ; the bodice and paniers, flowered 
moire ; the low neck surrounded by a row of large pearls, below 
which a pearl fringe ; a chaplet of roses on the powdered hair. 

POMPEIAN LADY. White llama skirt, with Grecian 
border worked in purple ; purple chitonian joined on the shoul- 
ders, plaited back and front, and falling in points on either 
side (^^^ Ancient Greek Dress, and Penelope), and trimmed 
with gold lace ; hair bound with a fillet ; handsome Etruscan 

POPPY. Short skirt of blue satinette, upright poppies 
and small buds worked from the hem upwards ; bodice and 
upper skirt of red crepe, cut out like a large poppy, with waist- 
band of greenish grey to represent head ; large poppy on the 
head ; small poppies for ornaments ; long gloves, a poppy 
worked on each. Sometimes it is rendered with red tulle and 
huge poppies, a poppy for cap. Or, dress of red tulle, with the 
tunic of crimped surah, in imitation of a full-grown flower ; 
short bodice, pointed back and front, of dark green ; red tulle 
above, and edge of poppies and leaves ; a single large poppy 
as a cap on the hair, another for the circular fan, and small 
poppies for ornaments ; either long red silk gloves, or the dark 
green of the bodice in kid painted with poppies up the back. 

PORTIA {Merchant of Venice) wears either a black bro- 
caded over-dress like a barrister's black robe, and wig and bands, 
or a loose black silk under-robe with scarf about the waist, 
having tight sleeves ; a loose over-robe of black brocade, the 


collar slightly pointed and standing up, the arms thrust through 
a wide aperture ; robe open in front ; round biretta-like cap 
of silk, such as Miss Ellen Terry wore in the trial scene. Or, 
a train and square-cut bodice of white or coloured satin, over 
a gold embroidered petticoat, a gold embroidered pouch 
hanging at the side ; velvet tiara trimmed with pearls, or a 
white satin pointed coif trimmed with gold, the hair frizzed 
and turned off the face, and hanging over the shoulders in 
curls ; a girdle is worn round the waist, a feather fan carried 
in the hand ; the sleeves are large and hanging, worn over 
under-sleeves puffed from shoulder to wrist. Miss E. Terry's 
first dress in this character was a gold-coloured brocaded 
skirt, flowing, and held up on one side to show an embroidered 
petticoat ; pointed bodice outlined with jewels, low at neck, 
with ruff from shoulder ; sleeves one puff to elbow and tight 
to wrist, laced outside. Her last dress was a pink satin 
petticoat, dress of ruby brocaded velvet on pink ground, a 
pink veil secured on either shoulder by a jewel. Or, ist dress, 
open skirt, pale pink Levantine, shot with white ; under-skirt of 
pale blue satin, brocaded with silver ; sleeves copied from 
Titian and Paul Veronese ; pointed, square-cut bodice, white 
muslin round each, wide sleeves ; 2nd dress, a doctor's gown, 
with velvet hat ; 3rd dress, made like first, ample skirt, gathered 
down the front ; bodice of white satin, point lace ruff, and 
pink velvet hat, white feather. 

PORTUGUESE. Short dark skirts of green or claret ; 
low waistcoat of velvet to match, buttoning down the front 
with a double row of bright gold buttons ; scarf and pocket of 
velvet going round the hips ; a habit-shirt of muslin about the 
neck, over this a red and yellow handkerchief tucked into the 
bodice, and bound on the upper edge with red ; large slouch 
felt hat, red or green to match the dress ; a half-handkerchief 
pinned to the back to keep off the sun. A more usual fancy 
dress is a red cashmere skirt trimmed with a deep band of 
black velvet, grey embroidered over-skirt caught up on either 
side of the front breadths with a band and bow of black 
velvet; white silk apron trimmed with embroidered bands 
and gold ; a coloured silk handkerchief about the head ; gold 
Portuguese earrings and necklet. Portuguese Orange-Girl 
would be the same costume, but a basket of oranges must be 

PORTUGUESE GITANA. Short white satin skirt, 


with alternate stripes of scarlet and gold ; scarlet satin low 
bodice, laced and trimmed with gold ; a black gauze scarf, 
the ends fringed with gold, and embroidered in red, tied round 
the head ; gold chains from short sleeves to wrist ; white satin 
boots laced with gold ; gold ornaments. 

POSTAGE, POST-OFFICE (See Press). Short white 
satin dress and high bodice ; on the skirt the different rates of 
postage, times of posting, names of several mails ; flowers for 
the hair made of various postage stamps ; scarves of different 
colours on the dress, denoting the names of mail-bags ; 
enamelled postage- stamps for jewellery. Or, dress composed 
of newspaper headings, and trimmed with postage stamps round 
the skirt, red intersected with twopenny blue stamps ; the same 
on the bodice. 

POSTILLION, LE. Costume of white satin, ornamented 
with a military braiding in gold passementerie ; epaulettes and 
cap arranged to correspond ; the hair powdered and tied at 
the back with black ribbons ; this would look equally well in 
pale blue satin, ornamented with silver. 

POSTMASTER (LADY). Short white satin kilted skirt ; 
red cloth or satin coat, white satin waistcoat ; cocked hat ; 
high black boots ; satchel of letters carried at side. Or, 
French naval officer's cap, with peak bordered gilt braid ; 
short red satin skirt trimmed with gold ; black satin jacket 
with lappels over satin ; waistcoat trimmed with gold. 

POT-AU-FEU. White satin dress strung with all kinds 
of vegetables ; black velvet bodice to simulate a saucepan, 
handles form the epaulettes to the sleeves ; head-dress like the 
lid of saucepan. 

POUDRE COSTUMES. Powder was adopted pretty 
well throughout the XVIIIth century by the upper classes in 
England and France, so that with any costume of that time, not 
worn by the lower orders, powder is admissible. It was the 
powder-tax imposed by Mr. Pitt in 1795 that sent it out of fashion 
in England. The following are some pretty poudre costumes : 
Short blue satin skirt, a Watteau tunic of old brocade, the 
Watteau plait double, and attached to the bodice only at the 
neck ; the bodice itself pointed, a muslin fichu bordering the 
square-cut neck ; the sleeves to elbow finished off with ruffles ; 
on one side of the powdered hair, a black velvet hat, 
the brim turned up, and edged with pearls ; a bunch of 


roses under the brim. Or, for My Lady Coquette, a scarlet 
satin petticoat ; tunic of blue and white striped satin, with 
flowers between the stripes ; scarlet ribbon and white feathers 
worn in the hair ; Pompadour necklace of red roses and blue 
ribbon. And, lastly, one suitable for an elderly lady : Black 
cretonne sacque, with a large design upon it, in gold and 
feuille-morte ; elbow-sleeves and deep ruffles, with robings of 
pale-coloured ruches, opening over a black quilted petticoat ; 
old lace and diamonds; the hair powdered. A white silk 
petticoat with three rows of lace across the front, headed by a 
plaiting of blue satin and bunches of pink roses ; blue satin 
train trimmed round with lace and pink rosebuds ; and bows of 
blue satin ribbon ; the bodice cut heart-shape, displaying a 
low white silk stomacher, with the same ruches of blue satin 
ribbon and pink roses, a wreath of pink roses worn on one 
side of the powdered cushion. For Poudre Balls, ladies 
sometimes wear powder with evening dress ; the gentlemen, 
white waistcoats. 

PO^WDER-PUFF. Short waisted bodice; skirt put in 
with full gathers, made of white, pink, or blu'e sateen ; the 
skirt should look as much like the upper part of a puff as 
possible, and be drawn in just above where is the swansdown ; 
shoes, long gloves, sleeves, and bodice are all trimmed to 
match ; earrings and necklace, small pocket puffs ; circular fan 
made like a puff; cap of white sateen like the top of puff. Or, 
white tulle evening dress, short, trimmed with swansdown ; cap 
like the coloured red top of a puff. 

PRECIOSA. Double skirt of pale blue silk, the lower 
embroidered in silver, with pendant silver coins, the upper one 
covered with a .network of silver braid, coins, and tassels ; 
low pointed bodice over waistcoat of silver lace ; Roman 
sash round the waist, with dagger ; a tambourine hung at the 
side ; pale blue stockings ; black shoes, with satin embroidery ; 
necklets and armlets of chains and sequins ; a blue hand- 
kerchief on the head covered with sequins. It may also be 
rendered with a white cashmere short skirt bordered with the 
Greek pattern in gold and sequins ; scarlet cashmere over- 
skirt, low velvet bodice and Roman scarf, and a scarlet hand- 
kerchief on the hair. The dagger, &c. in gold. 

PRECIOSILLA (La Forza del Destina, Verdi). Short 
blue skirt with black border, embroidered in silver and 
gold stars, vandyked at edge ; yellow over-skirt, bordered with 


gold fringe ; light blue bodice with gold buttons ; short puffed 
sleeves ; senorita jacket, black velvet, trimmed with braid and 
fringe ; sash of grenat silk with gold fringe ; red velvet cap, 
bordered with gold cord. 

PRESS, OR NE"WSPAPERS. This is carried out 
entirely in newspaper ; the skirt consists of box-plaited illustra- 
tions from the papers, coming to the waist, with portraits and 
names of newspapers pasted across here and there ; the bodice 
with bertha to match, and bows of scarlet velvet ; quill pens, 
an ink-bottle, and sealing-wax stuck in the hair. It has a 
much better effect than would appear, and has been a favourite 
dress at Fancy Balls. In Paris the same idea was carried 
out with a white satin dress, having bands of velvet, bearing 
the words "Discretion," "Indiscretion," and the names of 
Paris papers; a bonnet de police on the head ; a bag a potence 
at the side. Postage-stamps sometimes form a trimming on 
the skirt, and it is then occasionally called " Postage." 


PRIMROSE FAMILY, {See Wakefield, Vicar of.) 

PRIMROSE, FIRST. Evening dress of pale green 
tulle ; satin bodice of primrose colour, bordered with moss 
and primroses ; wreath of primroses and grass falling over the 
hair at the back ; small primroses mixed with lace round neck 
and wrist ; green satin shoes, with tufts of moss and primroses 
on instep ; primrose-coloured gloves, edged with moss ; fan of 
primrose satin. 

PRIMROSE FLOWERS. Bodice of green plush 
cut in a point, and filled in with kerchief of primrose gauze, 
fastened with bunches of the flower ; sleeves to match j skirt of 
primrose llama or crepe de Chine with a surah scarf Wreath 
of primroses, or cap in form of primrose, stalk at top ; primrose 
gloves and fan. 

light primrose tulle, the words, " Peace with Honour " in 
violets, and monogram of league united, " P. L.," on one side ; 
badge of league on bodice, and as many primroses as 
possible ; primrose gloves ; fan, painted primroses. 

PRIMULA, EyENING. Mauve dress, trimmed with 


PRINCESS {Characters from Tennyson's Poem). {See 
also Ida.) The Princess Ida, a classical white robe 
trimmed with gold. Lady Psyche, black velvet hood and 
tunic over pink skirt. Lady Blanche in the same, with 
grey hair and a crimson brocaded silk skirt. Melissa, green 
tarlatan dress and veil. 

white satin skirt, embroidered all over in white jet and pearls, 
cut in tabs at the edge ; between each tab appears a frill of 
white lace ; a scarf of twisted satin, blue and red, tied over 
the hips, from beneath it large tabs of brown satin embroidered 
with brown beads ; white satin cuirass body, made very long, 
powdered all over with deep red jewels ; sky blue and deep red 
satin scarf tied under the arms ; the same round the head ; 
ornaments, diamonds and jewelled flies. 

PRINCESSE DE CONDE. Long white satin robe, 
trimmed with the same material round the skirt, the front 
entirely covered with white jet embroidery, and numberless 
small tassels of the same ; body cut in a low square in front ; 
very high ruff, edged with pearls and pearl chains from the 
points all round the back of the dress ; very short sleeves, with 
falls of lace hanging over the arms, and pearl fringes ; hair 
powdered, and dressed in small curls all over the head ; 
magnificent diamonds mixed in the hair, round the neck, and 
on the front of the dress. 

Staiidish). Short black or light grey stuff gown, made in the 
old style, with tippet, cuffs, apron, and mob-cap of clear white 
muslin ; the over-skirt, which is tucked under, is the same as 
the skirt ; black stockings and shoes, with small buckles ; the 
bodice is quite plain, save the tippet, but it has an all-round 
untrimmed basque. Or, after Elmore, red striped skirt, green- 
coloured kirtle and bodice ; long sleeves ; bodice low ; sleeves 
turned back with Hnen ; Puritan cap ; linen tippet. 

PSYCHE. Loose white dress; low full bodice and belt; 
silver wings ; hair in classic coil. 

CHiNELLE, Plate IX., Fig. 36.) 

PURITAN {as worn in the quadrille at Marlborough 
House). Long grey satin dress, with three rows of black velvet; 


round, black velvet, silver-mounted bag hanging at the side. 
The bodices were made with square basques at the back, and 
cross-cut full sleeves to wrist. Muslin tippets, pointed back 
and front, were fastened with black velvet bows ; white muslin 
caps trimmed with lace. Another Puritan costume would be a 
black velvet, or grey or black satin, or stuff dress, with plain skirt 
to ankle; plain bodice, cut V-shape, with a neatly folded muslin 
kerchief, plain elbow-sleeves, long muslin apron; square-toed 
shoes, tied with ribbon, high heels ; muslin cap, high-crowned, 
with plain front. {See Rose Standish, and Plate X., Fig. 40.) 

PUSSY. (See White Cat.) 

PY RENE AN PEASANT. Scarlet short petticoat, blue 
skirt, looped up with scarlet and gold ; black velvet bodice, 
trimmed with gold lace ; scarlet cap. 

QUADRILLE. (See Introduction.) 

QUAKERESS. Grey satin dress, touching the ground ; 
short-waisted high bodice, open at the throat, with leg-of- 
mutton sleeves to wrist, and turn-back muslin cuffs ; a plain 
hemmed muslin kerchief, neatly folded inside ; a bonnet of 
the same satin as the dress, with a soft crown and stiff card- 
board front ; a plaited cap beneath, or a fine cambric cap, 
without the bonnet. 

QUARTERS OF GLOBE. (See Europe, Asia, 
Africa, America.) 

QUEEN OF CYPRUS, (See Venetian.) 


QUEEN OF MAY. (See May.) 

QUEEN OF NIGHT. (See Night.) 


jacket with gold braid, crimson satin skirt, trimmed with gold 
cord ; red and gold cap ; crimson sash, and dress sword. 


QUEENS, MARIES. (&^ Maries.) 

QUICKSILVER. Fashionable black evening dress made 
of tulle, and trimmed with silver. 

n 2 


RABBIT. White plush bodice bordered with a lace ruche 
at neck and sleeves ; white satin skirt with rabbits' heads 
painted or embroidered ; cap like a rabbit's head ; drum and 
sticks carried in hand. 


RAINBOW^ {Arc-en-Ciel), IRIS. A white tulle evening 
dress, with low bodice ; across it, from left shoulder and 
under right arm, a tulle scarf of the colours of the rainbow, 
viz., red, green, blue, pink, grey, violet, and orange, arranged 
in folds ; a half circle of the same on the right side 
of the dress ; a pompon of fringed silks of the colour worn 
at the side of the hair ; the word " Rainbow " worked 
in pearls on black velvet round the neck. Sometimes the 
scarf tunic is composed of tulle of the rainbow shades, 
bordered with silver, and is drawn in a pouf through a buckle 
at the side, a veil of the several tints reaching to the 
feet. Sometimes the dress is of pink, or grey tulle, or gauze, 
spangled with crystal drops, with a scarf of the colours about 
it, or a tunic spangled with silver ; the bodice pink ; silver 

RAN E E. Narrow under- skirt of embroidered white muslin, 
trimmed with gold lace ; tunic of cream-coloured silk, having 
embossed figures in gold ; green satin bodice trimmed with gold 
and jewels; crimson and gold-embroidered Delhi, native head- 
dress with gauze veil, spangled with gold and silver; gold shoes, 
necklace of rubies, emeralds, and diamonds ; massive gold 
bracelets of Delhi, Nuggier, and Kutch work. 

RATCATCHER. A French fancy costume for a child. 
Short skirt and a double skirt cut in three wide battle- 
ments ; a low square bodice with jacket basque of white satin, 
bordered with grey fur ; boots to match ; a head-dress in the 
semblance of a cat, with head ; a stick over one shoulder, 
with three rats. 

RAVEN. A black evening dress, with clerical muslin 
band round neck ; cap made of bird's head. 

READING. The same as Alphabet. 

REAPER. White satin skirt, petticoat with red stripes, 
green satin polonaise cut half-high, with puffed sleeves to 
elbow, profusely trimmed with corn, oats, and poppies ; a green 
satin cap with an aigrette of corn, a sickle at the side. Or, a 


dress of maize tulle, trimmed with tufts and fringes of wheat- 
ears and cornflowers ; wreath of the same. {See Harvest.) 
Or, skirt and corselet of meadow green cashmere ; shoulder 
straps and lattice-work front of blue velvet ribbon ; cambric 
under-bodice with yellow sleeves embroidered ; white silk 
drapery ; scythe at side ; band of field flowers under the arm ; 
fork over right shoulder; Leghorn hat and flowers. (See 
Gleaner, and Illustrated Plate VI., Fig. 22.) 

REBECCA {Ivanhoe). As worn by Lady Ernest Bruce 
at the Queen's Fancy Ball in 1842. White satin skirt just 
touching the ground ; green velvet embroidered pelisse, open 
in front, showing stomacher ; sleeves large and pendent, with 
close-fitting satin ones beneath ; knotted scarf of many colours 
encircles the waist, a silk turban on head. Another handsome 
rendering is as follows : Bodice, skirt, and sleeves of gold or 
silver tissue ; mantle of prune velvet, lined with white satin, 
trimmed with broad bands of ermine edged with gold galon ; 
velvet and gold turban, with ostrich plumes and diamond 
aigrette ; white satin shoes, brocaded in gold ; feather fan, 
jewelled girdle, and parure of jewels. A veil spangled with 
gold is generally worn. 

RED CROSS NURSE. {See Geneva Sister.) 

RED RIDING-HOOD. Short blue silk or cashmere 
dress, with five rows of scarlet velvet round ; the bodice 
sewn to skirt, low and full like a child's, with short sleeves and 
lace tucker ; white muslin pinafore, edged with lace ; a 
scarlet cloak, with full gathered hood, having a black velvet 
bow in the centre ; the cloak is tied round the neck, and the 
hood may or may not be worn on the head ; a blue ribbon in 
the hair ; black silk stockings and shoes., with silver buckles ; a 
basket of eggs carried in the hand. Or, blue silk quilted 
skirt ; square velvet bodice, with lace chemisette and lace 
sleeves ; large white muslin apron and bib, trimmed with two 
rows of Valenciennes lace ; red cloak, with hood lined with 
blue silk ; cornflower ornaments, and basket of cornflowers in 
the hand ; blue silk stockings, worked with crimson ; a crimson 
satin sash, and patent shoes. Or, the dress of the French Red 
Riding-Hood, which is more picturesque. Small chaperon 
hood and cape of red cashmere, worn with an over-skirt and 
bodice of the same colour, the bodice cut square, with elbow- 
sleeves, and laced in front over a white cambric stomacher with 


scarlet ribbons ; the under-skirt grey, and short, showing 
scarlet and white silk hose, and high-heeled shoes ; a large 
round cake or galette, real or imitation, should be carried 
under the arm, and in the hand a small basket, supposed to 
contain the traditional pat of butter and eggs. (See Chaperon 
Rouge, and Coloured Illustration, Plate XVI.) 

RED, WHITE, AND BLUE. Short white skirt, 
striped with red and blue ; or a plaited flounce of the alternate 
colours, five to six inches deep ; tunic of the same, and 
caught up with a silver anchor and knots of the two colours ; 
or a silk Union Jack, draped as a tunic over the short skirt ; 
low satin bodice trimmed with the colours, the bows fastened 
by silver anchors ; sailor hat trimmed to match, or red silk 
turban intertwisted with blue and white; white shoes, red 
rosettes, and heels ; blue ribbon necklet and bracelets. 

REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE. Classical dress of 
white or pale grey cashmere, trimmed with gold ; with a 
long flowing skirt, loose low bodice, confined by oxidised silver 
belt; hanging sleeves from shoulders; a tricolour scarf draped 
from the right shoulder ; a Phrygian cap of scarlet cloth, with 
" Liberte " worked in gold, and a tricolour cockade. Or, white 
jacket bodice over tricolour striped skirt ; blood-red sash ; 
red cap of Hberty; flag in hand, Liberte, Egalite, and 
Fraternity, or sword in hand. Or, red cap with tricolour 
rosette ; tricolour skirt and overskirt, looped up. Or, red 
handkerchief knotted over chest one side ; white linen shirt, 
sleeves rolled to elbow. 

RENAISSANCE, DRESS OF. Robe of gold-coloured 
silk over red petticoat, braided in gold ; satin senorita jacket ; 
plastron of gold ; flat red velvet cap. 

RESTORATION, FRENCH. {See Merveilleuse.) 
At first, at this period, the Louis XVIth modes were revived ; 
but in 1830, short dresses, gigot sleeves on whalebone frames, 
capote hats, came into fashion. 

REVOLUTION {French). Long dress of striped yellow 
silk ; long skirted coat, a la Robespierre, of bottle-green silk, 
short-waist, double-breasted, made with large lapels, cut steel 
buttons, and narrow sleeves ; it opened at the neck, showing 
cravat with lace ends ; pointed bottle-green felt hat, with yellow 
cockade in front, worn over powdered hair. Or, pale pink and 
green satin redingote, opening over muslin petticoat bouil- 


lonne to waist. Incroyable, triple cape of green satin, just 
reaching to the shoulders ; the hair dressed in marteaux in 
front, and in a long plait at the back ; the conventional black 
felt hat with tricolour cockade. 

REYNOLDS, SIR JOSHUA {after). The usual ren- 
dering of a costume after Sir Joshua Reynolds at Fancy Balls 
is a white muslin dress, with tight sleeves, muslin fichu ; 
powdered hair, a hat of coarse straw lined with blue, or a 
plush hat tied under the chin with blue ribbons ; black em- 
broidered shoes; a single row of diamonds or pearls round 
the throat, a diamond brooch in the fichu. Sometimes the 
dress is made with a deep-gathered flounce round the edge ; 
it just touches the ground, and is always scanty. Sometimes 
it has a falling collar, and nearly always a blue sash tied in a 
bow at the back, and the hat is now and then replaced by a 
mob cap. In a portrait of his, dated 1781, the dress is a 
crimson petticoat, canary-coloured upper skirt, brocaded with 
flowers and trimmed with lace ; powdered hair ; small crimson 
hat and feather ; pearl ornaments. After his picture of Lady 
Cadogan : White satin petticoat embroidered with gold ; 
lemon-coloured satin train ; hair powdered ; white satin hat, 
with plume of white and blue feathers ; pearl ornaments. 
After his portrait of Mrs. Braddyl : Satin skirt and train ; 
fulled under-bodice, with turn-down ruff; open stomacher; 
elbow-sleeves ; hair in loose curls. After portrait of Duchess 
of Gordon : Hair turned ofl" the face in three rolls, divided 
by ribbon ; low curls on the neck ; bodice with scarf round 
waist, open heart-shape, with stiff ruff; pearls round the neck 
with portrait ; the sleeves made with epaulettes of horizontal 
puffs, and open sleeves over a puff to the elbow ; train of satin. 
For Children, copies from his pictures make admirable fancy 
dresses. The girl in his " Rest by the Way " wears a red 
short skirt, with a blue band round low bodice, and elbow-sleeves 
turned back with white, a muslin kerchief inside the bodice ; 
yellow apron, straw hat. In the Mask : High-heeled shoes 
with blue bows; flowered short skirt ; brocaded tunic, bunched- 
up ; square bodice and elbow-sleeves ; blue sash ; hair cut 
square over forehead. 

RHENISH PEASANT. Short plain clpth skirt and' 
bodice laced in front, over white muslin chemisette, with full 
straight sleeves reaching to wrist; a coloured silk handkerchief" 
on the shoulders, the ends tucked in to the bodice ; hair 


gathered in a knot at the back, worn with a close-fitting Hnen 
cap, the strings tied under the chin ; shoes and buckles ; white 
stockings, with coloured clocks. 

RHEIMS, JACKDAW OF. Short white satin skirt, 
plain in front with waterfall back, scallopped at the bottom, 
edged with plaiting of blue satin, in each scallop a round 
ornament of marabout with ring of turquoise beads in the 
centre ; the upper part of skirt covered with festooned lattice 
work of narrow gold braid, with turquoise beads at each 
crossing, forming an apron, having a gold fringe and turquoise 
tassels; above, a short panier of black satin bordered with 
gold lace ; pointed and square cut bodice ; sleeves of black 
marabout, trimmed with frill of gold lace; at the back of 
bodice two tabs of marabout mounted on stiff wires, like 
wings ; tail of black net and marabout to edge of skirt ; 
streamers of black satin from each shoulder; turquoise 
ornaments ; powdered hair ; head-dress of black feathers, like 
head* of jackdaw, with turquoise ring in beak ; black stockings ; 
satin shoes, and gloves ; blue fan, jackdaw's head in centre. 

RICH AND RARE were the gems she wore. Dress of 
soft green tulle, powdered with a variety of jewels ; gold 
circlet over flowing hair ; staff, with ring at top ; a bunch of 
shamrocks on the front of bodice. 

RIDING-DRESS {period of Charles II.). The jacket is 
made with a basque all round alike, almost as deep as an 
upper skirt, open at the neck with revers edged by rows of 
gold or silver braid ; the neck is hidden either by a simulated 
waistcoat of the same material, or by a silk scarf tied once 
round the neck, the ends laid one over another and pinned 
down to the waist underneath ; this jacket is trimmed with 
gold or silver braid in a treble row, laid a little from the edge ; 
large square pockets are placed on the outside of the basque 
in front, and trimmed to match, as also the mousquetaire cuffs 
of the sleeves. It can be made in satin and velvet, and 
is worn with a long trained skirt of the same, caught up on 
one side over a satin petticoat. Sometimes the cuffs and 
revers of jacket have the same coloured satin under the braid. 
Large jacket and plume, riding-whip and gauntlet gloves com- 
plete the costume ; large lace collar. Plum and gold is a 
good admixture of colour. Riding-Dress (/^;;//. George I.). 
Broad-brimmed satin or violet velvet hat, with large bows of 


ribbon round the crown ; the hair powdered and frizzed at the 
side, long curls at back ; violet velvet habit made with over- 
hanging collar and cape^ such as the men of the period wore ; 
it has buttons and frogs on the bodice ; the shoes have gold 
buckles; old point-lace tie at neck. 

fancy costume of the moment worn by children and grown-up 
people. A short, plain frock with a gathered flounce round; low, 
full bodice with large sash tied at the back ; short sleeves in 
one puff; black shoes buttoned round the ankle; hair in 
long plaits. It is also rendered by reproductions of some 
of Kate Greenaway's sketches of children. 

RIVALS. {See Lydia Languish, and Mrs. Malaprop.) 

ROAMING, I'VE BEEN. Plain full skirt of poppy red 
Turkey twill, bordered with a deep band of pale blue ; square 
cut bodice with elbow sleeves ; tunic of print or cretonne all in 
one, gathered to bodice ; paniers caught back ; large muslin 
apron and kerchief; elbow ruffles ; red stockings, black shoes 
and buckles ; hair worn down the back ; large straw hat, 
poppies and wild flowers, wreath round hat ; strings of small 
flowers as necklet and bracelets ; palm-leaf fan, painted green, 
covered with flowers. 

ROBSART. {See Amy.) 

ROCOCO. Ecru petticoat, with bands of black velvet ; 
tunic and bodice of blue brocade, looped with black velvet 
and roses; powdered hair; blue velvet hat; rococo ornaments. 

ROMAN LADY. Long, soft, falling skirt ; under-bodice, 
full and low, the short sleeve buttoned on the outside of 
arm ; loose over-bodice, secured by brooches on shoulder, 
belt round waist ; the lower all-round basque formed by fulness, 
bordered with gold ; over-mantle swathed about figure ; hair 
close to head in waves ; veil of woollen cloth ; tiara in flat 
bands. The dress of course altered in various centuries. 
Cesare Vitelli's drawings give an excellent idea of the varieties. 

ROMAN PEASANT. (^^^ Italian.) 

ROME. White satin skirt, bordered with red cashmere 
and Grecian gold border ; upper-skirt cashmere, divided into 
three edged with gold fringe ; front division embroidered in 
gold, with the letters S. P. Q. R. ; side division has a Roman 


Standard and eagle, embroidered in bullion, wreaths of bay 
leaves, &c. ; back division, Grecian border in gold ; scarf of 
cashmere and gold looped up on right shoulder with cameo, 
and falling low down under left arm ; " Roma " on armlet ; 
head-dress, tiara of diamonds, with "Roma" in seed pearls 
on the front ; gold-spangled veil. 

ROMOLA. Dress of cream-coloured satin, with long 
hanging sleeves, embroidered in gold and pearls, and caught 
up with gold girdle ; over-petticoat of same material ; lace veil 
fastened with band of pearls ; antique Italian ornaments. 

ROMNEY {after). White muslin dress; powdered 
hair ; large black hat, lined with a colour, such as vieux rose 
or blue. 

ROSALIND {As You Like If). A dress of Etna brocaded 
velvet, skirt made full and looped over satin skirt of the same 
colour with gold braid ; heart-shaped bodice, sleeves puffed 
with gold ; gold fillet on head. Second dress, as a boy in grey 
doublet, trunk hose, soft velvet hat. Third dress, of white 
cashmere, made loose and full, with belt on hips, pouch 
attached; puffed sleeves. Or, a dun-coloured velvet dress 
with crimson puffs, and bearing her boar-spear. Another 
rendering of the character is a long grey velvet dress with a 
waistcoat and sleeves slashed with white satin ; thick long 
pearl girdle looped on side. As Ganymede, short tunic of 
grey-green velvet bordered with dark fur ; short jacket ; long 
cloak fastened on the shoulders, made of grey silk lined with 
pale pink ; grey stockings and cap ; staff in hand. Or, high 
leather boots above knee ; tights ; velvet trunk hose ; short 
belted leather habit, puffed velvet sleeves, low cap. Or, in 
full-skirted habit, with game-bag and staff. 

ROSAMOND, FAIR. Loose green flowing robe high 
to the throat, touching the ground ; confined at waist by 
jewelled belt, richly embroidered ; tight sleeves ; pouch at side. 

ROSE, COULEUR DE. All in rose colour, with a 
pair of rose-coloured spectacles carried in hand. This dress 
can be very prettily and becomingly carried out in satin, silk, 
or tulle, according to the taste of the wearer. {See G.) 

ROSE IN JUNE. Pink tulle skirt, covered with rose- 
petals and leaves ; bodice of the same trimmed with garlands 
and roses ; long tulle scarf fastened behind ; wreath and 


ornaments of rosebuds, roses, and leaves. {See Couleur de 
Rose and Flowers.) 

ROSE, LA. Green under-skirt, pink tunic and bodice 
trimmed with roses and pearls ; a crown of roses and tulle- 
spangled veil. 

ROSE MICHON (La Jolie Parfumeuse). High blue 
boots ; pink short skirt, with box-plaited pink flounce round ; 
blue tunic caught up at back, pink apron with two pockets, all 
bordered with white muslin plaiting ; low square blue bodice 
with plaitings a la vieille round it and the short sleeves, a pink 
rose on one side ; a blue ribbon tied in bow round neck ; blue 
rosette at side. 

ROSE OF CASTILLE. A Spanish dress. Skirt oi 
black lace over bright-coloured satin low bodice ; velvet 
senorita jacket trimmed with gold fringe ; high comb ; black 
lace mantilla ; black shoes with silk stockings ; Spanish fan. 

ROSE OF LANCASTER. A dress made with quilted 
satin petticoat, the front sewn with pearls ; gauze train fas- 
tened with roses in red, after the same fashion as Rose of York. 

ROSE OF SUMMER, LAST. Pink satin ball dress, 
with low square bodice and elbow-sleeves ; pink tulle tunic 
sprinkled with loose petals caught up with roses and green 
leaves, a garland of the same on the dress, a few detached 
petals below them as if they had fallen off ; roses in the hair. 

ROSE OF YORK, in white. Skirt of white satin covered 
with white roses and pearls ; train of white plush trimmed with 
roses, having a Watteau plait at the back ; a pointed bodice 
square cut at the neck ; high ruff, full puffed sleeves ; duchess 
hat of white satin trimmed with ostrich feathers, roses, and 

ROSE STANDISH. Short stuff skirt"; long linen apron, 
with band of embroidery ; high bodice, long sleeves and 
epaulettes over a habit-shirt and collar, forming part of 
apron ; black velvet coif, little cap beneath. (See Puritan 
and Plate X., Fig. 40.) 

ROSES, BASKET OF. The head-dress is a gilt 
wicker basket filled with flowers ; the green satin corselet is 
covered with cross-bars of gold braid ; white muslin skirt 


over a pink slip, and bordered with roses ; embroidered silk 

ROSES, QUEEN OF. White tulle skirt with bouquets 
of every coloured rose dispersed about it ; over-skirt powdered 
with pink rose-leaves, also the veil, as if a shower of rose-leaves 
had fallen on them ; a wreath of coloured roses ; earrings, 
necklet, and bracelets formed of pink rosebuds. 

ROSIERE. White muslin dress, made high and plain ; a 
wreath of full-blown roses on the head, and a bouquet of the 
same at the waist. 

ROSIERE D'ISSY, LA. Short red woollen skirt ; a 
linen apron, tied at the back ; a red woollen bodice, openmg 
over an e'cru-coloured chemisette ; a red woollen fichu 
fastened beneath the chignon, and a large straw hat, orna- 
mented with poppies, and worn quite at the back of the head ; 
blue stockings and plain shoes. 

ROSIN A {Barbiere de Seville). Spanish dress of cerise 
satin and black lace ; black velvet senorita jacket; black lace 

ROSIN E (Heroine of Whyte Melville's novel, Rosine). 
Striped cambric short skirt of bright colours ; square bodice 
and elbow-sleeves ; muslin apron with bib and shoulder-straps, 
the word *' Rosine " worked in red letters on the pockets and 
corners of the apron ; muslin kerchief and mob cap ; silk 
stockings ; black high-heeled shoes ; old silver ornaments. 

ROUGE-ET-NOIR. Skirt, sleeves, and low bodice of 
black and red striped satin, with dice embroidered on the 
front ; sleeveless bodice, and diagonally draped tunic of red 
crape or gauze, forming ends tied at the back, with a bow of 
black lace and four small toy cards tied in with them ; these 
same cards, alternately red and black, in a slanting position, 
are laid round the edge of the tunic and bodice with a trim- 
ming of black lace and gold braid and fringe ; a bow on the 
shoulders with four cards tied together, the same in front of 
bodice ; ornaments, enamel cards and dice ; on the head a 
cornucopia-shaped cap, half-black, half-red, like that worn by 
Folly, with an aigrette formed of a gilt hand holding cards, 
or a pointed coronet. Or, French cashmere bodice, tunic, 
and skirt ; head-dress and necklace trimmed with cards, 
alternate black and red; gloves, stockings, and shoes one 




43. b e/itJAiia^JTla id' 

4-4. Xodu ?)^a/x£e. 


black, one red. Or, tight-fitting low bodice of red satin, 
and a red skirt, with black lace ; round the edge of short 
skirt, a plaited flounce with cards ; bodice and sleeves trimmed 
to match, and a cap on the head of red and black satin 
with a few cards on one side ; ornaments, gold, and a fan 
composed of satin and cards ; black gloves, with bracelets 
like serpents, and loops of red satin ; croupier's rake in hand, 
with cards on left shoulder ; red fan. {See Coloured Illus- 
tration of Monte Carlo, Plate XL) 

ROULETTE. Short skirt of red and green cloth, with 
all the numbers, insignias, and terms of the game, such as 
" manque," printed in white ; bodice of red and black satin ; 
powdered hair, with small roulette board on one side j a 
croupier's rake suspended from the waist. 

ROWENA, THE LADY {hmihoe). Scanty under- 
dress touching the ground, with bodice of pale sea-green satin ; 
over this a long-flowing cashmere robe reaching to the ground, 
either white or crimson, having wide hanging elbow-sleeves, all 
richly embroidered in gold ; a girdle about the waist, a gauze 
scarf interwoven with gold threads fastened to the left shoulder; 
the hair entwined with pearls, a gold circlet and gold-spangled 
veil; gold chain with charm attached; gold bracelets and 
armlets. Or, sea-green silk skirt, ornamented with pearls ; 
robe of crimson cashmere, bordered with ermine; pearl 
coronet, and crystal veil. 

ROXANA. Dress of cloth of gold bordered with swans- 
down, and lined with vert d'eau satin, over an under-dress of 
Turkish red. 

RUBENS' ^WIVES. Isabella Brant {first wife). 
Skirt of white satin bordered with gold ; over-dress and bodice 
of mauve velvet, high to the throat, the skirt embroidered all 
round with gold cord and pearls ; sleeves to wrist with slash- 
ings inside the arm and puffings beneath ; turn-back cuff of 
lace ; very large ruff round the throat ; hair powdered, high- 
pointed hat, jewelled band round the brim, widening at the 
side and turned up. Helena Forman {secondwife). Yellow 
and brown silk and violet velvet, the skirt of the velvet touch- 
ing the ground ; the bodice a low square with square ruff, lace 
edged ; the hair in curls ; the bodice, which has a broad 
rounded point, has jewels in front on a yellow stomacher ; 
the sleeves have an upper puff of violet, an elbow puff slashed 


with brown and yellow, puffs of yellow to wrist, with turn-back 
cuffs ; the two colours are blended in the trimmings on the 
skirt mixed with jewels ; a feather fan is carried in the hand ; 
a large-brimmed, low-crowned hat, turned up on one side with 
ostrich plumes and jewel. {See Plate XL, Fig. 41.) 

RUSSIAN BARONESS. Rose-coloured satin skirt; 
over it a white satin pelisse, with low bodice and long hanging 
sleeves, bordered with ermine; cap of rose-colour, with jewelled 
aigrette. This was worn by Baroness Brunnow at the Queen's 
Fancy Ball. 

velvet skirt ; blue velvet polonaise, trimmed with satin ; hussar 
jacket of blue velvet, trimmed with sable ; cap to correspond ; 
silver ornaments ; high boots with sable tops. 

RUSSIAN PEASANT. Short skirt, either of white 
muslin trimmed with black velvet or red merino, with bands 
of green or blue velvet, headed by gold braid ; a white che- 
misette with long sleeves, sometimes a stay bodice of velvet 
over this, or one coming to the throat crossed with bands of 
the same, bordered with gold braid in such a way that they 
pass over the shoulder to the waist in a V-shape back and 
front, forming a square across the bust, and a band at waist ; 
the Koshnick is the usual head-dress, like a Scotch cap, with 
a broad velvet coronet in front dotted with gold coins and 
swansdown; beads are worn round the neck; a large white 
silk apron, trimmed with red and gold, almost hides the front 
of the dress ; crimson stockings ; high-heeled black shoes. Or, 
white cashmere dress, embroidered with gold and colours, 
with silver diadem and ornaments. Or, long loose over-dress 
with embroidered apron ; white muslin cap ; embroidered 
sleeves in red and blue. {See Plate XL, Fig 42.) Or, scanty 
blue satin skirt touching the ground, with two rows of gold ; 
loose white satin jacket trimmed with gold lace ; open sleeves 
not very wide to wrist, worked cross-stitch, red and blue; 
same stomacher and apron; Koshnick head-dress. The peasant 
costume worn in Southern or Little Russia consists of a many- 
coloured woollen petticoat of peculiar shape; linen under- 
skirt edged with coarse lace ; a linen blouse embroidered in 
gay colours, chiefly blue and red ; head-dress, a broad circlet 
of brocaded ribbon, with bows of variously coloured ribbon 
falling at the back, and mingling with the thick pendent 


plaits ; embroidered red and white towel of curious design 
hangs from the arm ; these are worn on certain feast days, 
and can only be procured at the great fairs ; strings of 
coloured beads and a gold cross and chain, or picture of St. 
Nicholas, complete this costume. 

RUSSIAN SKATER. Round fur-edged cap; ruby 
velvet pelisse, edged with fur, opening en coeur at the neck, 
two fur buttons at the back of waist ; petticoat of quilted grey 
satin ; high boots edged with fur and bells ; ornaments silver ; 
a muff carried in the hand ; silver skates attached to girdle. 


{Pirate of Fenzafice). This costume is suited to a dark 
beauty ; a head-dress of red drapery and coins ; red and black 
short skirt, with much gold trimming ; low black gold-bedizened 
bodice, and gold armlets, with chain of sequins from the 
shoulder to wrist. 

SABRINA. White spangled tulle dress over light green 
silvered tissue looped up with silver grass wreaths of aquatic 
leaves, water-lilies, and coral ; head-dress, large water-lily leaf, 
and silver-spotted tulle veil. The make of this and similar 
dresses should approach, as nearly as is consistent with the 
costume, to the prevailing style of evening dress. 

SALLY IN OUR ALLEY. Plainly-madecotton dress, 
with elbow-sleeves ; mittens ; muslin cap, fichu, and apron. 

SALOME. Robe of salmon satin embroidered with 
fantastic flowers, loosely-tied sash ; bodice square ; hair inter- 
plaited, gauze veil and coronet of scarlet flowers. Or, yellow 
and black draperies, lined with red ; head-dress, a kerchief 
of black silk, embroidered and fringed, gold band with 
faUing sequins round the head and passing beneath chin. 

dresses for two sisters ; both would wear green and white 
evening dresses, with white tulle veils ; for salt water, trimmed 
with coral, seaweeds, and shells ; the other with water-lilies 
and grasses. {See Water-Nymph.) 

SALTARELLA. Red satin flounced skirt, edged with 
gold fringe ; pale blue satin drapery, trimmed with gold coins 
and fringe ; tight fitting black satin basqued bodice, trimmed 
with gold coins and fringe ; red satin cap, with gold net and 


SAPPHIRE. Greek robe of pale blue satin, embroidered 
at the hem with sapphires and blue steel beads ; zone and 
necklet of imitation sapphires ; diamond-shaped sapphire on 
head ; blue shoes and stockings ; no gloves ; blue diadem, 
with sapphire at top. 

SAPPHO. Greek tunic and flowing dress of white satin, 
trimmed with Greek pattern in gold braid, bordered with gold 
fringe ; mantle of sky-blue velvet, attached to shoulders, 
trimmed with gold ; sandals ornamented with gold ; the hair 
in close curls, gold head-dress of Grecian design ; gold armlets 
and bracelets, connected by chains ; gold necklet of coins j a 
lyre in the hand. 

SARDINIAN PEASANT. Scarlet jacket, with silver 
buttons and gold lace, over white linen chemisette, with open 
sleeves ; a piece of scarlet silk on head, descending on to 
shoulders ; veil over lower part of face. Younger women 
wear a tight-fitting satin bodice, richly embroidered with gold 
and silver lace ; clasp and belt of the same, and a profusion 
of rings, chains, and other jewellery; white satin apron, 
embroidered in scarlet. 

SATAN ELLA. Low black tulle dress, made short, and 
covered with silver stars. 

SCHNEE^WITTCHEN (From Grimm's Fairy Tale of 
Snowflake and the Dwarfs). White satin dress made low, 
and puffed with silver cloth, having long and large puffed 
sleeves to the elbow, much bedizened with pearls ; the skirt 
looped over a petticoat, on which the seven dwarfs are painted 
in brown and grey; a silver pointed crown worn at the back of 
the head, and a long veil floating to the feet. 


at Fancy Balls are generally carried out by a white dress, with 
Scotch pebble ornaments ; a satin plaid scarf draped on the 
shoulders wdth cairngorm brooches ; sometimes a Scotch bonnet 
of black velvet with black plumes is worn, but more generally a 
ribbon snood or a wreath of ivy or oak-leaves. The several 
clans display their badges in the form of silver acorns and oak- 
leaves, wheat, &c. This is the fancy dress usually worn at the 
annual Caledonian Ball at Willis's Rooms. As a rule (there 
are exceptions), unless they take part in a special quadrille, the 
ladies do not wear a decided fancy dress. 


SEA, THE. Dark blue sailor hat ; a kerchief tied in 
sailor knot, under large square collar; loose bodice of 
Galatea, and plain skirt with frills of light blue silk or satin; 
dark blue silk stockings ; life buoy supported by blue silk cord. 

SEA QUEEN AND NYMPH. {See Water-Nymph.) 

SEA MAIDEN {Andersen's). Plain loose robe of sea- 
green watered silk ; under-dress of batiste, same shade, cut as 
a high square, back and front ; short puffed sleeves ; wreath of 
seaweed ; silver shells in puffings of tulle round ; coral round 
neck and wrists ; armlets of shells ; round waist belt of coral 
and shells, from which falls seaweed ; train of silver cloth, cut 
like a fish-tail at the edge and trimmed with oyster-shells; 
pink stockings ; sandalled pink shoes ; pink gloves ; silver 
band round head, hair floating on shoulders, with red flowers 
intermingled ; miniature of beautiful prince round neck. 

SEASONS, THE (for Winter, see W; Spring and 
Summer, S ; Autumn, A). Four sisters might personate the 
Seasons as follows, but two should be blondes and two brunes. 
The dresses all made short, the satin shoes matching the 
colour of the dresses. Spring wears pale green tulle, with 
flowers and a fringe of grasses ; necklace of daisies and grass ; 
head-dress, a nest with eggs, and a bird on wire hovering 
over it. Summer is arrayed in maize and red tulle, with 
wreath and trimmings of poppies and cornflowers. Autumn 
in yellow and brown, with autumn leaves, flowers, and ears of 
corn. Winter in white satin, with bands of swansdown ; a 
fringe of icicles on the tunic. Spring carries a basket of fresh 
violets. Summer a basket of fruit. Autumn a sheaf of corn 
and a sickle, Winter a little fir-tree. These may be made as 
fashionable evening gowns, or in soft falling silk, or wool cut in 
classic fashion. 

long, flowing robe of white satin in classic style, embroidered 
with lotus leaves ; a jewelled diadem for head-dress. Or, 
skirt of ruby satin lined with gold colour, displaying Egyptian 
emblems and coins ; bodice of pale blue satin, fastened 
round the waist with handsome gold ornaments. 

SEPTEMBER. Can be represented by a white satin 
dress trimmed with purple grapes, or as Autumn. {See A.) 



SERPOLETTE {Les Cloches de Corneinlle). Grey-blue 
stockings, and shoes with brown heels ; short grey cashmere 
skirt with box-plaiting round, half a yard deep ; tunic, forming 
puff and ends at back, buttoning on to close-fitting cuirass 
bodice ; plain linen fichu, or bib with a point in front ; sleeves 
to elbow with cuffs ; white linen cap with blue ribbon band and 
bow. Second dress, pink brocade long skirt with cuirass ; 
satin hat with three white feathers. 

SERVIAN PEASANT. Loose full skirt; Garibaldi 
bodice, with full sleeves to wrist ; belt of black leather ; gaily 
striped apron ; embroidery at throat ; hair plaited with coloured 

SERVING MAID {Elizabethan Period). Short stuff 
gown, fawn colour ; made with pointed bodice ; tight sleeves 
with stuffed epaulettes ; ruff at throat ; muslin cap ; bag 
hanging at side. {See Plate XI., Fig. 43.) 

Charles II. Period, James IL, &c.) Morning costume of 
French lady in XVIIth century : Cardinal petticoat ; upper skirt 
of the same, turned back with dark green : white apron ; cape 
and cap trimmed with lace ; red stockings and black shoes. 

SHEPHERDESS. {See Arcadian Shepherdess.) Felt 
hat, flowers on one side and under the brim; crook; low 
square bodice filled in with musHn ; black velvet band round 
neck ; braces and stomacher ; muslin sleeves to wrist ; short 
skirt of pink and white striped silk ; bodice cut in tabs. 
Shepherdess Dress of the Fifteenth Century. For 
a dark or stout lady. Long blue woollen skirt and sleeves, 
over which a red tunic to below the knees, and bell sleeves 
of the same colour ; the upper dress is confined by a ceinture, 
in the shape of a loose bag, deep on one side and narrow 
like a band on the other ; head-dress of blue, white, or red 
linen or merino, folded across the head and left to hang 
rather deep about the neck and ears ; crook. The following 
are pretty renderings of the character : — White tulle ; short 
skirts, made with narrow flounces and bows of ribbon ; sky- 
blue tunic, trimmed with pink; blue bodice, with pink 
plastron; blue saucer-shaped hat with roses and long pink 
ribbons ; blue shoes with pink rosettes. Or, petticoat of blue 
and white Chambery gauze ; bodice and tunic of amber satin 
trimmed with blue. Or, a cerise brocaded satin skirt, and tunic 
of pale blue satin. Watteau Shepherdess consists of a 


full, short, yellow skirt, with a deep flounce about two inches 
from the edge, over which comes a full all-round panier of 
yellow and pink stripes ; the bodice with tabs round the waist, 
but it is left open down the front, broad at the top, and 
narrowing to below the waist, showing white chemisette, over 
which it is laced with pink cord, a small pink bow covering 
each of the nine eyelet-holes, four each side of the bodice and 
one at the point, below the waist; there are two sets of 
sleeves, — full white elbow-sleeves with pink bows, and short 
upper sleeves of purple to match the bodice ; the hat is 
slightly turned up on each side, and ornamented with pink 
bows and flowers; the crook, the sine qua 71071 of the costume, 
has bows and flowers. {See Watteau and Florian.) 

SHILLING. {See Sovereign.) 

SHIPTON, MOTHER. (^^^ Hubbard, Mother.) 


Short black skirt, over it a chintz sacque a la Watteau, cut 
square at the throat; with elbow-sleeves; powdered hair; a 
rod in her hand ; a large high-heeled scarlet satin shoe, 
trimmed with gold, slung across the shoulders and filled with 
small dolls. 

SHUTTLECOCK. Short white satin dress with long 
cock's feathers in perpendicurar rows ; red skull cap of velvet, 
bordered with a gold band; red velvet cuirass bodice ; white 
shoes and gloves ; small shuttlecocks fastened on red velvet 
round neck ; the same for earrings. 

SILVER QUEEN. Low ball-gown made of cloth of 
silver, or silver-spangled tulle; silver sceptre, crown, and 
ornaments ; veils and winged sleeves of silver tulle. 

SING A SONG OF SIXPENCE. The maid wears 
a red petticoat ; short, dark blue tunic ; pointed bodice, high 
striped sleeves to elbow ; mob cap ; satchel at side. 

SIREN. Evening dress of green and white crepe, over 
a petticoat of silver cloth bordered with-a fringe of grass, shells, 
and leaves powdered with crystal ; cuirass bodice made of a 
fancy silver cloth, resembling fish-scales, bordered with green 
satin, to which are attached silver fish and Medusa heads ; 
pearls, mother-of-pearl drops, and dewdrops introduced as 
fringes ; also on the wreath, with grasses, over a crystal-spangled 

o 2 


SIXTEENTH CENTURY. {See Catharine of 
Arragon, Catharine Howard, Catharine Parr, &c.) 

SKATING COSTUME. {See Russian Skater, Polish, 

SLAVE. Flowing dress of white satin embroidered in 
gold ; hair hanging down the back bound with a fillet of gold ; 
gold band round the throat, gold anklets, the hands united by 
gold handcuffs. Two sisters can be dressed alike, and appear 
chained together. {See Circassian Slave.) 

SLEEP. Straw - coloured ball-dress, wreathed with 
poppies ; cap in the shape of a poppy turned upside down, 
and worn on one side of the powdered hair, or a wreath of 

SNEER^WELL, LADY {School for Scandal). Dress of 
pink satin, with Watteau sacque front of lace and pearl 
embroidery, with roses. Second dress, walking costume of 
terra-cotta plush over pale pink ; hat of plush, terra-cotta 
shaded plumes. 

SNIPE. Skirt and bodice of feathers, with cap like head 
of bird. 

SNOW, SNOW-STORM. A princesse dress of soft 
■white foulard, made high to the throat, or with a square-cut 
bodice, back and front, and very short sleeves ; a drapery of 
Indian muslin put on just below the hips, covered with de- 
rtached pieces of frosted swansdown, caught back at both sides 
with a long broad piece of swansdown, long glass icicles; 
the bodice and short sleeves trimmed to match, and a wreath 
of frosted swansdown, with icicles; a veil, fastened either 
to the wreath or to the shoulders, of frosted gauze, dotted 
all over with swansdown ; very long gloves, trimmed to 
match, and shoes covered with swansdown ; necklace of 
frosted swansdown and icicles, and from underneath a few 
drooping snowdrops peeping out ; hair down ; the fan 
entirely of swansdown, with an edging of drooping icicles ; 
if the swansdown is just touched with gum, and some 
•" frosting " powder sprinkled on, the effect is very sparkling. 
Snow Queen. Same, with crown of icicles. {See 
Winter, Polish Snow, and Polish.) 



White brocaded satin Turkish trousers ; bodice and tunic in 
one, of white nun's veihng embroidered round the edge with 
gold ; gold girdle round the waist, also a white scarf with 
embroidered ends ; the bodice and sleeves trimmed with rows 
of gold cord; white cap and veil. {See White Dresses, W.) 

SNOWDROP. Skirt and bodice of white tulle, edged 
with pale green satin ; basque and sleeves of white satin, cut 
in points to represent outer leaves of flower ; trimmed with 
deep fringe of snowdrops ; chaplet of same flowers round the 
neck ; powdered hair. (iSee Flowers and January.) 

SOPHIA W^ESTERN. Sacque of pale pink, over dark 
brown satin skirt ; long lace apron ; kerchief over low bodice, 
with chocolate stomacher ; powdered hair ; pointed lace cap ; 
high-heeled pink shoes, paste buckles ; tan gloves ; copy of 
" Isabella ; or. The Fatal Marriage," in her hand. 

SORCERESS. Short costume of black, red, and gold 
satin, the skirt red, having a black band round with the signs of 
the Zodiac in gold ; a serpent twisted about the waist ; a scarf 
of many colours worn diagonally over the hips j a red kerchief 
with gold coins on the head ; ornaments, beads and coins. Or, 
a black velvet robe high to the throat, with pendent sleeves. 
covered all over with cabalistic signs ; high pointed cap en- 
twined with a serpent ; a stick carried in the hand ; black satin 
shoes, embroidered with gold. Or, yellow satin over scarlet 
satin, cut in points, and at each point a copper bell, orna- 
mented with black velvet bats, mice, efts, &c. ; a large green 
snake coiling round the body; ditto round the neck and arms ; 
head-dress, gold bat on the forehead, and snake round the 


XV' s reign). Wears a pretty /^2/^^'<? short dress, generally a 
quilted skirt, cap, and muslin apron. For example : Rose- 
coloured quilted petticoat ; blue satin tunic ; black velvet low 
bodice laced up the front with blue and bordered with lace ; 
muslin apron trimmed with lace; small lace cap with wild 
roses ; gold ornaments ; high-heeled shoes, and pink and white 


SOUR GRAPES. Maize sateen dress, covered with 
grapes cut out from chintz and appUqued on ; a musUn cap 
on the head with a bunch of grapes, and bunches of artificial 
grapes on the low square bodice and elbow-sleeves, and in the 
muslin apron turned up and forming a lap. 

SOVEREIGN AND SHILLING {for two sisters). 
One wearing gold, the other silver. Evening dresses of gold 
or silver-spangled tulle, liberally trimmed with coins, which 
fringe the bodice; ornaments of the same; gold-netted or 
silver scarf on skirt with coins attached ; rings and tassels at 
end to resemble a purse ; Phrygian cap of satin with the same 
coins ; gold or silver aigrette in front. 

SPADES, QUEEN OF. (^^^ Cards.) 

SPANISH LADY. {See Carmen.) Short satin skirt 
(white, red, yellow, or rose) with black lace flounces headed by 
bands of velvet or gold ; low bodice of the same ; senorita 
jacket of velvet trimmed with ball fringe, made with long 
sleeves ; high comb ; lace mantilla fastened over it with red 
and yellow roses, the hair in a coil at back ; gloves, mittens, 
and high heeled shoes. This is the ordinary Spanish fancy 
dress : a black silk dress with square-cut bodice is also en 
regie. The costumes in Spain, as they appeared when the 
late King Alphonso was married to Queen Mercedes, were : 
TheWomen of Carvajales, short embroidered flannel skirts, 
silk mantillas worked with gold spangles, gold necklaces and 
earrings, and shoes with silver buckles; those of Dermillo, 
short black velvet skirts, aprons embroidered with coloured 
silks, small China crape shawls, and black shoes with silver 
buckles. The Women of Toledo, short silk skirts, trimmed 
with gold and silver braid ; black velvet bodices with gold 
buttons ; red velvet apron, and black velvet shoes ; coral neck- 
lace, and the hair tied up with coloured ribbons. The 
Women of Murcia, an embroidered skirt, black velvet 
bodice, white shoes embroidered with gold. From Malaga 
as "MajoSj" with flounced skirts, China crape shawls, and 
large pearl necklaces. The "Comparsa" from Valencia, 
short silk skirts, embroidered with silver and gold ; satin bodices 
of different colours, with tight sleeves ; silk stockings, and 
large white satin shoes; a silver comb in the hair, with 
hair-pins and coloured beads; necklaces; and baskets of 
flowers on their arms. Saragossa, short cotton skirts, 
small coloured crape shawls crossed round their waists ; 


coloured stockings and black shoes ; and gold necklaces. 
Segovia, silk skirts, black velvet bodices embroidered in 
gold, with long sleeves ; coral and gold necklaces, and black 
satin shoes ; on their heads a small velvet cap worked with 
gold. Gaceres, silk handkerchiefs on the head, velvet 
bodices with silver buttons, and plaited skirts ; black 
stockings, and shoes with silver buttons. Ciudad Real, 
black bodices, silk handkerchiefs crossed over the chest, and 
coloured skirts. Jaen^ silk nandkerchiefs tied round the 
head, and coloured skirts and black bodices. A Castilian 
at Fancy Balls wears bright pink satin skirts, trimmed with 
gold ; black velvet bodices cut in tabs, laced across the 
front with gold cord ; black lace aprons, pink satin shoes ; 
small hats of black velvet, worn on one side of the head. A 
Catalonian, black velvet skirt, upper-skirt of yellow cash- 
mere ; black velvet jacket ; floral head-dress. A Toledo 
Woman, blue satin skirt, trimmed with gold and silver braid ; 
crimson velvet apron trimmed to match the skirt ; black velvet 
bodice over white lawn chemisette ; velvet shoes, red stockings ; 
coral ornaments. A Spanish Mandolin Girl wears a 
short red silk skirt, bordered with white silk, with arabesque 
designs upon it ; a low loose cambric bodice, with a black 
velvet Spanish jacket, trimmed with gold fringe and braid ; 
long scarf sash of black and gold silk, fringed with gold ; as 
much gold jewellery as possible. An Andalusian, white silk 
short skirt, trimmed with pink and black velvet ; pink silk tunic, 
with silver and black velvet ; black velvet bodice ; silver comb ; 
spangled vest and pelisse; large black fan. The "Say a 
y Manta" is of Andalusian origin, and was formally 
worn by the ladies of Lima at processions, bull-fights, and 
when they went out to shop, but never in church, where 
the mantilla is de rigiieur. The ''saya," or skirt, is 
made of rich black satin, lined throughout, and formed 
into innumerable small plaits from the waist to the 
edge of the skirt by strong waxed threads. It is then 
slipped over a board of its own length and from twenty 
to thirty inches wide, on which it remains for three weeks, so 
that the satin may retain the creases when the threads are 
cut to within a quarter of a yard from the waist. A richly- 
embroidered Chinese scarf, the deeply fringed edges of which 
fall over the " saya " in front, is fastened at the throat by a 
jewel. The " manta " consists of a shawl-shaped piece of black 
Chinese crape, the triangular part of which is tied tightly 


round the waist by means of a casing, the straight end being 
drawn up over the head and across the face, so as to show 
only one eye. It is held thus by the thumb and two first 
fingers of the right hand, a lace pocket-handkerchief and 
flower in the left. Silk stockings, and shoes of either black 
satin or fine bronze kid, embroidered with coloured silks 
and cut very low on the instep, complete this costume. A 
high Spanish comb is worn in the hair, which gives height and 
elegance to the figure. Bracelets and rings are also worn, but 
neither gloves nor fan are admissible. A Spanish Dancer, 
a pale blue satin skirt, trimmed with silver passementerie and 
grelots ; a pale pink satin bodice, with blue satin jacket, 
reaching only halfway down the back, and ornamented with a 
quantity of silver grelots ; a white blonde mantilla ; a Spanish 
comb at the top, and a red rose at the side of the head. 
Spanish Peasant Girl, low black velvet bodice, square 
cut over a chemisette with short sleeves ; pink satin skirt, 
trimmed with flounces of black Spanish lace ; satin sash to 
match ; pink cap, with coins, or hair in curls, with silver or 
gold dagger through it ; black stockings and shoes ; black 
mittens ; gold ornaments and pink roses. Spanish Lady, 
dress of black satin, lace, and jet ; crimson plush bodice, 
trimmed with a profusion of silver braid and buttons, to re- 
semble a Spanish jacket ; very high comb ; black lace mantilla 
over it, looped back on one side with scarlet pomegranates, 
of which there is also a bunch on one shoulder and another 
very large one on the skirt ; black gloves and shoes. 

SPARROW. Short skirt and bodice of brown feathers; 
cap like head of bird. 

SPELLING-BEE. Orange skirt striped with black 
velvet, the letters of the alphabet in black carried round in a 
double row ; the low square black velvet bodice, irimmed 
with orange, displays the names of dictionaries, such as 
Webster, Johnson, &c. A bee on the head. 

SPHINX. An Egyptian dress covered with hieroglyphics. 
(See Egyptian.) 

SPINNING-GIRL, FILEUSE. Short skirt of white 
and amber ; low square bodice ; black and white satin apron 
with bib, both bib and apron decorated with field flowers 
and flax; white lace tucker and short sleeves; a crimson 


velvet sash starting from the shoulders encircles the waist, 
and is tied loosely in front of the apron; straw hat with 
flowers in front, ribbons floating at the back ; a distaff is 
carried in the hand, and decorated with blue ribbons and field 
flowers ; striped black and white stockings, black shoes, with 
amber and red bows. 

SPORT. Pink satin bodice ; gold cap trimmed with 
colours of favourite racehorses ; the front of bodice, portraits 
of racehorses ; in the skirt, insignias of hunting and 

SPRING. A green or white tulle evening dress trimmed 
with spring flowers, daisies, primroses, crocuses, and violets ; 
a lighter veil falling over the shoulders, a wreath of the 
same ; the flov/ers may be arranged round the skirt in a 
lattice-work, the tunic edged with a fringe of green grass. 
Less hackneyed renderings are as follows : Green silk short 
skirt trimmed with snowdrops and violets ; white cashmere 
polonaise and low bodice, with long hanging sleeves caught up 
on one side by a swallow ; a ruff of lace and flowers round the 
neck ; green and white cap with flowers ; green satin shoes. 
Several short skirts of frosted tarlatan or tulle caught up with 
frosted primroses, crocuses, and dead fern-leaves ; the low 
bodice trimmed with swansdown as well as flowers and crystal 
drops ; powdered hair, with flowers, gloves, and satin boots, 
bordered with swansdown ; crystal ornaments. Or, classic robe 
of pale green silk or muslin ; hair studded with flowers, veil on 
head ; sandalled feet. Or, a white dress with green leaves head- 
ing each flounce ; paniers edged with buttercups and daisies ; 
flowers over back of skirt. Or, low bodice, with fichu of fine 
tulle edged with grass and flowers ; hair scattered over with 
flowers, hair hanging ; long gloves, and fan edged with flowers. 

SQUEERS, MRS. AND MISS {Nicholas Nickleby). 
Mrs. Squeers, a short, narrow skirt, just touching the 
ankles, composed of flounced and striped, mousseline-de-laine ; 
spencer of the same with short waist, enormous gigot sleeves ; 
a coal-scuttle bonnet of drawn black satin ; corkscrew curls ; 
a birch rod and wooden spoon in hand. Miss Fanny 
Squeers ; similar dress, white muslin skirt, pink sash tied 
at back ; white satin bonnet and spencer. 

SQUIRE'S DAUGHTER. Loose skirt of sateen with 
three fluted flounces of muslin edged with lace ; tunic of 


flowered chintz, open in front bunched up at side ; pointed 
bodice with blue stomacher ; lace elbow-sleeves and kerchief; 
muslin cap. 


all rendered after the same order ; viz., with either a black, 
blue, or white evening dress, and veil covered with silver 
stars ; ornaments of the same, coronet of the same in the hair. 
Much silver fringe is used on bodices and tunic, a glittering 
effect being desired. The hair powdered with silver is an im- 
provement. For Starlight, a dark purple dress veiled in star- 
spangled tulle is sometimes worn. Or, two shades of dark 
blue, with a silver scarf about the skirt, looped with silver stars 
and fringe ; bodice and veil spangled with stars, also front of 
dress ; crown of stars. And for a Dark Starlight Night, 
a black dress, studded one side with diamonds, one side with 
jet stars ; one side of the hair powdered ; one glove ; and one 
shoe white, one black. For Evening Star, a gold crescent 
is also introduced in the hair. 

STARNBERG BRIDE. A short red skirt, full lace 
apron going quite round and reaching nearly to the hem ; a 
black velvet bodice laced across with silver, and filled in with 
a lace kerchief; a frill at the throat ; long, full sleeves matching 
the skirt ; a wreath on the head. {See German Peasant.) 

STELLA. {See Fille du Tambour-Major.) 

STEWARDESS. Short blue satin skirt and loose 
bodice, with white over-jacket faced with blue ; fisherman's cap 
of white with blue band ; the word stewardess in silver letters. 

STOCKBROKER, LADY. Short pink silk skirt bor- 
dered with white satin, hung with gold coins, and the several 
kinds of stocks printed upon it ; low bodice of pink silk, over 
it a low polonaise of star-spangled gauze, caught up with roses, 
the top of the bodice trimmed with gold coins and fringe ; gold 
belt at the waist ; gold net on the head with coins ; a cornucopia 
carried in the hand, out of which stocks, money, and roses 
seem to spring ; high-heeled pink shoes ; black mittens. 

STORK. Dress of bird's plumage and satin with head 
of stork for cap. 


strawberry-coloured satin, lower part arranged with deep box- 
plaits of brocaded cream satin; the spaces between of 
coloured satin ; skirt of cream lace and red silk looped up 
with strawberries and leaves and ribbon of the two colours ; 
paniers of cream brocade edged with a fringe of strawberries ; 
square cut bodice of cream brocade with long pointed waist 
laced up the front ; epaulettes of strawberries, wreath of same 
across the bodice ; gilded punnet of strawberries for head-dress; 
cream fan painted with strawberries. 

STYRIAN PEASANT. Short skirt of amber stuft or 
silk, trimmed with black velvet; blue tunic, looped up with 
rose-colour; black velvet square bodice, over high white 
chemisette ; white straw hat, trimmed with rose-colour ; gold 
earrings ; cross and rosary ; white apron. 

SUABIAN PEASANT {froifi 'kingdom of Wurtemberg). 
A plaited skirt of black taffetas, over a starched petticoat, reaches 
to ankles ; red stockings and black boots ; dark-coloured 
cloth jacket trimmed with ruches of black silk, cut en coeur in 
front over white linen bodice ; white apron tied round waist ; 
bandana handkerchief round neck ; black national head-dress 
embroidered in gold, black streamers falling at the back. 

SUEZ CANAL. {See Canal.) 

SULTANA, INDIAN. A robe of cloth of gold and 
a spangled veil; the seams of the long loose habit em- 
broidered with precious stones ; cluster of diamonds on her 
head ; loose under-dress ; brilliant colours should be chosen. 

SUMMER. A white or pink gauze, lisse, or tulle evening 
dress, liberally trimmed with summer flowers, especially roses ; 
it is sufficient to wear a wreath of the same, but a veil with 
butterflies is a more decided fancy dress, or a straw hat, with 
flowers and butterflies. Scattered rose leaves on the skirt 
add to the effect, interspersed with butterflies and green 
beetles ; a basket of flowers in hand ; necklet and earrings of 
China roses. Or, dress of blue and crimson brocade, with 
fringes of flowers. July is dressed in the same fashion. 

SUN. A yellow tulle or gauze evening dress, trimmed 
with gold ; a cap with a gold sun ; ornaments, gold suns, and a 
wand in the hand, surmounted bv the same. 


SUNBEAM. White tulle dress, flounced to waist, each 
flounce edged with rows of gold braid ; a large sash round the 
waist with gold fringe, a gold chatelaine bag at side ; head- 
dress, veil of gold tissue, enveloping the figure, and glittering 
at every movement; ornament, gold. 

SUNFLOWERS {after Alma Tadema's picture). Along 
dress with loose sleeves, falling back so as to show the arms^ 
of some dark brown stuff; embroidered at throat, sleeves, waist, 
and hem with gold ; sunflowers in hand ; three gold bands 
round hair. 

SUNRISE. Dress of grey tulle, with rows of ribbon 
of the rainbow shades round the skirt ; veil of grey gold- 
spangled tulle. Or, grey and pink in alternate skirts ; grey 
tunic, spangled with powdered glass ; wreath of half-opened 
roses, with dewdrops and birds with open beaks. 

SUNSET. Black tarlatan dress, trimmed with red and 
yellow suns ; coronet of the same. Or, red dress, with the 
setting sun worked in tinsel in front, the rays coming well 
outside, horizon grey and slightly blue ; gold-coloured gauze 
veil j bodice red ; gold fringe. 

SUSAN. Dove-coloured stuff gown, rather short, with 
soft white kerchief and cap, and a pink ribbon in the latter. 


SUSANNA {Figaro). Wears a Spanish dress. {See 

SUZEL. White silk petticoat trimmed with black velvet ; 
large pink silk apron with black velvet ; white silk bodice 
slashed with black velvet ; black and white stockings. 

SWALLOW. Tulle dress, black, grey, and white, with 
swallows dotted about it ; flowers in the hand. 

SWALLOWS, FLIGHT OF. White dress with black 
velvet bodice ; birds sewn on the front of dress, one on each 

SW^EDISH PEASANT. Bright - coloured striped 
woollen skirt touching the ground ; white apron, nearly as long 
as the dress, with rows of coloured embroidery across the lower 
part ; fur-lined jacket over a white chemisette, with a red and 
green corselet rounded at the top, or a half-high square-cut 

XII r 



(■■ f.\ I I K Iv' 



velvet bodice embroidered in silver, with short sleeves, and 
points at waist, back and front ; hair in plaits, a large bow 
of ribbon at the back. In some parts of Sweden a white linen 
cap is worn, the shape of a paper bag, the points standing 
out at either side of the head. 

SA?SrEEP, LADY. Dress of dull black satin, with the 
word " Sweep " in silver on skirt and bodice ; a sweep's 
circular broom in hand ; a characteristic smut on cheek. 

SWEET SEVENTEEN. (See White Dresses.) 

SW^EETHEART, MY. Dainty dress of pale pink satin ; 
large muslin pinafore trimmed with antique Valenciennes lace ; 
large hat with wreath of wild flowers. 

SWISS. For the several cantons the peasant's costume 

varies considerably. In Glarus the dress is not picturesque ; a 

bonnet very much like a nightcap covers the head; the plain 

body opens V-shape in front, bordered with a ruche, and the 

white linen apron contrasts with the dark petticoat. The Emen- 

thal dress is one of those generally copied ; a coquettish straw 

hat covered with flowers ; black velvet corselet bodice and 

yoke-piece worn over a chemisette with sleeves to elbow, the 

black velvet covered with silver embroidery, and hung with 

silver chains ; closely-plaited short skirt of green or lilac. 

The distinguishing feature of the Basle dress is the silver chain 

round the waist ; the head-dress is black silk, like that worn in 

many parts of Germany. In Schaffhausen the bodice is still 

more ornamented. In Niedwalden, on the Lake of Lucerne, 

the bodice is supplemented by a massive silver collar ; a silver 

arrow through the hair. The Geneva girl wears a French 

muslin cap, tight-fitting jacket, lace-embroidered neckerchief, 

short apron and petticoat, high-heeled shoes. At Neuremberg 

the dress is sombre, and not distinctive. The Waadtlauderin 

wears a low bodice, with a many-coloured chemisette ; striped 

petticoat, silk apron : white stockings ; square-toed shoes ; 

straw hat. In Tessin the girls wear a multi-coloured apron, high 

square bodice over white chemisette; head-dress, a tinsel crown 

with silver arrows ; sandals with wooden soles and high heels. 

In Valois they wear a dark dress and curiously-plaited white 

cap. In the canton of Uri the dress is dark, the cap large, 

with a butterfly-wing fastened to the back of head. The girls of 

St. Gallien wear a striped skirt ; silk bodice laced with gold or 

silver chains, short white sleeves ; black gauze cap with a fan of 

gauze on either side of the crescent-shaped bandeau which 


encircles the head. The girls of Solothurn wear the hair in 
plaits, and the dress high to the throat, in no way remarkable. 
At Appenzell low bodices are fastened with chains, a loosel3^-tied 
silk handkerchief round neck, curled hair ; the red silk hand- 
kerchief is a badge of matronhood. It is in Schwyz the high 
wheel-shaped cap is worn, and in Granbundten a striped apron, 
and silk handkerchief about the head. At Zug, a silk bodice 
trimmed with silver lace, lace-trimmed kerchief over bust, 
yellow straw hat on one side. At Freiburg the head-dress is a 
great feature — very large, made of black silk and gauze. The 
following is a Swiss peasant dress worn at a fancy ball : Short 
skirt of silver cloth, with rows of black velvet ; muslin tunic 
bordered with silver, looped up with black and silver ; apron 
of muslin, covered with a lattice-work of velvet and silver; 
low bodice, with many tabs for basque, trimmed with silver ; 
white muslin head-dress, with silver braid and flowers. The 
following is the more characteristic Swiss dress of Berne : 
Short scarlet skirt, bordered with black, black velvet corselet, 
bodice hung with silver chains and embroidery over a white 
chemisette ; white apron ; hair in plaits ; Swiss cap. {See 
Coloured Illustration, Plate XIII.) A variation worn at 
Grodner : A short skirt, large apron, long coat jacket with 
sleeves full at the shoulders, tight at the wrist, showing 
the laced bodice in front ; the collar is a tight band with 
a deep frilling reaching to the shoulders ; large hat with 
enormous brim, round crown, cord, and flowers. At Tiffereggen 
the head-dress is like an inverted basin. At Puster Thai a 
large ruff completes the picturesque dress. 

SYBIL, LIBYAN. Eastern dress, made of cloth of 
gold, with jewels ; jewelled crown with three ostrich feathers. 

TALLIEN, MADAME. Velvet riding-habit turned 
back with pink silk ; a round cape over the shoulders : large 
muslin tie ; hair powdered ; black velvet hat, with pointed 
crown and ostrich plumes drooping over it. Period, 1 7 75-1 838. 

TAMBOURINE GIRL. Short skirt of black satin, 
trimmed with crimson cloth, embroidered in gold ; bodice of 
crimson and black satin, and gold buttons; head-dress, 
crimson and gold cap ; ornaments, gold coin earrings and 
necklace, and gold bangles. Or, short black and yellow 
petticoat; red upper-skirt, trimmed with bands of black 
velvet, from which gold coins hang ; black velvet low square 


bodice, laced with red and gold ; red silk handkerchief on 
the head, a tambourine hung at the side. Or, crimson and 
green brocade, trimmed with gold coins. 

TANGIERS, LADY OF. This is an effective dress. 
The turban is of bright orange silk, coming well over the fore- 
head, the ends falling at the back, large pendent jewels 
hanging on either side, and intermingling with the huge ring 
earrings ; the jacket of velvet has short sleeves, and opens in 
a circular form to show a stomacher, which like the jacket is 
a mass of embroidery ; transparent hanging sleeves ; long 
embroidered skirt ; many- coloured silk scarfs about the waist ; 
bead necklace, and gold and bead bracelets. 

TEAZLE, LADY {School for Scandal). K poudre cos- 
tume of the Georgian period made with sacque ; old brocade 
and satin suitable. For example : Body and train of cream- 
coloured brocade ; petticoat of lemon satin, trimmed with old 
point lace, Marshal Neil roses, brown leaves ; ornaments, 
pearls and diamonds. Lady Teazle, in the screen scene, might 
wear a dress of pale Venetian-red silk, opening over a petticoat 
entirely covered with plaitings of yellowish lace ; stomacher 
of lace and red ribbons ; full neckerchief of cream silk Indian 
muslin, with double plaitings of the lace, tied in a large knot 
in front, and fastened with paste brooch, and cluster of pale 
yellow flowers; either a large cream lace hat, lined with 
Venetian-red, or a lace head-dress, like that of Miss Gunning 
in Sir Joshua's portrait ; Watteau fan ; cream mousquetaire 
gloves ; high-heeled shoes of the Venetian-red with diamond 
buckles; black velvet with diamond clasp round throat; a 
cane might be carried in hand. Or, a white satin sacque with 
brocaded stripes ; the petticoat embroidered in crystal and 
iridescent beads festooned with yellow roses. In the screen 
scene, amber Incroyable coat lined with pale blue satin, having 
paste buckles. One of the prettiest of the many gorgeous 
dresses worn by Marie Wilton in the character was as 
follows : Satin skirt, with a cascade of lace down the front ; 
a train of light brocade elaborately trimmed with lace, also 
en cascade ; a sacque at back ; heart-shaped bodice ; pendent 
elbow-sleeves; a small wreath of roses and aigrette on one 
side of the powdered hair ; satin pointed shoes ; long 
gloves ; pearls round the neck, a miniature hanging in 
front. {See Plate XI., Fig. 44-) 



and skirt of pale sea-green satin, draped with tri-coloured flags, 
looped with silver chains, cables, and grappling-irons ; seaweed 
round the throat and top of the dress. 

TELEGRAPH, THE. Short dress of blue and red satin 
trimmed with bands of silver cloth and gold wires, often 
represented by gold and silver braid ; the upper skirt tulle, 
looped up with medalHons representing the telegraph poles ; a 
satin or black velvet cap, with the word " Telegraph " worked 
in pearls ; pearl ornaments. 

TEMPEST. {See Ariel and Miranda). 

TENNIS, LA'SATN. Short plain skirt of grass-green 
satin, slightly gathered at the back, and trimmed at the edge 
with grass fringe, headed by white satin bands ; bats and 
balls introduced as trimmings. {See Lawn Tennis.) 

THALIA. Loose soft drapery caught up at the knee, over 
flowing skirt ; low bodice, with deep gathered basque ; sash 
round the waist ; a wreath in one hand, a mask in the other ; 
a tambourine at the side. 

THE, FLEUR DE. {See F.) 

THETIS. Dress of foamy white ; a beryl - coloured 
peplum with bunches of coral and shells ; pale coral and 
shells about the head. 


makes a very effective dress. Ruby velvet skirt trimmed with 
silver lace ; cream-coloured brocade for front breadth and 
bodice, with long sleeves ; high-pointed head-dress and silver- 
spangled veil. 

THRALE, MRS. {Georgian dress). White silk sacque, 
the front covered with lace ; powdered hair ; white cap. 

TIME. An evening dress of black and white tulle; 
with cuirass bodice, and red Dutch clocks hanging at the 
side ; the several hours in Roman letters round the tunic ; an 
hour-glass and scythe for chatelaine. 

TITAN I A {Midstwimer Nighfs Dreafn). White or blue 
robe of tulle gauze, or some soft floating material, spangled with 
silver ; a tulle scarf over it fastened on one shoulder with 
a bouquet of wild flowers, and on the other side of the 
dress with the same ; for head-dress, either a crown of 
silver flowers, or a diamond star-coronet, over a veil scattered 


•with butterflies; necklet and bracelets of small flowers; a wand, 
with a star at the point ; the hair floating. 

TITIAN'S BELLA. From the celebrated picture at the 
Pitti Gallery. A Venetian dress of blue velvet, embroidered 
and slashed with red and white ; a gold chain round the neck ; 
the dress is worn low ; the sleeves to wrist, with a pufl" at the 
top, and perpendicular slashings along the front of skirt, 
which is much embroidered. {See Venetian.) 

TOILET-TABLE. White muslin dress over pink calico, 
made with low bodice, long sleeves, and fichu, trimmed with 
lace ; a looking-glass suspended from waist, with brush, combs, 
.scissors, &c. ; powder-puff in hand ; cap, like pincushion, 
stuck with pins ; ribbon epaulettes, with scissors, &c., attached. 

TOLEDO WOMAN. Blue satin short skirt with gold 
and silver braid ; crimson velvet apron trimmed to match ; 
black velvet and white lawn bodice ; black velvet shoes ; 
red stockings ; coral ornaments. 

TRIC-TRAG. Short black satin skirt having a row of 
gold buttons ; black satin low bodice, with basque cut in 
points, bound with gold ; bertha of black and white checks ; 
gold-spangled muslin tunic, forming one large puff all round, 
points falling beneath ; black satin bandeau round the head; 
black shoes with gold heels, check silk stockings ; gold 

TRIGOLOUR. Short satin skirt of wide red, white, and 
blue stripes ; blue satin tail-coat, having red and white revers, 
and old-fashioned buttons ; lace collar and cravat ; powdered 
hair, with three-cornered hat. 

TROT, DAME, Blue satin quilted petticoat with 
Pompadour draperies ; black velvet hat ; muslin fichu and 
apron ; large spectacles ; crutch stick. 

TRUE BLUE. Garried out entirely in blue ; a fashion- 
able evening dress with veil and ribbons would be appropriate. 

TULIP. Skirt of red and yellow tulle caught up with 
tulips ; low bodice of red and yellow satin, the same coloured 
ribbons round the neck, fastened with tulips ; tulips in the 
powdered hair; red satin stockings and shoes; diamond 



TUNIS ORANGE GIRL. Dark blue skirt ; short red 
upper-skirt trimmed with gold ; broad orange and white 
striped silk scarf; black velvet bodice; gold embroidered 
chemisette; orange silk cap with gold sequins; basket of oranges. 

TURKISH LADY. Wears loose trousers to ankle, long 
pelisse, and round cap or turban. The following is a pretty 
dress : Blue satin shoes ; loose full trousers to ankle of gold- 
spangled muslin ; pelisse of blue satin, Hned with maize and 
trimmed with gold braid ; a red scarf round the waist ; long 
hanging sleeves, lined with maize; round fez-shaped cap of blue 
silk, covered with pearls ; hair in long plaits ; many rows of 
beads about neck and arms ; gold-spangled veil. Sometimes 
a silk skirt is worn beneath the pelisse. There should be a 
fichu of gold muslin inside the bodice of dress, which should 
be slightly open. 

TWENTY-FOUR O'CLOCK. New clock dial on chest 
and forehead, with hours from one to twenty-four ; at back of 
head a pendulum swinging ; short costume of black and white 

TWILIGHT. May be carried out in four shades of grey 
tulle, dotted with silver stars, or in dark blue, the tunic caught 
up with a silver moon on one side ; a pink and grey scarf, 
attached to shoulders by a crescent, to the skirt by a silver 
bat ; the bodice, d la Vierge, is made in two shades of 
satin or plush, with stars and dewdrops, opening in front to 
show a pink vest with crescents ; a light pink tulle veil, with 
moths and other insects forming a coronet. Or, black dress of 
net and silver gauze, bespangled with beetles, grasshoppers, 
and other insects ; silver gauze head-dress, with the same, and 
silver crescents ; beetle's-wing fan, silver ornaments. 

TYROLEAN DANCER, A. Short scarlet satin skirt 
trimmed with black and gold ; a black satin tunic trimmed 
with bands of scarlet and gold ; high stay-like black bodice 
laced in front with gold, bouquet on the left side ; a white 
muslin bodice and sleeves beneath ; and a high Tyrolese hat 
with grey ribbons round the crown and flowers beneath ; a 
large muslin apron, embroidered in double lines with gold, 
almost hiding the front of the skirt, and reaching to the hem. 

TYROLESE. Short green stuff skirt, bordered with two 
bands of black velvet edged with cord; black velvet low 
square bodice over a white chemisette, with white sleeves to 


elbow ; the bodice of black velvet ; stomacher embroidered in 
gold and coloured silks ; buckled waist-belt made of leather 
with chain and keys suspended ; large apron, embroidered in 
double lines across ; high pointed Tyrolean hat, with gold cord 
round, and a bouquet of flowers and feathers at the side; large 
ruffor large lay-down collar; multi-coloured handkerchief round 
neck ; white stockings, coloured clocks ; black leather boots 
cut low on instep, gold buckles in front; gold chain with 
medal attached. 

dress of blue and white cashmere, with low bodice a la Vierge 
trimmed with silver stars ; a tulle spangled veil attached to a 
silver band for head-dress. 

UNA. Long, full caped robe of white cashmere with 
cord girdle ; hooded cap ; hair flowing accompanied by lion. 

UNDER THE WINDOW, The illustrations from 
Kate Greenaway's book bearing this title find much favour for 
children's costumes, as, for example, three little girls sitting on 
a rail, in short dresses, pinafores, and large sun bonnets. 

UNDINE. Plain short skirt of glittering silver tissue, 
edged with a narrow ruche, into which are placed at distances 
water-lily buds and leaves in small clusters ; two broad scarves 
of pale and dark green are draped across the front, and 
arranged to fall low at the back ; a large cluster of grass, 
lilies, and dark brown leaves at the left side ; the bodice of 
silver tissue, trimmed with grass and water-lilies ; a large open 
water-lily on the head, and a great deal of grass falling 
over the long, flowing hair; ornaments, pearls, shells, and 
bits of pink coral all threaded together ; shoes pale green, 
with silver tissue rosettes, and a lily bud and leaf in the 
centre ; strings of shells, &c. ; and a mother-of-pearl fan, with 
water-lily leaves and flowers arranged on pale green satin. 

UNION JACK. Dress made of Union Jack flags; 
anchors on the shoulders; sailor hat; a flag carried in the hand. 
Or, red short cashmere skirt cut in long points, with plaitings of 
red, white, and blue between ; the front draped with silk flags ; 
corselet bodice of dark blue velvet over white chemisette ; an 
aigrette in the form of a small flag ; fan of the same. 

UNITED STATES. Short white satin skirt with red 
and blue stripes ; blue satin tunic edged with silver, draped 
with American flag. {See America.) 

P 2 


UNIVERSE. Short blue and white dress made of cash- 
mere or soft silk in classic fashion, or in gauze or twill as an 
evening gown, with stars and spheres for ornaments ; star- 
spangled veil. 

VALENTINA {The Hugiienois). Dress of velvet or 
brocade with front breadth of quilted satin, long slashed puffed 
sleeves to wrist, with epaulette ; pointed stomacher, small ruff 
at throat ; velvet hat and feather, or pearl and gold coil. 

VALLIERE, MADAME DE LA. Blue dress, worked 
with gold leaves, the petticoat having a gathered flounce and 
double heading; train, with two bows at either side; low pointed 
bodice, with white folds of tissue above ; large loose puffed 
sleeves from elbow to shoulder ; hair in curls, not powdered. 
Or, gold-coloured satin petticoat, embroidered in gold ; crimson 
and gold bodice; dark ruby velvet train, worked in gold; 
powdered hair. 

VALOIS. {See Bertade). 

VALOIS, DE. {See Marguerite.) 

VANDYKE. {See Charles I., Period of, and Plate 
XII., Fig. 48.) Full plain skirt ; muslin apron, edged with 
pointed lace ; bodice with revers; sleeves to wrist; hair in curls. 

VARSOVIENNE. Skirt of violet satin trimmed with a 
flounce headed by amber satin, tunic edged with gold braid ; 
sleeveless bodice ; Hungarian hat ; sash round waist ; hair 
braided in long plaits ; gold ornaments ; Hussar jacket ; 
Russian boots. 

VAUDOIS. (^>^ Flower Girl.) 

VENDANGEUSE {or Grape- picker in the south of 
France). Short white cashmere skirt, trimmed with blue satin 
nnd gold fringe ; bodice of blue and white striped woollen 
stuff, turned back with blue ; blue satin apron, trimmed with 
lace ; white cap, with blue ribbons ; black leather shoes ; 
basket of grapes on the arm. 

VENETIAN. It would be scarcely possible to have a 
richer style of dress than that worn by the high-born 
dames of Venice in the height of her glory, as painters 
have handed it down to us. At the Marlborough 
House Ball, in 1874, the Princess of Wales headed a 


\j. Yci-vcU< 

tC. Y vuancliei. 

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no. 5 o/miuKC 


Venetian quadrille. Her dress was of pale blue satin, 
nearly covered with gold embroidery and precious stones, 
forming the front breadth to a train of ruby velvet, embroidered 
in gold and silver, and lined with blue satin, fastened back 
with precious stones ; the close sleeves to the wrist were of 
ruby velvet, with blue satin puffings, also gold embroidered ; 
the small ruff was edged with gold, and the body of the dress 
covered with strings of pearls ; the small round Venetian cap, 
of ruby velvet, was one mass of jewels. The Duchess of 
Manchester wore white and gold, with olive-green and gold- 
embroidered sleeves. The Countess of Craven, in the costume 
of Ignota, detta la Bella di Tiziano, green embossed velvet, 
embroidered with gold, over a white satin petticoat, also em- 
broidered in gold. (See Bella.) The Duchess of San Teodoro, 
as Queen of Cyprus, appeared in violet velvet, trimmed with gold 
and pearls, over mauve satin, all pearls and gold; a gold girdle 
round the waist. The close and flowing sleeves, jewelled 
bodices, feathered hats and caps, are such as Paul Veronese 
and Titian have handed down to us. A notable Venetian 
dress is as follows : Train and bodice of white and gold 
brocade, with long open sleeves hanging from the shoulders, 
fmished off with gold fringe, over tight sleeves of crimson 
satin, embroidered with pearls and gold ; crimson satin 
petticoat, worked in gold ; gold girdle and pouch ; ruff 
and white and gold gauze veil. Brocade, satin, and velvet, 
embroidered in gold, were the materials most used for petticoat 
and dress ; white and black gauze for veils ; fine lawn and reti- 
cella for ruffs. The hair was arranged in small curls and puffs 
about the forehead, and formed a knot at the back of the head, 
as a support for the veil. The fan was made of ostrich-feathers, 
suspended from the girdle by a chain of gold or silver. The 
most usual make of Venetian dresses was a full all-round or 
trained skirt, long stiff pointed bodice, cut as a high square, 
with a ruff coming from the' back of the shoulders ; sleeves to 
wrist, with cuffs ; a jewelled girdle ; pointed cap and veil. In 
winter, robings of fur were introduced. (See Plate XII., Fig. 45.) 
Venetian mantles, made of black silk lined and embroidered 
with the same colours, are occasionally worn over ordinary 
evening dress in lieu of a fancy costume. 

VENETIAN FISHGIRL. Old gold-coloured satin 
petticoat ; crimson silk tunic, with goldjace and crimson fringe ; 
black velvet bodice, with gold trimmings ; white silk under- 


bodice, open at neck, with sailor collar ; red silk handkerchief 
about the head, with gold fringe ; a creel with fish. 

VERNON, DOROTHY, (fe Di Vernon, D.) Grin 
ball costume; satin skirt trimmed with lace; pointed bodice and 
bunched-up tunic of brocade, with abundant trimming of lace. 

VESTAL VIRGIN. Swathed in white from head to foot. 
Dress made after classic fashion. Tunic and peplum of white 
cashmere, draped d la Greque ; gold bands in the hair. 

Wakefield, W.) 

VIERLANDER {Hamburg Flower-girl). Scarlet petti- 
coat bordered with green, with many gatherings at the waist ; 
black apron ; black bodice, one mass of embroidery, gold, 
silver, and colours in front ; white chemisette; curious straw hat, 
with a circular trough round the crown; and at the back 
of the head a black leather bow, the ends reaching to the 
waist ; basket of flowers in hand. {See Flemish Flower-girl.) 

VIEILLEUSE. Blue stockings, red short skirt and cap; 
black velvet bodice over white, with white stomacher having 
bands of red and black velvet across. 

VIGO, WOMEN OF, Green stuff short skirt, bordered 
with red, which is carried up the side ; the low bodice is blue, 
showing a red under-bodice ; full linen chemisette to the 
throat ; coral necklace and earrings ; hair turned back from the 
face, and in a coil at the back. 

VILLAGE GIRL {Colette, in La Cruche Cassce). Skirt 
of white faille striped with blue, and edged with a deep box- 
plaited flounce ; bodice and tunic of striped blue and white 
gauze ; a pointed waistcoat of blue beneath ; the polonaise 
forms a close-fitting bodice with deep-pointed basque at the 
side ; it fastens in the front of the heart-shaped opening 
<:oming over the waistcoat, and is bordered with plaiting 
a la vieille, while the back describes a puff; the sleeves 
come to the elbow ; a basket is carried on the arm ; a blue 
ribbon and a rose in the hair. 

VIOLA {Twelfth Night). As a page in trunk hose; 
Elizabethan coat and ruff; epaulettes formed of satin loops ; a 
sword with bows and rosettes. 



bO.J)Aje/DO c^ &^ few/p/tu 




VIOLET, OR VIOLETTE, LA. Short violet tulle 
dress covered with violets ; powdered hair ; a wreath of the 
same flowers on one side, or a cap like a violet. {See Flowers.) 

VIOLETS, BASKET OF. Plain short skirt of violet 
satin covered with a trellis pattern of straw, laid on to simulate 
a basket, with green leaves peeping out between trellis ends ; 
below the hips and to the waist is filled with perfumed artificial 
violets sewn on close together ; violet satin bodice trimmed 
with green leaves ; wreath of violets ; powdered hair. 

VIOLETTA VALERIE {Favorita), First scene : Ball 
gown of peach brocade and violets. Second dress : Pale 
blue silk made en Princesse^ covered with point de gaze. Third 
dress : Silver brocade. Last scene : clinging robe of crepe de 
Chine made as a tea-gown. 

VIRGIN OF THE SUN. Long classic dress of tulle 
or soft silk covered with tufts of swansdown ; skirt touching the 
ground, falling softly ; bodice low ; loose belt round the waist 
fastened on the shoulders with a brooch ; the hair floating ; 
long veil, gold band round the head. 

VIRGINIA {Roman Maiden). Classic robe of white 
cashmere embroidered with gold. 

VIRGINIA {Paul and Virginia, by Bernardin de St. 
Pierre). White Princesse dress, elbow-sleeves with lace band 
round waist ; palm-leaves. The dress should be made of 
white Indian muslin, sacque fashion, over pink Persian or 
the old-fashioned taffeta, and of a dull pink shade, holding 
just a tint of yellow. It may be open in front, to show the 
pink under-skirt, trimmed at the bottom with a deep box-plait ; 
the bodice square cut, with a soft fichu of muslin and fine 
lace, and with rufiles of the same to the elbow-sleeves ; a 
bouquet of oleander blossoms fastened in the fichu. A 
wide shepherdess hat, lined with pink taffetas, should be 
carried on the arm, and a palm-leaf screen in the hand. Long 
gloves of white Suede without buttons. The hair dressed high 
from the forehead, and falling in curls on the neck, but not 
powdered or otherwise adorned. A ruching of pink ribbon or 
double falling frill of white lace round the throat. 

Lady C. Villiers at the Queen's Ball, on the 12th May, 1842. 


Skirt just touching the ground, of sky-blue brocade ; low 
square red velvet bodice and tunic, the latter cut in battle- 
ments and bordered with gold ; gold girdle ; low chemisette 
under the velvet bodice ; leg-of-mutton sleeves puffed, the 
puffs divided by gold cord ; diamond circlet, tulle veil edged 
with gold. 

VIVANDIERE {La Figlia del Reggwienio). There are 
many varieties in these ; a Vivandiere Polonaise wears a 
jacket of blue satin, braided across the breast like a hussar's, 
slung from the shoulders ; a pelisse of scarlet satin, braided to 
match, and trimmed with fur ; white satin skirt embroidered 
with gold ; sabretache of scarlet and gold : Polish boots ; 
lancer cap. Vivandiere des Mousquetaires de la 
Garde du Roi Louis XIII. wears a short crimson satin, 
skirt, trimmed with gold braid, and black velvet bows ; pale 
blue satin doublet faced with crimson and gold lace ; white 
satin pelisse lined with satin, and trimmed with gold braid and 
Astracan fur ; blue satin cap ; small barrel, and sabretache ; 
black satin high boots. Vivandiere des Grenadiers 
de la Garde Imperiale Napoleon III., dark blue cloth 
skirt, with broad scarlet band, and gold lace ; jacket of blue 
cloth, with gold epaulettes, braid, lace, &c. ; facings white, 
collar and cuffs scarlet, revers of white and scarlet, with gold 
lace and braid; Hessian boots with gold tassels; kepi of 
gold, and scarlet, and blue ; small white muslin apron, with 
tri-coloured ribbons ; canteen, with arms of Napoleon. Hun- 
garian Vivandiere. White silk skirt ; blue satin vest, 
braided in gold; crimson satin jacket, with white facings; 
blue satin boots, trimmed to correspond ; aigrette on tri- 
cornered cap with gold. {See Plate XII., Fig. 47.) La Figlia 
del Reggimento would wear a short scarlet cloth skirt; 
green velvet jacket like a riding-habit, faced with scarlet ; a 
white cloth waistcoat beneath ; a felt hat, with a rosette, and 
plume of scarlet and green; black patent leather boots with brass 
heels ; a small barrel slung by a ribbon across one shoulder, and 
under the other arm. An oak barrel with silver hoops is what 
is usually used. A Vivandiere is really a woman who is 
authorised to march with a regiment ; and the opera of La 
Figlia del Reggimento has given the character particular pro- 
minence. It is a very favourite one at Fancy Balls. Dark 
red cloth skirt, made in close plaited folds; apron; white cloth 
acings ; red jacket ; forage cap with gold band ; high bootSy 


and a small barrel. {See also Russian Hussar, Mediaeval 
VivANDiERE ; also Plate XII., Fig. 46.) 

yiVANDIERE FRANCAISE. Scarlet cashmere 
skirt, bands of white satin and gold braid, white satin scart 
trimmed with gold fringe and braid ; jacket of same material 
cut in miUtary style; facings of satin, trimmed profusely with 
gold ; epaulettes and cords on the shoulders ; three cornered 
black satin hat ; black strapped boots with diamond buckles, 
scarlet silk stockings ; scarlet and white barrel and white 
gauntlet gloves. Or, blue and red epaulettes, lace skirt ; coat 
in mousquetaire style, the skirt buttoned back ; cocked hat. 

VIVIEN {Idylls of the King). A long grey robe of bro- 
cade j a gold belt at the waist ; a gold band over the flowing 
hair ; the bodice a low square ; the sleeves puffed. 

WAITING-MAID {French). Striped black and red 
petticoat ; over-skirt of deep gold colour, lined with red, forming 
a puff at the back ; black velvet bodice, and white plastron, 
barred across with black velvet ; small muslin cap with plaiting 
a la vieille, black velvet round it, and a bow ; a gold cross 
tied about the neck ; red and white striped stockings ; black 

Olivia and Sophia Primrose wear quilted skirts, bodices 
with elbow-sleeves and ruffles, muslin aprons, and kerchiefs. In 
Maclise's picture, "Preparing Moses for the Fair," the two 
sisters appear : one in a long quilted satin petticoat touching 
the ground, a white muslin apron surrounded by frilling reach- 
ing to the edge of the skirt ; a bodice and skirt all in one of 
brocaded stuff or silk ; the skirt drawn away from the front and 
caught up at the back, so that the inside is seen at the sides ; 
there is a large bow at the back of the v/aist, the bodice is low, 
and a muslin fichu crosses the shoulders, and is pinned down 
to the waist in front ; a knot of ribbons on the dress ; a band 
of black velvet with bow at the throat ; the sleeves come to 
the elbow, and below is a puff of muslin and a frill ; the hair 
is drawn away from the face, and a cap with a bow of 
ribbons at the side is pinned to the back, so that the lace just 
shows above the roll in front. The other sister has her hair 
also drawn away from the face, wears a large ruff round the 
throat, a white dress with a low bodice cut in one piece with 


the skirt, a black lace shawl over her shoulders. Miss Teny, 
when acting Olivia, wore several costumes ; one was a short 
skirt bordered with a gathered puffing, a large white muslin 
apron with lace-edged frilling ; a bunched-up tunic and low 
bodice, a muslin fichu knotted in front showing a white 
chemisette with frill ; the hair dressed very high, with curls 
and the Olivia cap over it ; long white mittens. In another 
dress Olivia wears a brocaded sacque opening to show a 
distinct front breadth, and a long apron of figured net matching 
the figured net fichu ; the hair in curls and no cap ; elbow- 
sleeves and mittens. And then again she wears a hood, cape, 
and white tippet. After the elopement, the sacque and front 
breadth are of red brocade made with a pointed bodice, elbow- 
sleeves, fichu, and muslin apron. The cap is most becoming. 
It is made with a large full crown, a close double plaiting of 
lace round, forming two scallops in front, like a window 
curtain. High-heeled shoes are necessary parts of this cos- 
tume. {See Plate IX., Fig. 35.) Mrs. Primrose, the Vicar's 
wife, has also a quilted skirt touching the ground ; a train 
looped over this so that it reaches to the edge of the skirt ; 
a muslin kerchief tucked inside the low pointed bodice, 
having merely straps across the front, the white muslin showing 
through ; the sleeves come to the elbow, and on the head is a 
black silk hood. 

mere short skirt embroidered with gold; stay bodice with 
straps in blue, over muslin chemisette, the sleeves having 
bands of scarlet ; a crimson satin sash with gold fringe round 
the waist ; apron of many colours ; hair in long plaits, tied 
with a ribbon ; small red cap embroidered in gold ; bracelet 
and necklet of beads and coins. 

W^ALLFLOWERS. (See Flowers.) 

WAR. A classic dress (for style, see Cleopatra, Druidess, 
Ancient Greek, &c.) made in flame colour, a flag and sword 
in hand, erect wings attached to back. 

SEUSE. Short skirt of yellow sateen, Avith a band of blue 
sateen round it ; blue tunic, turned up i la laveuse, with 
a piece of yellow ; blue bodice cut square, with fichu ; cap 
and apron of clear muslin ; blue stockings ; black shoes ; an 


iron at the side and a piece of soap. Sometimes for the 
French laundress the dress is red and white striped print, with 
a cambric cap. A Normandy cap would be correct; also 
shoes to resemble sabots. 

WASP. {See Bee, Hornet, Coloured Plate VII.) 

WATER. WATER NYMPHS : Undine, Naiad, 
Aquarium, Lorelei, Lurline, Mermaid, Sabrina, 
Siren, Peri of Ocean, Amphitrite, Water- Lily, 
Water- Witch, Sea Queen. All these are arranged much 
the same ; viz., as a dress of frosted tulle, or silvered tulle 
over green, looped up with seaweed, coral, shells, crystal, and 
aquatic flowers, for the salt-water nymphs ; water-lilies and 
grasses for those who rule over lakes and rivers, such as 
Undine and Lurline. A veil of tulle to match the dress 
hangs over the hair, which should be covered with frosting 
powder, and be allowed to float about the shoulders. A 
cuirass bodice of silver gauze, the tunic silver gauze, is a good 
rendering of the character. The bodice, whether a cuirass or 
made a la Vierge, should be trimmed with a fringe of the 
shells, &c., the same in the hair, a dragonfly on one side. 
The silver tulle that is used should be made as nearly as 
possible to resemble water, an effect produced by waved stripes. 
Diamonds, coral, and aquamarine with silver are the most 
appropriate ornaments, and silver fringe wherever it can be 
placed. Undine, the Nymph of the Rhine, has invariably 
water-liUes intermixed with the rest, and often lotus-flowers, and 
these should be dew-spangled. A Mermaid may be carried 
out as follows : Over the green and white and silver skirt the 
cuirass bodice should be made entirely of scales of mother-of- 
pearl, or of cloth imitating fish-scales, coming down well on to 
the hips. A girdle of seaweed, &c., is appropriate to all the 
characters, and many of them have pendent sleeves bordered 
with the same ; but no seaweed must be used on Lurline's or 
Undine's costumes. For Aquarium, the dress should not only 
be trimmed with marine plants, but with fish. Water-lily is 
the same sort of dress, trimmed with water-lilies. "Water- 
"Witch : Short white satin skirt, completely covered with 
silver tissue and fringe ; low body to match ; scarf of sea-green 
satin tied tightly over the hips, and fastening on one side, 
powdered with silver cockle-shells and silver fish ; silver cockle- 
shells in the hair. 


WATER-CARRIER. Short, light pink skirt; light blue 
tunic turned up in front ; low square muslin bodice ; over this, 
a long jacket with revers and fastened with gold clasps down 
the front ; high pointed hat ; pink and blue striped stockings ; 
black shoes ; water pail in hand. 

W^ATERCRESS GATHERER. White tulle dress 
with garlands made of glistening green leaves in all the cress 
shades, which are very numerous, from dead yellow to 
brightest emerald ; basket of iattice-work, with sante dii corps 
in green letters, carried in hand. 

WATTEAU COSTUMES are so called because they 
are supposed to reproduce the charming picturesque beings 
dehneated by Watteau, who died in 172 1. A sacque in most 
cases forms a part of these costumes. It is fastened to the 
bodice (which is either high to the throat, or a low square at 
the back) in a double box-plait. Som.etimes it is merely 
attached at the top, and then falls loose, so that the body may 
be seen distmct from the plait ; but more generally the plait 
forms the back of the dress. The sacque may be tacked to the 
front breadth, or it may be quite loose and distinct from the 
skirt and bodice. Sometimes it is looped up as a tunic; or 
sometimes reaches to the hem of the dress. The following is 
a Watteau dress : High-heeled shoes, coming well up on the 
instep, diamond buckles, silk stockings; a skirt of silk or 
satin, often quilted, short or just touching the ground, or of 
muslin with small plaited flounces to the waist ; a sacque of 
silk with square-cut bodice, pointed in front, trimmed with 
lace ; elbow-sleeves and ruffles ; narrow black velvet round 
neck and wrists ; powdered hair ; a muslin apron. {See aha 
Shepherdess, Poudre.) The coloured Illustration, Plate 
XIV., is after a well-known Watteau picture in the Dulwich 
Gallery. The sacque is quite distinct from the low-tabbed 
bodice, a style which admits of a much easier flow of drapery, 
and gives far more grace of movement when the minuet is 
danced ; powdered hair and feather. 

W^EALTH AND PROSPERITY. Dress and train 
of gold and silver cloth, covered with jewels, and strings of 
gold coins, with a gold crown, 

W^EATHERCOCK. Dress of black lace over white 
satin ; low bodice ; black gloves ; black velvet pointed cap 
surmounted by a vane. 






di. iacLu^ Ja1^e-b uij^ 


\r^ \^^\i\PL 

nt^ §n...^ XIV 


^WELSH COSTUMES differ in the different coun- 
ties. The skirts or petticoats are of Welsh flannel ; the 
tunics turned under at the back ; the bodices either open 
heart-shape or are low. Many of the sleeves have a white 
over-sleeve to elbow. A white apron and a small coloured 
shawl across the shoulders are always worn, and a high beaver 
hat over a cap. {See Plate XIV., Fig. 55.) The shapes 
differ in North and South Wales, while at Swansea the cockle- 
shell hat is made of straw, and has a flat crown. For fancy 
balls the following Welsh dresses are suitable : Striped red 
and black satin short skirt : upper-skirt and bodice of black 
velvet, with revers of red satin ; white muslin neckerchief 
tucked inside high hat ; mittens ; knitting in hand. Or, a 
dark blue stuff skirt, striped red and black upper skirt, bunched 
up ; black and white check apron ; tall beaver hat over cap. 
Carmarthenshire Peasant : Plain red cloth skirt ; low purple 
bodice; white muslin handkerchief tucked inside white cap; 
white sleeves below elbow ; short white apron ; mittens. 

'WHAT-A-TAIL. Skirt of drab plush; bodice of 
feathers ; cap like head of the bird. 

WHEAT- EAR. Green satin bodice and tunic over gold- 
coloured tulle skirt, the tunic embroidered with wheat-ears, and 
looped up with the same ; coronet of the same in hand. 


MAI D ? A pink cotton dress, and blue apron caught up on 
one side nearly to the waist; puffed full sleeves above the elbow; 
a white kerchief open at the breast ; a large shady sun-bonnet, 
with a long point in front, and a milk-pail in the left hand. 

WHIG, THE LITTLE {younger daughter of the grea 
Duke of Marlborough). Petticoat of yellow satin with point 
lace flounces, and headings of pearls ; green velvet pointed 
bodice and train bordered with ermine ; high head-dress with 
yellow gauze twisted in hair ; patches. 

WHITE CAT. Short white silk, cashmere, or satin skirt, 
edged with several rows of white fur or swansdown ; low square 
or high jacket bodice, similarly trimmed at the back; from the 
shoulders hangs a loose white fur mantle ; head-dress, a cap of 
white fur, like a cat's head, with ears and red bead eyes ; round 
the neck either a red collar and bells, pr a red collar with the 
words "Touch not the cat but with the glove." It is optional 


whether the hair be powdered, but it looks better. High white 
satin boots bordered with fur, and long gloves edged with fur, 
hanging at side ; kitten perched on shoulder ; fan painted 
with cat. 

"WHITE CHINA. White satin dress made after the 
fashion of a Watteau China figure, trimmed with lace, white 
roses and pearls, the YidSx poudre. 

"WHITE DRESS. Pure white dresses at balls are much 
the fashion. {See White Lady of Avenel, for example, 
PowDER-PuFF, the Lace and Cotton Trades.) The follow- 
ing are also good : The Ghost of Queen Elizabeth, 
the costume of the time, all white ; white rose leaves, white 
hyacinth, white butterfly ; a French Peasant in white 
cambric jacket and skirt ; white cap, apron, and stockings; and 
a 'White "Witch, carried out in white satin and gauze, with 
white velvet bodice ; white ruff stomacher of silver cloth ; and 
sugar-loaf hat, worn over poudre hair, with electric star on 
forehead; silver broomstick and cauldron. Snowflakes, 
white velvet bodice, and spangled tulle veil, with swansdown 
on tulle skirt. {See Hoar-frost.) Sweet Seventeen : 
soft white muslin dress made with short waist, broad white 
sash, small puffed sleeves, long white mittens ; white sandalled 
shoes ; hair powdered ; white satin bag suspended from arm. 
{See Milliner, White ; Miller's Daughter, and Maid.) 

WHITE LADY OF AVENEL. A long dress of 
some soft white material, crepe, gauze, or tulle, one skirt 
over another ; the low full bodice drawn with a string at the 
neck, without tucker ; shoulder-straps with wing-like sleeves at 
the back, falling on skirt ; flowing veil ; the hair loose, an 
old-fashioned bodkin or hairpin thrust through it ; a gold girdle 
confines the waist. 

WHIST. Red satin skirt and bodice bordered with 
playing cards ; scarf of white gauze crossing the bodice and 
falling on the skirt with clubs, spades, diamonds, and hearts 
scattered over it in red and black ; bracelets, necklet, and 
earrings, in enamel, with the same devices. 

WIDOW W^ADMAN. Large white muslin cap, sur- 
rounded by black velvet band and broad lace frill, fastened 
under chin, velvet bow at side ; black dress, large open sleeves, 
with broad lace ; bodice, low square, filled in with folds , of 
white Swiss muslin, terminating in front under the dress. 


^WIFE OF BATH {Chaucer). Striped stuff skirt; close 
fitting blue bodice ; beaver hat, with muslin kerchief knotted 
above the brim, and one tied beneath the chin, the other 
falling under the hat ; distaff carried in the hand. 

■WILD FLOWERS. {See Flowers.) 

WILL-O'-THE-WISP. Flowing hair falling over black 
fashionably-made evening dress ; tiny lantern carried in hand ; 
star of electric light in the centre of the forehead. 

W^INDMILL. {See Moulin-A-Vent.) 

FROST, ICE, ICICLE, HOLLY, &c. These are 
carried out with a fashionably-made white tulle evening dress 
and veil, either of crystal-spangled tulle or tulle covered 
with tufts of swansdown or white wadding. For Winter, 
December, and Christmas, holly leaves, ivy, and 
mistletoe and berries; Christmas roses and a robin appear 
on the head, shoulders, and dress. Sometimes the dress is 
black, tufted with swansdown. December is also rendered as 
a pale blue gown fringed with icicles ; blue-grey cloak on 
shoulders ; or sometimes with black tulle and tufts of swans- 
down and holly. Snow and Frost have icicles and glittering 
crystal drops, with crystal fringe introduced. Satin is more 
suitable with the tulle than silk, and bands of swansdown make 
admirable trimmings. Silver is often used, but crystal is more 
appropriate, though a tunic and bodice of silver cloth 
veiled in tulle has a good effect for Frost and Snow. 
The hair should float on the shoulders, and be ^covered 
with frosting powder. Satin shoes, and long gloves bordered 
with swansdown. For a Snow-storm on a Dark Night, 
black is used instead of white, trimmed with jet and swans- 
down. Fans painted with snow-scenes and robins are 
suitable for any of these dresses. Sometimes blue satin 
is worn with the white, but it does not make the dress so 
distinctive. The adoption of a blue-grey mantle, covered with 
tufts of swansdown, is meant to show that winter is not always 
bright. Crystal or diamond ornaments are the most appro- 
priate. Or, dress of green satin, bordered with twigs and 
evergreens; marabout feathers scattered over skirt and bodice; 
a veil treated in the same way enveloping the figure. 
An Arctic Maiden or Arctic Queen wears the same 
style of white dress, trimmed with tufts of swansdown, and 


forked with tongues of talc cloth to imitate icicles ; white 
veil ; a white wand in the hand. Arctic Queen, the same, 
with crystal crown. {See January.) 

WITCH. {See Hubbard, Mother; Macbeth, and 
Coloured Illustration, Plate XV.) Short quilted skirt of red 
satin, with cats and lizards in black velvet ; gold satin panier 
tunic; black velvet bodice laced over an old-gold crepe bodice; 
small cat on right shoulder, a broom in the hand, with owl ; 
tall pointed velvet cap ; shoes with buckles. 

W^ITCH, WHITE. {See White Dresses.) 


Short, black quilted satin skirt ; Watteau sacque of flowered 
chintz, cut square in front, with elbow- sleeves ; a mob cap, 
and a large high-heeled scarlet satin shoe, trimmed with gold 
-cord slung across the shoulders, with small dolls ; a rod in 

WOOD NYMPH. Green tulle evening dress, trimmed 
with leaves, wild flowers, blackberries, hips, acorns, &c., 
forming a fringe round the train or tunic, a bird nestling here 
and there. The skirt should be bordered with a putting, out 
of which peep violets, primroses, and other spring flowers, and 
so arranged that they seem to grow ; the bodice must be 
trimmed to match. Flowers to be placed in the hair, which 
should float on the shoulders, beneath a veil of green tulle. 
Natural ivy may be used on this dress ; each leaf should be 
painted over with oil, and thoroughly dried; this makes 
them bright and shiny. 

WOODLAND WHISPERS. Short brown stuff gown, 
and straw hat all trimmed with flowers ; a squirrel on the 

WORK-BOX. A short red quilted skirt; blue tunic 
round the hack, formed with pins, the rhyme, " Needles and 
pins, needles and pins, when a man marries his trouble begins." 
A white linen apron, the end turned up to form a square 
pocket, in which are needles, pins, tapes, cotton cord, scissors, 
&c. ; bodice to match ; muslin cap and fichu. 

WURTEMBURG, PEASANT OF. Full plaited skirt, 
over another rather larger ; belt of silver braid ; red stockings, 
and shoes with buckles ; gilt comb ; close-fitting black cap ; 
hair plaited in two long tresses and tied with ribbon ; white 






,1 1. 


chemisette, with stomacher of crimson velvet or cloth over 
black bodice ; black open jacket with long sleeves. 

YACHTS. Many balls are now given at our seaports, 
where the dresses of the ladies are supposed to represent 
yachts ; scarves carried across the bodice denoting the name, 
such as the Sivallow, the Raven, and so on. Sometimes a 
white tulle gown is simply draped with flags and the burgee ; 
or if American or other vessels are meant, the national flag 
falls from one shoulder. {See Flags, H.M.S. Polyphemus, 
and Nova Scotia.) 

YEAR, OLD AND NEW. Full short skirt of white 
satin ; low bodice with sash about waist ; hours printed 
round the skirt ; calendar with the old year on one side, the 
new year on the other. 

YEAR, OLD. Quilted satin petticoat, hours printed or 
tacked round it ; scythe fastened to the side or carried in the 
hand ; hair powdered ; large pointed hat with the date of 
year in front, partially hidden by gauze. The wearer should 
assume to be old and infirm ; a clock on left side of dress ;, 
tunic of dress black, with silver letters teUing of any remarkable 
occurrences of the old year. 

YEAR, NEW. Radiant young girl in heyday of youth 
wearing plain long full satin skirt, with hours in silver round 
it ; silver cord about waist ; bodice full ; pendent sleeves from 
elbow, caught up with roses ; wreath of roses and veil in hair. 

YSEULTE OF IRELAND. Under-skirt of olive- 
green velvet, embroidered with silver ; under-sleeves of prim- 
rose-coloured nun's cloth ; bodice tight fitting, fastened at the 
back; veil of pale yellow Indian muslin bound to hair by diadem 
of silver ; antique silver baldric with large pouch bag of olive, 
velvet worked with silver, and lined with silver primrose ; 
olive velvet shoes ; no gloves ; antique bracelet and necklet 
of silver. 

ZELICA (Lalla RookJi). White satin petticoat, richly 
embroidered with gold, over-skirt and bodice of red satin, cut 
low at neck in a point ; gold-embroidered white zouave jacket 
over it, bordered with gold lace and fringe ; a jewelled girdle 
and silk scarf round waist ; gold-spangled musfin trousers to 
knee ; bracelets on wrist and round upper portion of arm ; 
anklets on ankles ; a Persian cap of crimson and gold, hair 
in plaits, entwined with pearls. 



ZENOBIA. Full Greek robe of deep red India muslin ; 
veil of fine gauze ; diadem ; sandals ; jewelled fan. 

ZERLINA {Don Giovanni). A Spanish dress. {See 
Spanish Lady.) Short white satin skirt, trimmed with black 
lace, ornamented with gold and cerise ; Spanish bodice of 
black satin, braided with gold ; gold dagger ; black lace man- 
tilla ; crimson roses. 

ZINGARI. {See Gipsy.) 

ZITELLA. Red cap with coins ; black velvet bodice 
and red waistcoat, embroidered and laced with gold ; red 
gold-embroidered tunic, studded with coins and bound with 
black velvet, and bordered with gold fringe ; petticoat of black 
velvet, with broad band of hieroglyphics in- gold, and gold 
fringe ; silk sash in red, gold, and black. 

ZURICH. {See Swiss.) 



Juvenile Fancy Balls are much the fashion, and the current 
is setting towards all that is quaint and picturesque. Some of 
the best dresses worn by young people are suggested by 
the illustrated books, fairy tales, and other works of fiction, 
specially written for them. 

Among suitable costumes for little girls are Rainbow, Air, 
Puritan, Fille de Madame Angot, Portia, Alphabet, Babes in the 
Wood, Little Bayadere, Beauty, Bertrade, Bee, Wasp, Bo-peep, 
Gipsy, Buy-a-broom, Charity Girl, Charlotte Corday, Children 
of Charles I. {see Charles), Cinderella, College Girl, Columbine, 
Daffy-down-Dilly, Diablotin, Dolly Varden, Dresden China, 
Evangeline, Fairy, Fatima, Fish-girls, Flower-girls, Folly, Ger- 
maine, Serpolette, Grace Darling, Mother Hubbard, Harvest, 
Harlequinette, Jill, Ladybird, Magpie, Maid Marian, Maiden- 
all-Forlorn, Mary-Mary-Quite-Contrary, May Queen, Milkmaid, 
My-pretty-Maid, Naiad, Undine, Nancy Lee, Lady-of-Olden- 
Time, Preciosa, Quakeress, Rat-catcher, Reading, Reaper, Red 
Riding-Hood, One-of-the-Rising-Generation, Characters after 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, The Seasons, Shepherdess, Witch, 
Spinning-girl, Tambourine-girl, Lady Teazle, Titania, Olivia 
and Sophia Primrose, Vivandieres, Watteau dresses, Welsh, 
and White Cat ; particulars of which will be found under the 
several letters in the body of the book. 

The costumes we have described in the Introduction as 
capable of being made at home for gentlemen will apply 
equally well for boys. Some of the most effective dresses 
worn by boys, especially those of tender years, have been 
exact copies of Napoleon, the Lord Mayor, the Lord 
Chancellor, the Lord Chief Justice of England, &c. 

Q 2 


ALICE IN WONDERLAND. The characters in this 
popular tale are greatly in favour with children. Alice is 
dressed in low bodiced white muslin short frock with sash. 
The Lion and Unicorn as faithful copies of their pictures. 
The March Hare in a brown coat and waistcoat, with hare's 
head and feet. White Rabbit in a check suit, with rabbit's 
head and feet. Cheshire Cat in a coat of chinchilla. The 
Duchess in a pale rose-coloured over-dress with lilac front 
trimmed with ermine ; large head-dress of ermine ; pendent 
veil. The Rose in satin rose leaves mounted as a Mother 
Hubbard hat ; and the bodice and skirt like rose leaves ; 
sleeves and bodice, green satin. Lily, the flower for head- 
dress ; bodice and skirt of yellow silk, brown border to skirt. 
The Caterpillar is cleverly adapted from Tenniel's sketches, 
with green cap, and leg coverings like a caterpillar. The 
Chess Men are faithful copies of the pieces in chess. 
Cards, after those in the pack. {See Q, for Queens of the 
Pack.) Kings, with gold crowns, velvet robes, and the insignias 
of the suits. 

ARCITE (Chaucer). Juste-au-corps of brown moire 
antique ; gold belt ; dark blue trunk hose. 

ASTROLOGER. Long velvet toga, with wide hanging 
sleeves, bordered with satin, bearing the signs of the zodiac in 
gold ; high pointed velvet cap, entwined with a gold snake ; 
wizard's wand, large spectacles, book, and telescope; long 
pointed shoes. 

BABY BUNTING. Suitable for a very small child, 
who wears a tunic and cap combined, with upstanding ears, 
and an under-dress all made of white fur. 

BABY OPERA {By Walter Crane). The costumes in 
this are very suitable for children. Musicians in tabards, 
the stockings of two colours; shoes, square toed. King 
Cole : Fat burly figure ; loose brown dress ; flowing robe, 
with ermine ; large beard, and regal cap. Boy : Trousers 
to knee ; loose shirt ; hat with band round ; trumpet in hand. 
Girls and Boys at Play : The girls in hats ; low 
bodices, slashed sleeves ; long plain skirts, sometimes with 
coloured apron and kerchief Charity Girls in blue frocks, 
with caps and tippets. Mrs. Bond : Poke bonnet ; short 
sleeves ; coloured handkerchief; chintz dress. Jack 


Horner : Blue cap ; slashed jacket, with three rows of 
buttons ; breeches. Bo-peep : Blue apron ; chintz dress ; 
crook in hand. 

BABES IN THE W^OOD. The girl wears an evening 
dress of green and white tulle, with over-skirt of silver-spangled 
tulle, covered with autumn leaves, garlands of foliage, and 
robins ; the hair hanging down, head encircled by a wreath of 
leaves. The boy has long red stockings and puffed trunks 
striped with blue ; a close-fitting red jerkin, cut in tabs at the 
waist ; the tight sleeves with epaulettes also cut in tabs ; round 
cap ; materials velvet and satin. 

BEAU, OLD FASHIONED {See Plate XV., Fig. 59). 
Long skirted coat ; silk stockings, high boots, breeches, and 
waistcoat ; hat, and stick ; watch and seals. 

BEAST. {Fairy Prince, as worn by Duke of Connaught 
at Marlborough House Ball,) Ruby velvet doublet ; grey satin 
tights ; ruby shoes ; a leopard's skin, with claws attached to 
shoulders with jewels ; small round ruby cap and feather. 

BEAUTY, SLEEPING. Long robe of white and silver 
trimmed with pearls ; pearl girdle ; hair flowing. 

BEAUTY {In Beauty and the Beast) in the Fairy-tale 
Quadrille, at Marlborough House, wore a white tulle dress, 
full bodice, belt, and pendent sleeves ; a classic robe of soft 
cashmere trimmed with gold is also suitable 

Picture). High hat and feathers ; hair hanging down in curls ; 
tight jacket and breeches; with lace collar and turn back cuffs ; 
silk stockings and shoes ; scarves tied round leg, with bows on 
outside of leg ; stick in hand. 

BEEF-EATER {or Yeoman of the Guard), Long-skirted 
scarlet Tudor coat, trimmed with black velvet and gold, crown 
and Tudor rose embroidered on breast ; close plaited muslin 
ruff at throat ; full sleeves to wrist ; low-crowned black velvet 
hat, blue, red, and white ribbons round ; rosettes of the same 
on black shoes and at the knees of breeches ; red stockings ; 
sword in belt, halberd carried in hand. 

BETTY, LADY. Large hat, with upstanding brim and 
five red feathers ; short princesse dress, with square bodice ; 
long cloak from shoulders ; large green parasol. 


BIRDS, such as parrots, canaries, love-birds, and others, 
are very suitable for children. They have all been described 
under their several heads, in the body of the book. 

BLUEBEARD. Flowing Eastern robe ; red silk turban ; 
scarf of many colours round waist; loose silk trousers to 
ankle, one yellow the other red ; red pointed shoes ; beard, 
blue ; carries key. 

BOY BLUE. Dressed as Gainsborough's Blue Boy. 
Black shoes, with large blue rosettes ; the same at knee ; blue 
stockings and velvet breeches ; close-fitting jacket, buttoning 
in front ; blue cloak, fastened to shoulders, bordered with gold 
braid; the sleeves to wrist, with Vandyke lace cuffs, and 
slashed twice inside the arm, showing white under-sleeve ; 
large lace collar; plumed hat; hair curled. 

DUKE OF, DAUGHTER OF {afier Gerard Horn- 
thorst). White satin dress with a Medici ruff of point lace, 
the puff sleeves edged with tiny lace ruffles and taken in with 
pink ribbons tied into bows; waistband and front bow are 
formed of ribbons of the same colour ; the bell-shaped under- 
skirt is, like the bodice, arranged in narrow plaits, and the 
over-skirt opens in front. The latter appears, in the original 
at Hampton Court, to be made of silver-striped gauze or 
muslin, which could be replaced by rose-coloured silk or velvet; 
strings of pearls form the necklace and the armlets, and a 
chain of jet beads hangs across the bust. 

BUNTHORN {Patience). Velvet jacket and breeches ; 
large flat velvet cap, wiih wig of long hair beneath ; velvet 
shoes, and silk stockings. 

BUTTERFLY {For child of two to three). Short skirt 
of blue foulard, with an over-skirt of gauze ; low bodice, with 
a waistband fastened in front with bows ; two wings are 
attached to the middle of back, made of gauze, edged with 
fine wire ; silk stockings ; blue satin boots. Or, Canndian 
Butterfly : Bodice of green plush elongated into a point 
which falls on to the short yellow tulle skirt ; short, puffed 
sleeves ; gauze wings at back forming tunic ; butterfly on head ; 
green gloves and shoes with butterflies ; butterfly fan. {See 
Coloured Illustration, Plate XVI.) 

CAN AGE {Chaucer). Dress of terra cotta silk, close 


fitting ; long pointed shoes of old gold satin ; hair plaited 
round the ear ; silver coronet ; gold veil ; falcon on wrist. 

CAVALIER DRESS {For hoy, after Von Hughenburg). 
Dutch type. Broad-brimmed Flemish hat, with ostrich 
feathers ; doublet and waistcoat ; breeches to knee ; sword- 
belt crossing bodice ; tie at throat ; hat and plumes j shoes 
with bows ; gauntlet gloves. 

and loose full trunks of velvet, slashed with satin ; pointed 
shoes or large cavalier boots, wide at top, edged with a fall of 
lace ; velvet shoulder-cloaks ; Vandyke lace collars and cuffs ; 
large plumed hats ; hair in curls. The king wears his blue 
ribbon, and star on breast. 

CHERRY RIPE, in large mob cap, muslin dress and 
fichu, with ribbon sash, and mittens, after Millais's picture. 

CHRISTMAS, FATHER. Long loose robe of white, 
red, or brown, the shoulders covered with tufts of frosted 
wadding ; a belt round waist ; wallet, staff, white hair and 
beard ; holly wreath. 

CLOWN {Ordinary). Black or white shoes, white stock- 
ings with blue or red clocks ; short white calico trousers with 
frills at knee, and close-fitting dress fantastically ornamented 
with blue and red ; face painted white, triangular patches of 
red on either cheek, very red lips ; close curling stiff red 
point from back of head, which shakes at every movement. 
(In Louis XV's reign). Loose trousers to knee ; full jacket 
with large collar, confined at waist by belt ; sleeves to wrist,. 
with pendent ones over the hand, all made in white cotton or 
merino piped with red, and large red buttons in front ; white 
felt pointed hat, with coloured ribbons. 

COCK ROBIN. Short brown pleated skirt, with rows 
of Marabout feathers ; round bodice with pointed basque at 
the back, like the tail of a bird, made of feathers or plush > red 
waistcoat, high collar ; red necktie ; cap with a peak as much 
like a bird's head as possible. 

CONSCRIPT. Long kid gaiters fastened with buttons 
to the knee ; yellow breeches with gold embroidery at the 
pockets ; red cloth coat with yellow epaulettes, cuffs, and 
facings ; Lancer cap. 


COLE, KING. {See Baby Opera.) 

COLUMBINE. Pink silk stockings, white satin shoes; 
tulle skirt, short and full ; cuirass bodice bordered with flowers ; 
wreath of flowers in hand. 

COOK, BOY, All in white; shoes, stockings, knee- 
breeches ; loose blouse, with frilled collar; round cap; apron, 
the corner tucked in at waist. 

CUPID. Dress of blue and silver gauze, smothered in 
roses ; bow and arrow, and silver gauze wings. 

CURLY LOCKS. This should be adopted by a child 
with hair in ringlets. She wears a blue frock with white quilted 
front, and large lace collar. 

DICK TURPI N. Scarlet coat and waistcoat, with gold 
T3raid and buttons ; lace cravat and ruffles ; high jack-boots ; 
leather breeches; three-cornered hat and flowing wig; belt 
.and pistols. 

DUTCH FISHER BOY. Wooden shoes; full 
breeches, coarse knitted stockings ; striped blouse ; red tie 
and cap. {See Plate XVI., Fig. 62.) 

FAIRY. {See description in body of book, and Illustra- 
tion, Plate XVI., Fig. 61.) 

FRANCIS I. A flat-brimmed cap, sometimes jewelled, 
and always bordered with an ostrich feather ; doublet of plain 
or figured silk, with slashed puff sleeves to the elbow, and 
tight to the wrist ; over the doublet a breastplate as part 
armour ; Norman chausses or hose, striped and fitting exactly 
to the limbs ; broad-toed shoes with slashed tips. 

FERAMOZ {Poet of Cashmere). White gauze and silver 
turban, with jewels ; satin jacket embroidered, having hanging- 
over sleeves ; under-vest and sleeves of brocade ; full white 
lawn shirt, showing Indian scarf round waist ; velvet breeches, 
with silver buttons to the knee; silk stockings, small low shoes ; 
a guitar in hand. 

FIANCE, VILLAGE {Boy). Striped blue and white 
silk trousers, silk stockings of a darker shade of blue ; black 
shoes with buckles ; red silk waistcoat ; white shirt ; dark blue 
cloth jacket, with re vers and large buttons ; large bouquet of 
flowers, fastened to the jacket with a bunch of ribbons ; high 





Sf^ H 




collar ; silk necktie ; grey hat trimmed with blue ribbons and 
aigrette ; cane in hand. 

FIGARO {Barber of Seville). Dark green velvet Spanish 
jacket embroidered in silver ; white satin waistcoat ; green 
velvet breeches with pink ribbons; pink sash with silver fringe, 
and necktie ; Spanish hat ; pink bows on shoes, white silk 
stockings ; mandoline in hand. 

yellow satin skirt, ornamented with black braid and studded 
with small gauze flies. The short upper skirt forms a sort of 
long basque, and is sewn to the waistband ; rows of gold braid 
across the high bodice, and round the short sleeves ; loose 
jacket ornamented with gauze ; fly in the centre of back, and 
smaller ones in front ; black velvet toque, with gold band 
round, a gold fly fastening down aigrette. 

GAINSBOROUGH {after Lady Barbara Yelverton), 
A plain white muslin gown, with short sleeves, having ruches 
at the neck and elbows of rose-coloured or blue ribbons ; 
a large sash of corresponding colour tied round the waist ; 
an elaborately-trimmed lace cap. Suitable for a girl of ten. 

GARIBALDI. Red shirt and grey trousers, with silver 
stripe ; large felt hat with ostrich feather. 

GOBLIN. Tight-fitting justaucorps of red ; red Vandyke 
tunic ; winged hood with cape ; fork in hand. {See Coloured 
Plate XVI.) 

GREEK {Boy). White plaited fustanetta, or petticoat, 
wide silk belt, ornamented with gold ; short embroidered vest, 
buttoned at throat ; jacket ; full trousers to knee, and gaiters ; 
fez ; dagger stuck in belt. Made in satin, cashmere, or cloth. 

GREEK GIRL'S DRESS. Skirt of wood-coloured 
llama or nun's veiling, braided with gold ; green velvet jacket, 
slashed and edged with gold braid ; flowing muslin sleeves ; 
necklet of gold leaves ; hair in plaits ; small round cap. 

GRENADIER (1760). High white gaiters buttoned to 
knee ; blue coat turned back with red ; red cuff's ; white 
waistcoat and breeches ; red and white pointed cap ; sword ; 
hair in pigtail. {See Plate XVI., Fig. 6^.) 

GREEN AWAY, KATE. Reproductions of little people 
after this charming artist are much in favour at children's Fancy 


Balls. For girls, narrow skirts with one deep flounce and 
puffings, showing the sandalled shoes ; very short waists ; 
turn-down frills at neck ; short sleeves, having one puff. 
Boys, long trousers, buttoning over the jacket ; large linen 
collar, frilled, &c. The current in fancy dress is decidedly 
setting toward all that is quaint and picturesque, and savours 
of what we are pleased to call old English. Some of the 
most successful costumes worn by children of late have been 
copied from Kate Greenaway's " Birthday-Book," &c. Little 
figures, in plain short skirts ; tunics open in front, and looped 
up at the sides ; square bodices, elbow-sleeves, and powdered 
hair ; James I. and Elizabethan periods. Miss Roundabout, 
and the Schoolboy, — all these are excellent. 

HAMLET. Long black cloth cloak; scalloped black 
velvet jerkin trimmed with jet, black velvet sword-belt, and 
bonnet with black plume ; black silk tights, black velvet shoes 
slashed with satin. 

HARLEQUINETTE. (See Illustration XV., Fig. 60, 
and descriptions in body of book.) 

HEARTS, KING OF. Red and white striped stockings; 
blue justaucorps, cut in points, and covered with hearts ; a 
large satin collar, in shape of two hearts ; red cap, with hearts; 
tight and hanging sleeves ; sceptre with hearts. 

HEARTS, QUEEN OF. Red velvet princess dress 
with hearts, square cut at neck ; sceptre in one hand, bouquet 
in other ; pointed cap. 

HENRY VI. wears a felt hood or bonnet, with short 
tippet and single feather ; a doublet of braided silk, cut round 
even with the shoulders, a separate scarf covering the latter ; 
loose sleeves, trimmed with fur ; tight hose ; high boots of 
brown leather, long-toed and spurred. 

HERALD. White felt hat with feather; the tabard coat 
yellow, green, or blue, with the arms embroidered in gold or 
silver, and a shoulder jacket of contrasting colour ; tight silk 
hose ; trousers striped or parti-coloured ; and a trumpet. 

HIGHLAND PIPER. Boots, white gaiters, plaid 
stockings ; kilted skirt ; sporran ; uniform coat ; plaid, 
fastened with brooch on left shoulder ; bagpipes. 

INCROYABLE. Short-waisted long brown coat, with 
wide lapels ; yellow satin waistcoat ; cloth breeches having 


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blue ties at knee ; striped stockings and shoes ; a watch and 
watch-chain hanging at both sides; lace frills at wrist and 
neck ; large necktie ; cocked hat. 

IRISH CAR DRIVER. Green coat patched with 
cloth, brass buttons ; brocaded waistcoat ; drab breeches with 
patches ; high collar, and red tie ; blue darned stockings ; 
leather shoes ; hat trimmed with green and sprigs of shamrock. 

ITALIAN. Stockings crossed over with coloured ribbon; 
blue cloth breeches, buckled at the side ; a leather waistcoat 
fastened with silver, steel or leather buttons, and cut low and 
straight, showing the shirt ; a short jacket bordered with gold, 
and a pointed hat with ribbons ; coins and amulets. The 
PifTerarij in addition, have a long brown caped cloak, and 
carry their musical pipes. The Italian Fishermen of 
Naples and Barri, Masaniello, &c., are represented 
with silk tights, striped trousers rolled up well over the knee ; 
a shirt of the same, open at the neck to show gold charms ; ear- 
rings in the ears ; a red or brown cap ; and a brown jacket 
slung from the shoulders ; a scarf round waist. 

JACK HORNER. Blue breeches; a long waistcoat; 
long-skirted red coat, with gold buttons down the front, and 
on the wide turn-back cuffs and pockets ; a black tricorn hat 
bordered with gold braid ; a plum dangling from the watch- 

JACK (JACK AND JILL). Smock frock and round 
felt hat. Or, breeches and long waistcoat, long-skirted coat of 
velvet, cambric shirt, velvet cape, ruff at throat, red rosette on 
each cuff and corner of coat. (See Jill.) 


{a//er N. de Largilliere). He died in Paris, 1746. The 
costume of the Prince of Wales resembles the one worn 
by courtiers towards the end of Charles IPs reign. Wig 
formally curled, and no longer flowing ; three-corned hat, 
low in the crown and wide in the brim, with feather 
edging; a neckcloth or cravat of Brussels or Flanders 
lace, tied in a knot under the chin, the ends hanging down 
square; short doublet or coat of dark green, blue, or drab 
cloth, with buttons and buttonholes all down the front, the 
cuffs and pockets similarly adorned ; the skirts of the coat 
terminating above the knees, and its sleeves reaching to the 
elbows, with shirt sleeves bulging out, ruffed and adorned 


profusely with ribbons and lace ; short trousers of dark velvet, 
loose to the knees, with a fringe of lace or a cambric edging ; 
blue or scarlet silk stockings, with silver clocks ; high-heeled, 
lace-edged shoes, with diminutive buckles in front, fastening 
a lace bow to the instep. 

JAMES II. {after N. de Largilliere). A quaint and formal 
costume. The hair, which under Charles II. had been 
permitted to fall in natural ringlets upon the shoulders, is 
covered with a tower head-dress, or conwiode, in three tiers 
of lace, ribbons, and ruches ; the waist is confined in a 
pointed bodice of silk, cut square, with a lace stomacher in 
front ; short sleeves, with a cuff and lace bow at the elbow, 
leave the forearm bare ; the black silk petticoat is covered 
in front with a lace apron ; and an ample over-skirt, with long 
train made of coloured damask, falls from the shoulders. 

JESTER, FOOL, AND FOLLY. Pointed shoes; 
tights, the legs of different colours ; parti-coloured short full 
trunks ; close-fitting habit with basque cut in points bordered 
with gold, a bell at each point ; sleeves with the same points 
and bells ; hood, with cape of two colours, also cut in points ; 
a fool's bauble in the hand. Red and blue is the usual 
mixture, also green and gold, amber and blue, amber and 

JOCRISSE. Jacket and knee breeches of puce-coloured 
satin ; waistcoat of strawberry plush ; buckled shoes ; silk 
Madras handkerchief round the throat, high linen collar ; gold 
buttons ; puce felt hat. 

JOCKEY. Top-boots ; satin breeches ; jacket and cap 
of two colours ; whip in hand. 

JOHN BULL. Top-boots and breeches; long coat; 
low-crowned hat. 

JOHN, LITTLE. Green cloth doublet trimmed with 
squirrel fur ; green breeches slashed with satin ; white and 
green satin sleeves, under the pendent ones belonging to a 
doublet of green silk ; green stockings and buckskin shoes ; 
green velvet cap with eagle feather ; hunting-horn and knife. 

KING {Sing a Song of Sixpence). Long flowing mantle 
trimmed with gold braid or fur ; puffed satin dress ; breeches 
and silk stockings below ; diadem on head. 


MALTA, KNIGHT OF. Silk shoes and stockings; 
black puffed trousers and jacket with ruff; red round cloak 
to waist, bordered gold braid, a cross on either side ; flowing 
hair, hat, and feather. A ruff and cloak over boy's ordinary 
dress would suffice, if a saving of time and trouble be an 

blue stockings, white trousers; red silk sash; blue jersey, striped 
jacket, red cap barrel ; and cup. {See Coloured Plate XVI.) 

MARLBOROUGH, DUKE OF. Full wig; large lace 
neckcloth; hanging cuffs and ruffles ; square-cut coat and long- 
flapped waistcoat; a sash over the right shoulder; blue or scarlet 
silk stockings, with gold or silver clocks, drawn high up over 
the knee; square-toed shoes, with high heels and small buckles. 

MARQUIS, LOUIS XVI. Blue velvet coat and 
breeches embroidered in gold ; lace sleeves and cravat ; white 
satin vest embroidered in gold ; three-cornered hat edged with 
gold lace, having white plume ; shoes with diamond buckles ; 

MARQUIS , OF CARABAS. Tights; velvet shoes; 
velvet dress bordered with gold ; belt round waist ; hanging 
sleeves ; large hat and feather. 

MASHER. Suitable for a boy of very tender years, 
who appears in the exact counterpart of a man's dress suit. 

MEPHISTOPHELES {Faust). Silk tights, full short 
trunks round hips ; tight-fitting habit ; short cloak attached to 
shoulders ; a cap with two upstanding feathers like horns. 
This is generally carried out entirely in red velvet, or in scarlet 
satin and black velvet. 

MERCURY. Mantle attached to shoulders, and drawn 
through the girdle at the waist ; peplum and skirt all made in 
white veiling ; caduces carried in the hand ; sandals laced up 
the leg ; wings on the cap and heels. 

MERE MICHEL {French Mother Hubbard). Gown 
of flowered chintz ; white linen apron ; check handkerchief 
about the neck ; white muslin cap ; spectacles; blue stockings ; 
feather broom in hand. 


A capital dress, and easily made for a young boy. Black 


shoes, white stockings ; full knickerbockers to the knee ; a 
blouse, confined at the waist by a belt, long full sleeves to 
wrist ; a shoulder-cloak, and round cap made of striped satin 
or calico ; a close muslin ruff at the throat. 

MISS MUFFET. Pale blue dress trimmed with gold 
lace ; spider in cap. 

MONK. Long brown ample robe, with wide sleeves, and 
a cord round the waist. The Franciscans have a small cape 
and hood ; the Capuchins' cape is as large as that of an Inver- 
ness wrapper. Rosary at side. 

MUSICIANS. {See Baby Opera.) 

NIGHT AND MORNING {Boy). Half black, half 
white satin tights, juste-au-corps, and round hat ; the face 
half black, the hair powdered on one side ; one glove black 
one white ; the same with shoes. 

NURSERY RHYMES. See description in body of 

ings; shoes with buckles ; knee breeches ; very long flowered 
waistcoat, with flap pockets; long coat, steel buttons, and 
ruffles ; a frill to shirt ; bald head or white hair ; a stick in 
the hand. 

PAGE {The Betrothed). Tights; long skirted habit; 
sleeves with double puffs, slashed from elbow ; wide lace collar. 
{Tetnp. Charles I.) Velvet coat and breeches, with ribbon 
rosettes ; silk stockings, shoes with bows ; Vandyke collar and 
cuffs ; satin-lined coat ; large hat and feather ; all to be of the 
one tone. (7^^;;^/. Elizabeth.) Silk stockings ; trunks; satin 
habit and shoulder-cloak, elaborately braided ; ruff and low- 
crowned hat. 

PANGLOSS, DR. A black velvet suit in the Georgian 
style, with long skirted coat and waistcoat ; white wig and 

PAUL PRY. High boots, trousers of red and white 
striped calico, tucked into them ; waistcoat to match, with 
large watch and chain, powdered bag-wig, blue tail-coat and 
brass buttons, umbrella under arm. 

PICARDY, PEASANT OF. National head-dress—a 
broad silk ribbon gaily embroidered, ruched with muslin on 



top and bottom, and stretched over a shape of cardboard ; 
white chemise, with a broad-belted and embroidered bodice of 
black velvet over it ; red or blue petticoat, bordered with 
gold or silver leaves ; lace trimmed white apron and striped 

PIEMAN, in white suit and apron ; cook's white cap. 

PILLAR POST. (See Illustration, Plate XV., Fig. 57, 
and description in body of book.) 

PIRATES OF PENZANCE. Frederick. In un- 
dress uniform. One of the Daughters, dress high to 
throat, with ruff, belt at waist ; high mob cap. Pirate King, 
cocked hat ; coat with epaulettes ; plaited petticoat and loose 
under-bodice; belt with pistols ; stockings, and shoes ; banner 
with death's head and cross-bones. Ruth, short embroidered 
gown, sash of many colours round waist; black, gold em- 
broidered Senorita jacket ; cap with sequins ; armlets and 
bracelets united by chains. Samuel, similar dress to 
Pirate King, only a sailor's cap instead of cocked hat ; sailor's 
collar, and no epaulettes. Mabel, short plaited skirt ; tunic 
bordered with frilling, bunch of flowers at side ; fichu, short 
sleeves, reticule at side; huge hat and feather. Kate, 
similar dress without tunic. Sergeant of Police in police- 
man's uniform. (See page 180.) 

PROSPERO. Long black velvet robe trimmed with 
sable and gold, made with long hanging sleeves, scarlet under 
sleeves, barred with gold ; large collar facings of scarlet and 
black with hieroglyphic signs ; skull cap similarly bordered ; 
flowing grey wig, beard and moustache ; red stockings, pointed 

PUNCHINELLE (For Boy). Bodice and tunic in 
yellow satin, striped with black bands, bound with gold ; skirt 
of red velveteen ; red pompons and belt ; black lace ruflles, 
cuffs and basque gUttering with gold ; red and black hat with 
gold spangles and tufted plume ; wooden shoes. 

PURITAN BOY. Brown velvet breeches ; brown cloth 
coat and cloak; white tippet; felt hat. (See Plate XV., 
Fig. 58.) 

PUSS IN BOOTS. Cat's head and bodice; groom's 
coat made of white fur with leather belt ; top boots. 

QUADRILLES AND DANCES. Besides the fancy 


quadrilles described in the introductory chapter, at children's 
Fancy Balls there might be such innovations as a sheet and 
pillow-case party, the wearers disguised in white drapery ; 
a phantom party, habited in long white robes like monks, a 
cord about the waist, and a pointed cap hiding the face all but 
the eyes. Tableaux by children might open the proceedings, 
such as the "Old Woman who lived in a Shoe," ''A 
Neapolitan Wedding," "Dream of Fair Women," "The 
Courts of the Gods," &c. The Lithuanienne is a good dance 
for such balls; so is "The Old Woman's Children," who 
dance round her, she spurring them with her broom, till at 
last, throwing off her disguise, she appears as a Spanish 
dancer. The Minuet, the May -pole Dance, the Swedish 
Dance, and the Tempete Swing Valse, are all excellent, and 
have met with great success "here and in America. It is a 
good plan for a certain number of children to appear in the 
characters of one special fairy tale. 

RED RIDING-HOOD. Blue silk, quilted skirt; black 
velvet bodice ; red cloak; muslin pinafore ; head-dress, corn- 
flowers. {See R, in body of book.) Or, red shoes, blue 
stockings ; striped red and white shirt ; white apron ; red hood 
and cape ; blue bodice laced in front^; flowers in hand, and 
basket of eggs. (See Coloured Plate XVI.) 

REYNOLDS, after SIR JOSHUA. For little 
boys there is a good dress in " Feeding the Chickens ; " black 
shoes with black bows ; red stockings ; blue petticoat with blue 
band ; white high pinafore with red sash, made with a wide 
falling collar, bordered with a frill ; sleeves to elbow ; a red 
bow at throat. Another, in "Doubtful Security," the child 
wears shoes with straps; also a yellow and blue skirt; low white 
pinafore with pink sash. The Angerstein Children : 
The boy wears a frill and a turned-down collar, edged with 
lace. The girl is conspicuous for her large straw hat, trimmed 
with ribbons, and worn over a fine head of curls, which frame 
the face. A special feature in her dress is the short shawl 
thrown over the shoulders and turned under the coloured scarf 
which encircles her waist, forming a bow with long ends on the 
right hip. The manner in which the boys have their hair 
arranged is characteristic of the period — a la Russe it would 
be called now, short over the eyebrows, and falling in curls on 
the shoulders, most becoming to youthful faces. The 
Aflectionate Brothers : The attire of the three boys is 


quaint and picturesque as fancy dress, and the group as a 
whole would make an admirable tableau vivant enacted by 
children — the eldest boy with coat, waistcoat, and breeches 
of maroon-coloured or black velvet ; the little boy with 
jacket and trousers combined, and made of Hght-coloured 
cloth ; and the baby all in white, with a gaily-trimmed Gains- 
borough hat in miniature, and a cherry-coloured sash round 
its tiny waist. 

telvet tunic trimmed with gold lace, three lions couchant em- 
broidered in gold on the breast ; white silk tights ; velvet 
trunks ; gold and satin shoes ; jewelled belt, sword, and dagger. 

RISING SUN. As a schoolboy, with large hnen collar 
bordered with a frill ; shell jacket with many buttons ; trousers 
buttoned over. 

ROBINSON CRUSOE. Knickerbockers and long 
coat of fur, with robins sewn about it ; belt round the waist ; 
silk tights, sandals ; green parrot on shoulders ; fowling-piece, 
pistols, hatchet, and umbrella. Mrs. Crusoe is dressed after 
the same fashion. 

SAILOR {English). A favourite costume at Fancy Balls. 
It is best to obtain the real sailor dress from a nautical out- 
fitter, either in white drill or serge; viz., loose trousers, loose 
jacket tucked into them ; a belt round the waist, the sleeves 
of the jacket fastening at the wrist ; having a sailor's collar, 
very open at the neck, with a silk handkerchief tied in a 
sailor's knot beneath it ; a man-of-war straw hat, or a sou-wester 
and peajacket. The drill suits have the jacket trimmed with 
blue down the front and on the cuffs and collar. 

SCHOOLBOY. For a tall boy ; green jacket, with triple 
row of buttons down the front ; large frilled collar ; grey 
trousers, short, and buttoned over the jacket; shoes with 
straps ; a satchel with books slung over shoulder. 

SCHOOLMASTER. Coat of cloth made long, with 
gold buttons ; striped blue waistcoat ; nankeen breeches, fas- 
tened at the knee with the same buttons ; white and blue 
woollen stockings ; high collar, and blue silk necktie ; spelling 
book under the arm ; Madras handkerchief escaping from the 
pocket; periwig, brown jersey; quill pen in the ear; birch in 
the hand ; muslin frillings round the wrist. 



SHEPHERD. Blue stockings, black shoes; figured 
blue cotton bodice showing only at neck; and breeches, bunches 
of ribbon at knee ; Holland smock, long sleeves bordered with 
pink and blue ribbon, embroidered in silk with flowers; 
white wig. 

SHEPHERD {French, of IXth century). Loose blouse 
reaching to knee, sleeves tight to wrist ; high stockings, long- 
pointed shoes ; girdle with carved horn attached ; a crook with 
spear-like point. 

SHEPHERD OF ABRUZZI. Brown trousers and 
garters tied with strap of leather ; brown coat, and sleeves 
-slung to waist, coloured scarf round waist ; sheepskin at back ; 
high hat. 

SHEPHERD, WATTEAU. Pink knee breeches, with 
blu€ puffings down the outer side of the legs ; a white waist- 
coat with small frill ; a coat coming slightly below the hips, 
showing the waistcoat, and having tight sleeves to the elbow, 
with big white puffings and frill to the wrist, a band of pink 
with blue rosettes being bound over the upper part of the 
puffing; a circular cape of violet and yellow; a Gains- 
borough-shaped hat ; silk stockings, low shoes with large blue 
rosettes on the instep ; and a crook with a bunch of blue and 
yellow ribbons on the top. 

SIMPLE SIMON. Old-fashioned smock ; corduroy 
trousers ; hobnailed shoes. 

SLOPER. Tight brown trousers ; blue coat, brass buttons, 
handkerchief coming out of pocket ; old black gloves ; white 
hat and black band ; large green umbrella. 

STREPHON. {See Iolanthe.) 

SURFACE, CHARLES {School for Scandal). Silk 
stockings, shoes with buckles ; breeches ; long-tailed coat and 
waistcoat ; powdered hair and bag wig ; lace ruffles and lace 
necktie, fastened with diamond star. This is always a most 
elaborate costume, the coat, waistcoat, and trousers made of 
light satin, and richly embroidered in gold and silver. For 
example, blue satin coat, with white satin vest and breeches ; 
or lilac or light pink satin suit. 






63. i) zc^OudjiZ'^. 



TOUCHSTONE. Red and white Folly dress, with bells, 
and fool's cap. 


Brown velvet doublet bordered with blue ; yellow sleeves, 
large blue collar lined with red ; yellow leather purse fastened 
to the belt ; brown hat turned up with red and yellow feather. 

TURK. Long loose blue coat fastening down- front; fez 
cap ; high black boots. 

TYROLEAN. Brown or grey coat, and breeches ending 
above the knee; white stockings ; black shoes. The coat, 
bound with green, having green collars and cuffs, is wide and 
open, showing the shirt and vest, across which there are bands 
of black velvet ; and round the waist an elaborate silver em- 
broidered belt. High pointed hat, entwined with silver cord ; 
flowers at the side. 

VATEL, MODERN. Jacket and breeches of white 
satin slashed with blue,, white linen apron ; muslin ruffles ; 
shoulder sash of blue moire, to which is suspended a huge 
carving knife ; white cap with blue puffings ; white stockings 
and shoes, and blue rosette. 

VANDYKE DRESS {Girl). Full skirt reaching to the 
ground ; square bodice with revers ; long sleeves and apron ; 
close cap. {See Plate XVI., Fig. 64.) 

^WALTER OF SALUCES {Chaucer). Dalmatic of 
green and gold brocade ; purple velvet belt ; silver ornaments 
and clasp ; crimson cloak Hned with fur ; wreath of ivy. 

WHITTINGTON. Brown light pointed shoes covering 
front of foot ; loose brown habit with belt round waist, open at 
neck to show chemisette ; tight sleeves with puffed epaulette; 
stick on shoulder with bundle ; short brown breeches ; blue 
worsted stockings. 

^WILL-O'-THE-^STISP {Girl). Black lantern in hand ; 
hair flowing ; black tulle dress with iridescent beads ; star over 
the forehead of electric light. 

YANKEE. Skirt and trousers of striped cotton, with 
high collar, black necktie, and large-brimmed hat. 


O UPPLY every requisite for FANCY COSTUMES, 
either for Balls or Private Theatricals, 
and keep in stock a variety of Plain and Fancy Silks 
and Satins, Plain and Figured Cambrics, Printed 
Cretonnes and Sateens, Gloves, Flowers, 
Feathers, &c., for the purpose. 

In addition to their ordinary Stock they provide 
to order BOOTS, Shoes, Sandals, Gilt Orna- 
ments, Gems, Daggers, Helmets, Masks, Powder, 
Swords, Wigs, and any other article required. 


/JJVY of the Dresses described in this book 
can be made to order, and sketches, de- 
scriptions, and patterns of Materials, with full 
information as to details, will be forwarded 
postfree on application. 



With additional Illustrations. 
In Pape?- Cover 2S. 6d., Cloth p. 6d. 



Descriptions of 

By ARDERN holt, 


HIS handy volume contains many sugges- 
tions for making Fancy Dresses at home, 
also for arranging Costumes at little cost. 
It presents a series of minute descriptions, thereby 
directing the choice where it is intended to 
purchase or have recourse to a costumier. The 
Illustrations are a valuable assistance. 



lincoln's-inn fields, w.r. 

TO»i#- 202 Main Library 








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Mfc c w, W 0V8 7 1 97 9 

MAR 2 4 1 9 82 

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AUTODisaocris '88 

FORM NO. DD6, 60m, 1 1 /78 BERKELEY, CA 94720 

YC 2765/ 

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